More Efficient Freight                          Transportation Through Longer                                      Trains ...
Purpose                         • To identify opportunities, challenges and logistic effects                           of ...
Outline                         • NEEDS                         • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE                         • BRAKING...
Rail Freight Costs (Flodén 2011)                    Medium-cost scenario                                  High-cost scenar...
Major Freight Flows and Constraints                                                                                       ...
Capacity Utilization Forecasts                         • Network capacity utilization                           forecast f...
Lower Capacity Consumption                              Shorter freight trains                                            ...
General Model of Transport Capacity              • Mass transport capacity (high density goods)                Trains/    ...
Outline                         • NEEDS                         • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE                         • BRAKING...
Locomotive Propulsion Trends                                                                                            EG...
Performance of Prevalent Locomotives                         Rc4                         • Tractive power                 ...
Tractive Effort vs. Coupler Strength                         Locomotive starting tractive effort                         •...
Coupler Types                         • Screw coupler                                                                     ...
Vertical Gradient                         • Prevalent in Sweden: 10 ‰ and 16.7 ‰                         • Definition: ris...
Locomotive Tonnage Ratings                                                                                       Track Gra...
Propulsion Power Draw                         Locomotive maximum power draw (active)                         • 2 Rc4      ...
Commodity Mix – Sweden 2010                             Ton-km share by commodity group                                   ...
Commodity Mix – Sweden 2010                             Ton-km by commodity group (106 ton-km)                            ...
Maximum Train Density by Commodity            Commodity                                                    Existing wagons...
Wagon Length for 1000 Tons                         (Rc4 on 16.7 ‰)            Commodity                                   ...
Wagon Length for 1600 Tons                         (Rc4 on 10 ‰ or BR 185 on 16.7 ‰)            Commodity                 ...
Wagon Length for 2000 Tons                         (2 Rc4 on 16.7 ‰)            Commodity                                 ...
Wagon Length for 2500 Tons                         (BR 185 on 10 ‰)            Commodity                                  ...
Wagon Length for 3200 Tons                         (2 Rc4 on 10 ‰ or 2 BR 185 on 16.7 ‰)            Commodity             ...
Wagon Length for 5000 Tons                         (2 BR 185 on 10 ‰)            Commodity                                ...
Train Length – Summary (10 ‰)                          Gradient Commodity Loco(s)                                   Wagon ...
Train Length – Summary (16.7 ‰)                          Gradient Commodity Loco(s)                                   Wago...
Outline                         • NEEDS                         • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE                         • BRAKING...
International Outlook – Europe                         Maximum permissible train length vs. brake setting                 ...
Present Corridor Standards                             Ferry track lengths, train length limits (m)                       ...
The Braking Performance Dilemma                         • With automatic air brakes, the longer the train, the            ...
Buffer Types                         • Ring spring                                                                        ...
Speed Limits vs. Train Length                             Freight train speed vs. length (Denmark)                        ...
Braking Performance of 835 m Trains                         • Approximate calculations based on German proposed           ...
Braking Performance of 835 m Trains                         • Approximate calculations based on German proposed           ...
Braking Performance of 880 m Trains                         • Approximate calculations based on Swedish existing rules    ...
Braking Performance of 880 m Trains                         • Approximate calculations based on Swedish existing rules    ...
Outline                         • NEEDS                         • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE                         • BRAKING...
Long Tracks of Railway Freight Yards                                                        Vns 645 m (669 m)             ...
Suggested Minimum Length of Terminals                         + Train length                         + Stopping tolerance ...
Single vs. Double-Track Lines                                                                              Main lines sout...
Sidings on Single-Track Lines                         • Sidings enable trains to meet and pass.                         • ...
Required Minimum Length of Sidings                         + Train length                         + Stopping tolerance 35 ...
Rail Freight Corridors                                                Narvik                                              ...
Length of Sidings on Single-Track Lines                                                                      Ånge         ...
Directional Operation of Long Trains                                                                       Vännäs – Storvi...
Other Factors                         Particular attention to be paid to:                         • Air consumption, espec...
Outline                         • NEEDS                         • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE                         • BRAKE P...
Conclusions                         • Longer trains (than 630 m) can add transportation                           capacity...
Recommendations                         • Establish brake rules and tables for train lengths of                           ...
