Session 34 Hans Boysen

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2012-01-11 Session 34: Fran-Scan hi-cube intermodal corridor Britain – France – Scandinavia
Higher loading gauges on the railway can be introduced comparatively easily and give better coordination between transportation modes and higher capacity for many loads, including consumer and forest products.
For many commodities, volume (rather than mass) limits how much can be loaded into today’s vehicles and load units. On the highways in Europe a vehicle height of 4.5 m or taller is permitted in five nations – Norway, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom and Ireland – which contributes to high capacity and efficiency in transportation. The nations in between, however, only permit up to 4.0 m height on the highways, which prevents through traffic with tall vehicles between France and Scandinavia. On the railways the maximum vehicle height in much of Europe is presently 4.65 m, but there is sufficient margin to normal overhead line height to permit 4.9 m or even taller vehicle height between Scandinavia and England via France. A new intermodal gauge, P/C 450 (2.60 m4.83 m), enables:
- 4.5 m high semitrailers on flat wagons with a ramp (ro-ro)
- 4.0 m high semitrailers on flat wagons with a ramp
- 1.15 m high lumber packages stacked three high (+50 %) instead of two.
With ro-ro loading instead of lifting the majority of the existing semitrailer and swap bodies, even without reinforcements, can be handled in intermodal transportation.
The new intermodal gauge P/C 450 was introduced in 2011 on the Øresund bridge and already fits in the Eurotunnel between France and England and on some lines in Sweden. Introduction of this gauge is proposed for an integral corridor between Norway, Sweden, northern France and England. Due to its narrow width this new intermodal gauge avoids many obstacles, and can thus be introduced comparatively easily. Surveying a pilot route from a major sawmill to its shipping port revealed zero stopping obstacles. With minor additional enlargement of the loading gauge through Belgium and northern France, a route would be opened to London for the most common European loading gauge, G2.
Intermodal coordination, intermodal development and wagonload development are described.

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Session 34 Hans Boysen

  1. 1. Railway Group Fran-Scan Hi-Cube Intermodal Corridor Britain – France – Scandinavia Hans E. Boysen Department of Transport Science Royal Institute of Technology 2012-01-11KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  2. 2. Purpose Railway Group • To identify opportunities, challenges and logistic effects of operating higher railway loading gauges in EuropeKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  3. 3. Presentation Outline Railway Group PART 1: INTERMODAL COORDINATION PART 2: WAGONLOAD COORDINATION PART 3: WAGONLOAD DEVELOPMENT PART 4: SUMMARYKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  4. 4. Intermodal Transportation Growth Railway Group Swedish cross-border rail freight tonnage excluding iron ore (1000 tons) Data: TA Cross-border intermodal transportation is growing rapidly.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  5. 5. Standard and Hi-Cube Intermodal Loads Railway Group Victoria SkeidsvollKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  6. 6. Highway Vehicle Height Limits Railway Group Vision: P/C 450 4.2 m rail corridor >4.5 m 4.65 m >4.95 m 4.0 m >4.5 m 4.1 mKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  7. 7. Narvik Rail Freight Corridors Railway Group Fran-Scan corridor Luleå Existing P/C 450 lines Piteå Oulu Planned P/C 450 lines Skellefteå Rail ferry link Umeå Trondheim Östersund Örnsköldsvik Ånge Sundsvall Tampere Kouvola Turku Fran-Scan Bergen Falun Borlänge Gävle Oslo S:t Petersburg Uppsala Helsinki Drammen Västerås Örebro Tallinn Hi-Cube Stavanger Trollhättan Hallsberg Skövde Katrineholm Norrköping Linköping Stockholm Kristiansand Jönköping Göte- Intermodal borg Ålborg Halmstad Varberg Nässjö Riga Helsing - Älmhult Corridor Århus Esbjerg Taulov Køben- havn borg Lund Malmö Fran-Scan Odense Trelleborg (P/C 450) Hamburg Lübeck Rostock Sassnitz Bremen Osnabrück BerlinKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology Metz