Future Work                         • Improve wagon designs for higher meter loads.                         • Brake calcul...
Thank you!KTH Railway Group   Center for research and education in railway technology
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Session 42 Hans Boysen

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2012-01-12 Session 42: More efficient freight transportation through longer trains
Transportation capacity as well as efficiency can be raised significantly by operating longer trains, even with existing technology.
For freight train operators a large portion of the cost is fixed per train or increases less than proportionally to increase train size. Power ratings per locomotive are higher for the modern locomotives that are procured now. Several dominating commodities, including intermodal and forest products, are comparatively light per meter train length, necessitating train lengths of more than 800 m to fully utilize the locomotive performance, even for a single locomotive. Longer freight trains than the 630 m cleared today can therefore raise the transportation capacity of the railway system as well as the train operators’ revenues. Longer trains can also give better coordination with connecting links, across Öresund as well as to Germany.
Practical limitations consist of locomotive performance, gradients and electrical power feeding, braking performance and length of terminals, yards and sidings. Several important freight yards, such as Malmö and Hallsberg, already have tracks up to 877 m and 890 m long. In the near term longer freight trains can be introduced and train conflicts minimized at night on double track lines in southern Sweden and by directional operation of parallel lines in northern Sweden, even before sidings are extended.
Needs, propulsion performance, braking performance and infrastructure limitations are described.

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Session 42 Hans Boysen

  1. 1. More Efficient Freight Transportation Through Longer Trains Hans E. Boysen Department of Transport Science Royal Institute of Technology 2012-01-12KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  2. 2. Purpose • To identify opportunities, challenges and logistic effects of operating longer freight trains in Scandinavia.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  3. 3. Outline • NEEDS • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE • BRAKING PERFORMANCE • INFRASTRUCTURE LIMITATIONS • CONCLUSIONSKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  4. 4. Rail Freight Costs (Flodén 2011) Medium-cost scenario High-cost scenario Medium terminal fixed or ”stiff” costs Overhead Crew Shunting Locomotive Infrastructure Electricity Wagons Loading fixed or • Independent of train size: overhead, crew, shunting ”stiff” • Incremental: locomotive(s) costs • Less than proportional to train size: infrastructure • Approx. proportional to train size: electricity, wagons, loading Big trains, utilizing each locomotive fully, minimize cost per load unit.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  5. 5. Major Freight Flows and Constraints 17 ‰ grades 17 ‰ grades 14 ‰ grades Capacity shortage Capacity shortage 17 ‰ grades Congested 25 ‰ grade Congested Capacity shortage Capacity shortage 12.5 ‰ grades Map: KTH CongestedKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  6. 6. Capacity Utilization Forecasts • Network capacity utilization forecast for 2021, see map. • Continued long-term growth is forecast to 2050. • How to raise capacity effectively and efficiently? Map: TRVKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  7. 7. Lower Capacity Consumption Shorter freight trains Longer ( 2) freight trains Distance Distance 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Time (min.) Time (min.) • Fewer trains, fewer meets, consuming less capacity • Shorter transit time • Lower sensitivity to secondary delaysKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  8. 8. General Model of Transport Capacity • Mass transport capacity (high density goods) Trains/ Train Meter Payload/ Fill rate day length load gross mass (back hauls) Train gross wagon mass (utilization) • Volume transport capacity (low density goods) Trains/ Train Length Useful cross Fill rate day length utilization section (back hauls) Longer trains increase transport capacity.