  8. 8. Intermodal Gauge P/C 450 Railway Group Overhead contact wire Container/ Trailer width swap body width 260 cm 260 cm Container/ Trailer height Trailer Container/ P = pocket swap body 450 cm P 450 swap body height C = container C 450 365.5 cm Total height 483 cm ATOR Wagon Wagon floor height Wagon 117.5 cm ATOR (UIC 571-4) ATOR = above top of rail Wagon pocket height 33 cm ATOR (UIC 571-4)KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  9. 9. Sample Intermodal Pocket Wagons Railway Group Green Cargo Ruud 270 mm pocket height, Sdggmrs 270 mm pocket height, SdggmrssKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  10. 10. Sample Intermodal Flat Wagons Railway Group Gareth Bayer Anders Jansson820 mm floor height, Sffggmrrss (FKA) 1155 mm frame height, Sgnss KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  11. 11. Intermodal Load Heights in P/C 450 Railway Group Wagon floor height Wagon type, examples Max. container/swap body height ATOR within P/C 450 1.175 m UIC 571-4 3.655 m 1.170 m Sdgms 3.660 m 1.155 m Sdggmrss, Sdgmns, Sgnss 3.675 m 1.150 m Sdggmrss-t 3.680 m 0.825 m Sffggmrrss 4.005 m 0.820 m Sffggmrrss (FKA) 4.010 m Wagon pocket height Wagon type, examples Max. trailer height ATOR within P/C 450 0.330 m UIC 571-4 4.500 m 0.310 m Sdgms 4.520 m 0.270 m Sdggmrs, Sdggmrss, Sdgmns 4.560 m ATOR = above top of railKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  12. 12. Volume Capacity Increase Railway Group Relative volume capacity (%) Relative volume capacity (%) vs. trailer height (m) vs. container/swap body height (m)120 120115 115110 110105 105 Relative volume capacity (%) Relative volume capacity (%) vs.100 vs. trailer height (m) 100 container/swap body height (m) 95 For mega trailers with 95 floor height 1.0 m 90 90 4 4,5 3,15 3,65 +17 % larger unit volume capacity with intermodal gauge P/C 450 than with P/C 400.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  13. 13. Railway Intermodal Gauges Interunit 2011 Railway Group (modified) Fran-Scan P450 P432 P422 P410 P400 P380 P359 No codeKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  14. 14. Approximate Distances Railway Group Folkestone – Malmö ≈ 1300 kmKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  15. 15. Present Corridor Loading Gauges Railway Group Overhead line Eurotunnel Øresund Top of rail GC P/C 450 Betuwe GC P/C 432 Development: Denmark planning for a taller loading gauge.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  16. 16. Loading Gauges Railway Group Corridor Loading gauge, segment height Norway M, 4.595 m Sweden C, 4.83 m A, 4.65 m Øresund bridge P/C 450, 4.83 m Denmark G2, 4.65 m Fehmarnbelt link Germany G2, 4.65 m Netherlands G2, 4.65 m Betuwe line GC, 4.65 m Belgium GB-M6, 4.602 m France GB1, 4.32 m Eurotunnel 5.75 mSufficient height of loading gauge SE-C and Eurotunnel for P/C 450KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  17. 17. Vertical Clearance Requirements to OHL Railway Group OHL = overhead line • Overhead line construction tolerance: 30 mm • Contact wire dynamic movement: 50 mm • Electrical minimum clearance (EBO, VDE 0115-1): - 25 kV 220 mm - 15 kV 150 mm - 3 kV 50 mm - 1.5 kV 35 mm • Vehicle dynamic movement (TSI): 50 mm • Track ballast tamping allowance: 50 mm Total clearance 215 mm to 400 mm needed to OHL.