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  9. 9. Outline • NEEDS • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE • BRAKING PERFORMANCE • INFRASTRUCTURE LIMITATIONS • CONCLUSIONSKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  10. 10. Locomotive Propulsion Trends EG: 13 Propulsion power 6 BR 185: 800+ rating El 14: 31 (MW) IORE: 26+8 5 El 16: 17 4 Rc: 360 Ma: 41 3 2 1 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Production year Developments • Induction motors higher tractive power • GTO, IGBT inverters less reactive power Modern locomotives capable of higher propulsion power.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  11. 11. Performance of Prevalent Locomotives Rc4 • Tractive power 3.6 MW • Starting tractive effort 290 kN • Adhesion mass 78 t • Length 15.52 m BR 185 • Tractive power 5.6 MW • Starting tractive effort 300 kN • Adhesion mass ≈84 t • Length 18.90 mKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  12. 12. Tractive Effort vs. Coupler Strength Locomotive starting tractive effort • 2 Rc4 580 kN • 2 BR 185 600 kN Screw coupler tensile strength (EN 15566:2009) • ”1 MN” 850 kN • ”1.2 MN” 1020 kN • ”1.5 MN” 1350 kN Risk of coupler breakage in case of 3 coupled locomotives.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  13. 13. Coupler Types • Screw coupler Metal Studénka • Automatic coupler (SA3) КременчугKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  14. 14. Vertical Gradient • Prevalent in Sweden: 10 ‰ and 16.7 ‰ • Definition: rise per unit length of track • 10 ‰ means 5 m rise per 500 m length • 16.7 ‰ means 8.35 m rise per 500 m length riseKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  15. 15. Locomotive Tonnage Ratings Track Gradient Locomotives 10 ‰ 16.7 ‰ Rc4 1600 t 1000 t BR 185 2500 t 1600 t 2 Rc4 3200 t 2000 t 2 BR 185 5000 t 3200 t Six tonnage scenarios to be analyzed: 1000 t to 5000 t Note: Tonnage ratings are approximate, depending on: - vertical gradient - horizontal curvature - required speed - electrical power supply and feeding capacity.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  16. 16. Propulsion Power Draw Locomotive maximum power draw (active) • 2 Rc4 2 3.6 MW = 7.2 MW • 2 BR 185 2 5.6 MW = 11.2 MW Electrical power supply and distribution capacity to be adapted.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  17. 17. Commodity Mix – Sweden 2010 Ton-km share by commodity group Unidentifiable goods 2010 Ores Metal products Wood, pulp and paper Agriculture, forestry and fishing products Secondary materials Transport equipment, empty containers Chemical products Coke and refined oil Transport equipment, automobiles Food and beverages Non-metallic minerals Coal, crude oil and gas Machinery Data: TA Furniture Consolidated goods Textile and leather products The big 5: intermodal, ores, metal products, forest products, logs.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  18. 18. Commodity Mix – Sweden 2010 Ton-km by commodity group (106 ton-km) Data: TA The big 5 commodities: intermodal, ores, metal products, paper, logs.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  19. 19. Maximum Train Density by Commodity Commodity Existing wagons Improved lowest • Intermodal 1.5–2.5 t/m(P/C 400) ≈2.0–3.0 t/m meter load • Paper 3.87 t/m (G1, G2) 6.56 t/m (C) • Logs 4.58 t/m (A+) ≈7.2 t/m (C) • Steel slabs 7.19 t/m (G1) ≈8.0 t/m (G1) • Steel sheet coils 8.31 t/m (G1) = • Iron ore 11.65 t/m* (B) 14 t/m** (A/B) *Ore Line **Ore load 2010 for bridge design, Ore Line (Loading gauge)KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  20. 20. Wagon Length for 1000 Tons (Rc4 on 16.7 ‰) Commodity Existing wagons Improved lowest • Intermodal 400 m–667 m 333 m–500 m meter load • Paper 258 m 152 m • Logs 218 m 139 m • Steel slabs 139 m 125 m • Steel sheet coils 120 m = • (Iron ore 86 m 71 m) To fully utilize a single Rc4 locomotive on 16.7 ‰, train lengths need to be up to 683 m for intermodal, and 274 m for paper.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  21. 21. Wagon Length for 1600 Tons (Rc4 on 10 ‰ or BR 185 on 16.7 ‰) Commodity Existing wagons Improved lowest • Intermodal 640 m–1067 m 533 m–800 m meter load • Paper 413 m 271 m • Logs 349 m 222 m • Steel slabs 222 m 200 m • Steel sheet coils 193 m = • (Iron ore 137 m 114 m) To fully utilize a single Rc4 locomotive on 10 ‰ or BR 185 locomotive on 16.7 ‰, train lengths need to be up to 1086 m for intermodal, or 432 m for paper.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  22. 22. Wagon Length for 2000 Tons (2 Rc4 on 16.7 ‰) Commodity Existing wagons Improved lowest • Intermodal 800 m–1333 m 667 m–1000 m meter load • Paper 516 m 339 m • Logs 436 m 278 m • Steel slabs 278 m 250 m • Steel sheet coils 241 m = • (Iron ore 172 m 143 m) To fully utilize double Rc4 locomotives on 16.7 ‰, train lengths need to be up to 1364 m for intermodal, and 547 m for paper.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  23. 23. Wagon Length for 2500 Tons (BR 185 on 10 ‰) Commodity Existing wagons Improved lowest • Intermodal 1000 m–1667 m 833 m–1250 m meter load • Paper 646 m 423 m • Logs 546 m 348 m • Steel slabs 348 m 313 m • Steel sheet coils 301 m = • (Iron ore 215 m 179 m) To fully utilize a single BR 185 locomotive on 10 ‰, train lengths need to be up to 1686 m for intermodal, 665 m for paper.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  24. 24. Wagon Length for 3200 Tons (2 Rc4 on 10 ‰ or 2 BR 185 on 16.7 ‰) Commodity Existing wagons Improved lowest • Intermodal 1280 m–2133 m 1067 m–1600 m meter load • Paper 826 m 542 m • Logs 698 m 445 m • Steel slabs 445 m 400 m • Steel sheet coils 385 m = • (Iron ore 275 m 229 m) To fully utilize double Rc4 locomotives on 10 ‰ or BR 185 locomotives on 16.7 ‰, train lengths need to be up to 2171 m for intermodal, and 864 m for paper.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  25. 25. Wagon Length for 5000 Tons (2 BR 185 on 10 ‰) Commodity Existing wagons Improved lowest • Intermodal 2000 m–3333 m 1667 m–2500 m meter load • Paper 1291 m 847 m • Logs 1091 m 695 m • Steel slabs 695 m 625 m • Steel sheet coils 602 m = • (Iron ore 429 m 357 m) To fully utilize double BR 185 locomotives on 10 ‰, train lengths need to be up to 3371 m for intermodal, and 1329 m for paper.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  26. 26. Train Length – Summary (10 ‰) Gradient Commodity Loco(s) Wagon Train gross length mass 10 ‰ Intermodal Rc4 1600 t 1083 m 10 ‰ Intermodal BR 185 2500 t 1686 m 10 ‰ Intermodal 2 Rc4 3200 t 2164 m 10 ‰ Intermodal 2 BR 185 5000 t 3371 m 10 ‰ Paper Rc4 1600 t 429 m 10 ‰ Paper BR 185 2500 t 665 m 10 ‰ Paper 2 Rc4 3200 t 857 m 10 ‰ Paper 2 BR 185 5000 t 1329 m On 10 ‰ gradient, these scenarios need > 800 m train length to utilize the locomotive(s) fully: • intermodal service: single or double Rc4 or BR 185 locomotives; • paper service: double Rc4 or BR 185 locos.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  27. 27. Train Length – Summary (16.7 ‰) Gradient Commodity Loco(s) Wagon Train gross length mass 16.7 ‰ Intermodal Rc4 1000 t 683 m 16.7 ‰ Intermodal BR 185 1600 t 1086 m 16.7 ‰ Intermodal 2 Rc4 2000 t 1364 m 16.7 ‰ Intermodal 2 BR 185 3200 t 2171 m 16.7 ‰ Paper Rc4 1000 t 274 m 16.7 ‰ Paper BR 185 1600 t 432 m 16.7 ‰ Paper 2 Rc4 2000 t 547 m 16.7 ‰ Paper 2 BR 185 3200 t 864 m On 16.7 ‰ gradient, these scenarios need > 800 m train length to utilize the locomotive(s) fully: • intermodal service: double Rc4, single or double BR 185 locomotives; • paper service: double BR 185 locomotives.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  28. 28. Outline • NEEDS • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE • BRAKING PERFORMANCE • INFRASTRUCTURE LIMITATIONS • CONCLUSIONSKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  29. 29. International Outlook – Europe Maximum permissible train length vs. brake setting • Finland 925 m (G, direct release), 825 m (G), 725 m (P) • Norway 850 m (G), 700 m (P) • Sweden 880 m (G), 730 m (P) • Denmark 835 m (G or P); 1000 m planned • Germany 740 m (G, 5GP or P); 835 m planned • France 850 m (5GP) planned G = slow-acting control P = quick-acting controlKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  30. 