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  18. 18. Loading Gauges and OHL Heights Railway Group OHL = overhead line Corridor Loading gauge, OHL Total OHL height OHL normal segment height voltage clearance needed for height needed P/C 450 Norway M, 4.595 m 15 kV 0.33 m 5.16 m 5.5 m Sweden C, 4.83 m 15 kV 0.33 m 5.16 m 5.5 m A, 4.65 m Øresund bridge P/C 450, 4.83 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.23 m 5.33 m Denmark G2, 4.65 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.23 m 5.3 m, 5.5 m Fehmarnbelt link Germany G2, 4.65 m 15 kV 0.33 m 5.16 m 5.3 m, 5.5 m Netherlands G2, 4.65 m 1.5 kV 0.215 m 5.045 m 5.5 m Betuwe line GC, 4.65 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.23 m 5.5 m Belgium GB-M6, 4.602 m 3 kV 0.23 m 5.06 m 5.3 m France (north) GB1, 4.32 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.23 m 5.5 m Eurotunnel 5.75 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.23 m 6.3 m Sufficient clearances to normal OHL heights for P/C 450.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  19. 19. Lift-on Lift-off Loading Railway Group CargoNet • Lift-on lift-off requires load unit reinforcements. • Few semitrailers are reinforced (<10 %).KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  20. 20. Roll-on Roll-off Wagons in P/C 450 Railway Group Trailer Train 4000 4830 Wheels > 0.63 m 4000 4830KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  21. 21. Other Loads: Construction Equipment Railway Group Anders Karlsson 1268 mm floor height, RsKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  22. 22. Other Loads: House Sections and Lumber Railway Group Bengt Dahlberg Peter Norberg 1268 mm floor height, Rs 1235 mm floor height, RnsKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  23. 23. House Sections and Lumber in P/C 450 Railway Group Overhead contact wire Section width Load width 255 cm 210 cm Packaged Packaged lumber lumber Maximum House Packaged Packaged Maximum Package section height load height 356 cm section 110 cm lumber lumber 353 cm Maximum total height 483 cm ATOR Spacer Packaged Packaged 4 cm lumber lumber Wagon Wagon Top of rail Wagon floor height Wagon riser height 127 cm ATOR 130 cm ATOR ATOR = above top of rail Lumber can be stacked 1 package higher (+50 %) in intermodal gauge P/C 450 than in P/C 400.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  24. 24. Lumber: Three Packages High (+50 %) Railway Group Ulf Jaarnek 1305 mm riser height, SgnsKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  25. 25. Lumber: Three Packages High (+50 %) Railway Group Ulf Jaarnek 1305 mm riser height, SgnsKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  26. 26. Swedish Softwood Lumber Export Railway Group to the Main European Markets Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries FederationKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  27. 27. Presentation Outline Railway Group PART 1: INTERMODAL COORDINATION PART 2: WAGONLOAD COORDINATION PART 3: WAGONLOAD DEVELOPMENT PART 4: SUMMARYKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  28. 28. Railway Loading Gauges Railway Group Vision: G2 rail corridor >G2 G2 <G2KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  29. 29. Loading Gauge G2 Railway Group • Central and eastern Europe use the G2 gauge. • HS1 and Eurotunnel are cleared for the G2 gauge. Folkestone Calais • How to connect?KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  30. 30. Clearing a Path for G2 to Britain Railway Group • Belgium: GB-M6 and P/C 450 nearly envelop G2. P/C 450 GB-M6 G2 • France: GB1 and P/C 450 nearly envelop G2. P/C 450 GB1 G2 Minor additional gauge enlargement would open London, Folkestone, northern France and Belgium to the larger wagons of central and eastern Europe.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  31. 