30. Present Corridor Standards Ferry track lengths, train length limits (m) 1200 1000 800 600 400 Train length (m) 200 0 Ferry track length (m)Developments: Denmark planning for 1000 m. Germany planning for 835 m Padborg–Hamburg.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  31. 31. The Braking Performance Dilemma • With automatic air brakes, the longer the train, the longer the brake command propagation time. • Slow application and release are necessary to limit in- train forces and avoid potential load shift or derailment. • Slow application results in longer stopping distances, necessitating longer signal distances. • Practical limits depend on both train length and train mass.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  32. 32. Buffer Types • Ring spring Ringfeder • Hydraulic cushioning Oleo Compressive stiffness is important to avoid run-ins.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  33. 33. Speed Limits vs. Train Length Freight train speed vs. length (Denmark) Speed (km/h) Train length (m) 100 835 120 600 Limited by braking performance and signal distance.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  34. 34. Braking Performance of 835 m Trains • Approximate calculations based on German proposed rules and table for 1000 m stopping distance: Brake Gross mass/ Train Vertical Permissible mass limit length gradient speed S 65 % 835 m -10 ‰ 105 km/h S 71 % 835 m -10 ‰ 100 km/h S 80 % 835 m -10 ‰ 95 km/h S 100 % 835 m -10 ‰ 85 km/h S 65 % 835 m -17 ‰ 98 km/h S 80 % 835 m -17 ‰ 88 km/h S 100 % 835 m -17 ‰ 78 km/h • S = 100 km/h design (empty/load valve)KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  35. 35. Braking Performance of 835 m Trains • Approximate calculations based on German proposed rules and table for 1000 m stopping distance: Brake Gross mass/ Train Vertical Permissible mass limit length gradient speed SS 80 % 835 m -10 ‰ 105 km/h SS 87 % 835 m -10 ‰ 100 km/h SS 100 % 835 m -10 ‰ 94 km/h SS 80 % 835 m -17 ‰ 98 km/h SS 100 % 835 m -17 ‰ 87 km/h • SS = 120 km/h design (empty/load valve) Permissible speeds are within those currently in use.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  36. 36. Braking Performance of 880 m Trains • Approximate calculations based on Swedish existing rules and table for 1000 m stopping distance and G-brake: Brake Gross mass/ Train Vertical Permissible mass limit length gradient speed S 79 % 880 m -10 ‰ 80 km/h S 80 % 880 m -10 ‰ 70 km/h S 100 % 880 m -10 ‰ 70 km/h • G = slow-acting • S = 100 km/h design (empty/load valve) Higher speed > 80 km/h may be feasible with lightly loaded wagons.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  37. 37. Braking Performance of 880 m Trains • Approximate calculations based on Swedish existing rules and table for 1000 m stopping distance and G-brake: Brake Gross mass/ Train Vertical Permissible mass limit length gradient speed SS 97 % (empty) 880 m -10 ‰ 80 km/h SS 98 % 880 m -10 ‰ 70 km/h SS 100 % 880 m -10 ‰ 70 km/h • G = slow-acting • SS = 120 km/h design (empty/load valve) Higher speed > 80 km/h may be feasible with lightly loaded wagons.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  38. 38. Outline • NEEDS • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE • BRAKING PERFORMANCE • INFRASTRUCTURE LIMITATIONS • CONCLUSIONSKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  39. 39. Long Tracks of Railway Freight Yards Vns 645 m (669 m) Suc 684 m Åggb 796 m Vka 966 m Kvla 1008 m Blg 710 m (869 m) Alb 665 m Gäb 773 m Drm 697 m Hrbg 890 m Nr 636 m Sär 753 m (855 m) Note: Track Mgb 877 m lengths shown Trg 705 m are electrified Wrss 755 m (1030 m) receiving or Wm 800 m departure tracks Am 805 m (1013 m) (others). Map: KTH Hsr 809 m (876 m) Bse 755 m (835 m)KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  40. 40. Suggested Minimum Length of Terminals + Train length + Stopping tolerance 35 m ( 17.5 m) Minimum track length in terminals: Train length Terminal track length 730 m 765 m 835 m 870 m 880 m 915 mKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  41. 41. Single vs. Double-Track Lines Main lines south FRÖVI of Gävle, Frövi, Öxnered are largely double ÖXNERED track. Map: TRV TRELLEBORGKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  42. 