31. Sample Enclosed Wagons Railway Group Transwaggon TranswaggonG1 gauge, Habbiins 14 wagon G2 gauge, Habiis 11 wagonIL 22.6 m, IW 2.83 m, V 173 m3 IL 21.838 m, IW 2.83 m, V 186.3 m3KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  32. 32. Volume Capacity Increase • Volume capacity comparison of Habbiins 14 (G1) Railway Group and Habiis 11 (G2), per meter of inside length. Relative volume capacity (%) vs. loading gauge 114 112 110 108 106 104 Relative volume capacity (%) 102 vs. loading gauge 100 98 96 94 G1 G2 +11 % larger wagon volume capacity with loading gauge G2 than with G1.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  33. 33. Presentation Outline Railway Group PART 1: INTERMODAL COORDINATION PART 2: WAGONLOAD COORDINATION PART 3: WAGONLOAD DEVELOPMENT PART 4: SUMMARYKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  34. 34. Maximising Loading Gauge Height Railway Group OHL = overhead line Corridor OHL normal OHL Total Loading gauge segment height voltage clearance height possible needed Norway 5.5 m 15 kV 0.33 m 5.17 m Sweden 5.5 m 15 kV 0.33 m 5.17 m Øresund bridge 5.33 m 25 kV 0.40 m 4.93 m Denmark 5.3 m, 5.5 m 25 kV 0.40 m 4.90 m Fehmarnbelt link Germany 5.3 m, 5.5 m 15 kV 0.33 m 4.97 m Netherlands 5.5 m 1.5 kV 0.215 m 5.285 m Betuwe line 5.5 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.10 m Belgium 5.3 m 3 kV 0.23 m 5.07 m France (north) 5.5 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.10 m Eurotunnel 6.3 m 25 kV 0.40 m 5.90 m Loading gauge height 4.90 m possible under normal OHL height.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  35. 35. Desired Flat-Top Loading Gauges OHL 5.30 m Clearance ≥ 0.40 m (25 kV) Railway Group Wide P/C 450 3.60 m 4.90 m 2.60 m 4.83 m Medium P/C 400 3.40 m 4.90 m 2.60 m 4.33 m Narrow 3.15 m 4.90 m Pocket 0.33 m TOR 0.00 mKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  36. 36. Loading Gauge Comparison Railway GroupNote: Largest inscribed rectangle above floor height, 1.2 m.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  37. 37. Opportunities of a Larger Gauge Railway Group Kockums Industrier Kockums Industrier133 m3 volume, Hiqqrrs-vw wagon 158 m3 volume, SECU containerKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  38. 38. Opportunities of a Larger Gauge Railway Group Frederik Tellerup Michael Nilsson 5 seats across, X53 unit 3.45 m width, X55 unitKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  39. 39. Presentation Outline Railway Group PART 1: INTERMODAL COORDINATION PART 2: WAGONLOAD COORDINATION PART 3: WAGONLOAD DEVELOPMENT PART 4: SUMMARYKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  40. 40. Conclusions • P/C 450 intermodal gauge (2.6 m 4.83 m) enables: Railway Group - 4.50 m high semitrailers, loaded by lift-on lift-off - 4.00 m high semitrailers, loaded by roll-on roll-off - 1.15 m high lumber packages, loaded three tall. • P/C 450 fits within the Swedish C loading gauge. • Overhead line normal heights are sufficient for P/C 450 Norway – France – Eurotunnel – Folkestone. • Minor expansion would enable G2 gauge to London. • On rebuilt or new lines, 4.9 m flat-top is desired.KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  41. 41. Recommendations Railway Group • Show the applicable P/C intermodal gauges in all railway network statements. • Implement P/C 450 on Fran-Scan connecting lines: - Trelleborg – Halmstad 2015, Skälebol – Oslo - Malmö – Hallsberg, Fors – Luleå - Mjölby – Stockholm - København – Esbjerg • Implement in the Fran-Scan corridor: - P/C 450: København – Hamburg – Lille – Calais - G2: Rosendaal – Lille – CalaisKTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology
  42. 42. Railway Group Thank you!KTH Railway Group • Center for research and education in railway technology

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