42. Sidings on Single-Track Lines • Sidings enable trains to meet and pass. • Long sidings needed for meets of two long trains. • Siding length = Train length + Stopping tolerance (+ Overlap for simultaneous entry)KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  43. 43. Required Minimum Length of Sidings + Train length + Stopping tolerance 35 m ( 17.5 m) + Overlap for simultaneous entry: For existing ATC2: 200 m; for ETCS2: 100 m Minimum siding lengths for simultaneous entry on single track or for passing on double track: Siding length Train length For ATC2 For ETCS2 For passing 730 m 965 m 865 m 765 m 835 m 1070 m 970 m 870 m 880 m 1115 m 1015 m 915 m Note: Additional length helps speed meets and passes.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  44. 44. Rail Freight Corridors Narvik 2012 Scandria corridor Rail ferry link Marshalling yard Luleå Piteå Oulu Skellefteå Umeå Trondheim Östersund Örnsköldsvik Ånge Sundsvall Tampere Kouvola Riihimäki Selected Rail Bergen Oslo Borlänge Falun Gävle Uppsala Turku Helsinki S:t Petersburg Drammen Västerås Freight Stavanger Örebro Hallsberg Skövde Katrineholm Stockholm Tallinn Norrköping Corridors Kristiansand Trollhättan Göteborg Jönköping Nässjö Linköping Varberg Riga 2012 Århus Ålborg Halmstad Helsing- borg Älmhult Køben - Taulov havn Lund Malmö Vilnius Odense Trelleborg Sassnitz Hamburg Rostock Warszawa BerlinKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  45. 45. Length of Sidings on Single-Track Lines Ånge Sundsvall BorlängeOslo Ställdalen Frövi GävleGöteborg ÄngelholmKolding Malmö Motala ≈630 m sidings are prevalent,KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology 930 m in Denmark.
  46. 46. Directional Operation of Long Trains Vännäs – Storvik: • heavier southbounds along the coast ( 10 ‰ to 14 ‰) • lighter northbounds inland ( 17 ‰) Storvik – Hallsberg: • heavier southbounds via Avesta ( 10 ‰) • lighter northbounds via Borlänge – Storvik ( 17 ‰) Effects • number of meets reduced • transit times reduced • longer trains possible, e.g. 835 m – 1650 mKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  47. 47. Other Factors Particular attention to be paid to: • Air consumption, especially with many stand-alone (i.e. non-articulated and unmarried) wagons and in cold weather (increased leakage of glad hands). • Electrical power supply and feeding capacity in the case of heavy trains. • Limitations of axle counters, where applicable.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  48. 48. Outline • NEEDS • PROPULSION PERFORMANCE • BRAKE PERFORMANCE • INFRASTRUCTURE LIMITATIONS • CONCLUSIONSKTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  49. 49. Conclusions • Longer trains (than 630 m) can add transportation capacity and reduce costs per unit freight. • Longer trains can improve coordination in cross-border rail corridors and with train ferries. • Train length 835 m (+33 %) useful for at least: - intermodal trains - paper trains - wagonload trains including empty wagons. • Train length 880 m is now limited to 80 km/h, but higher speeds feasible with longer stopping distances.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  50. 50. Recommendations • Establish brake rules and tables for train lengths of 835 m or more with P or 5GP (”long locomotive”) brake. • Include brake tables for 880 m train length and G brake on -10 ‰ and -17 ‰ gradient in the operating rules. • Extend terminal tracks to ≈870 m (intermodal and paper) and ≈915 m (iron ore and logs). • When constructing or extending sidings, extend to ≥1015 m. • Analyze the logistic effects of directional train operation on parallel lines. • Expand study to quantify the effects of even longer trains.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  51. 51. Future Work • Improve wagon designs for higher meter loads. • Brake calculations for trains longer than 880 m. • Brake calculations with: - distributed power (DP) - end-of-train (EOT) brake control unit (BCU) - electropneumatic (EP) brakes.KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology
  52. 52. Thank you!KTH Railway Group Center for research and education in railway technology

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