Published on

Case Study - DreamTours is a travel Agency. The company offers a variety of tour packages to the general
public. Tour packages are offered according to their destination, duration (eg: number of days)
and itineraries. - By Hansa Edirisinghe

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. ADVANCED SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT BSc (Hons) Assignment 2011 ADVANCED SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Hansa K. Edirisinghe BSc (Hons) University of Portsmouth, UK 3/1/2011
  2. 2. UNIT PROJECT DreamTours is a travel Agency. The company offers a variety of tour packages to the general public. Tour packages are offered according to their destination, duration (eg: number of days) and itineraries. Customers can just walk into the company’s office and buy a package on the spot. They can also buy it through the web site provided. Walk-in customers need to place a deposit before they can confirm their purchases. For a package, the deposit is 30% of the package price or $300 depending on whichever is higher. For a tour which will start less than 2 weeks before the tour date, customers have to pay full amount rather than just deposit. Internet customers have to pay full amount of the package price but are entitled to 3% discount. The internet booking is closed 2 working days before the tour departure date. This is to allow time for the company to process credit card transactions and make arrangements. The company charges premium for travel during the peak travel period. The premium depends on the travel dates and destinations. The company encourages customers to buy travelling insurance. The premium they have to pay is based on the number of days that they travel. The basic insurance coverage includes flight delays, lost of luggage and accidents. The premium per day for basic coverage is $15. The company already has a computer system implemented 10 years ago but it is no longer able to meet the requirements. Management is looking to implement a completely new system that can support customer enquiries over the phone as well as through the web site. Customers booking on the web site will need to register in advance as ‘premium’ customers and would be issued a username and password. They would then be able to browse the web site for details of tour packages available to them and book them directly on the web site. You have been hired as an Analyst/Consultant to help the company analyze and determine requirements for the new system. The biggest task is to analyze the issues in order to correctly prioritize the most important features of the new system. Thus resulting in a requirements specification and high level design that will support the new strategic business plans. Project Specification Outside sources may also be used as long as they are properly cited using APA style of citation. The paper must contain the following segments in the order noted: 1. Develop a Rich Picture of the overall organization and the issues facing it clearly showing the boundary and consideration of interaction, roles and viewpoints, culture, norms and values. IS352 Page 2 of 8
  3. 3. 2. Develop a Root Definition (RD) around the given problem theme above and carry out a CATWOE test of the RD. 3. Build a conceptual model for the above Root Definition. 4. Compare the Rich Picture and conceptual models using an SSM (Soft Systems Methodology) agenda and hence suggest at least two feasible changes highlighting the economic and social feasibility analysis for the same. 5. Differentiate between the SSM approach and a purely hard systems approach to the requirements definition – explaining the advantages and disadvantages of each. IS352 Page 3 of 8
  4. 4. Table of content Question 1……………………………………………………………………….……………………………………….. 3 Question 2……………………………………………………………………….……………………………………….. 4 Question 3……………………………………………………………………….……………………………………….. 6 Question 4……………………………………………………………………….……………………………………….. 7 Question 5……………………………………………………………………….……………………………………….. 9 Page 1 of 8
  5. 5. Soft System methodology SSM Stage 1 – The problem Situation Encountered In this stage we must examine the problem situation by using several tools such as Interviews, questionnaires and observations. Interviews – we need to interview each and every member of the total process. As per the rich picture the problem arias of junior sales person to top level management and all the levels of customers are important to identify the issues. According to those issues we need to find solutions. Questionnaire 1. Around how many customers you have? 2. Do you have regular customer? 3. Do you provide special service for them? 4. How do you keep you customer information currently? Is it updating regularly? 5. How do you update your customers with new packages and changes which are effect to customers? 6. How do you get the customer feedbacks? 7. How do you get the necessary information about air travel, other transports and ticket bookings? 8. How do you provide the insurance premium to customers? 9. What are the Medias that you use to promote your products? How many customers customer attracted to your packages form each media? 10. What is the budget you allocate for promotion campaigns each year? 11. What is the purpose of going for a new system? 12. What are the issues you have with the new system in your point of view? Above kind of questionnaires can be use ever for an interview. Observations – We can visit the site and observe each and every problem arias, after finding the solution for above kind of questionnaire. Spend one or two day in the company and we can specifically identify what actually is the problem aria. It makes easy when we provide solutions. SSM Sate 2 – The problem situation Expressed When understanding the situation, it should express by a rich picture to show the whole setting stripped of inessential details. Our rich picture Figure 1.1 shows Understanding of staff level and customer level, communication with customers and service providers, identification of issues, primary tasks and Formation of a sharp Focus. Page 2 of 8
  6. 6. Question 1. Rich picture of overall Organization Figure 1.1 Rich picture Page 3 of 8
  7. 7. Question 2. Issues and primary tasks for Root definition Issues  Customer service representations do not trained enough to provide proper information about the packages to walk-in customers.  Internet customers can not access to web sites when many people are using the web site.  Customers scared to provide their credit card details to the web site.  The travel packages cost is very high and customers do not attract to those packages.  Marketing department does not do promotion campaigns.  Insurance department is not working efficiently and customers do not encouraging getting the insurance premium.  Customer does not getting a popper guidance to make online booking and payments. Primary tasks        Provide Traveling packages to customers Attract customers for the tour packages Increase the number of online customers Encourage customers to enroll for insurance courage Customers enable to deal with the company in two ways, such as directly and through the website. Walk-in customers need to deposit a part payment before confirm the purchases and Internet customers should make the full payment. Allow credit card transaction for internet customers. SSM Sate 3 – Relevant Systems & Root Definition Relevant Systems which might resolve the issues     Information kiosk System Enhanced network system Online promotion System Online system for Customer registration and guidance with secured payment Relevant System Justification Name of System: Online Customer registration and guidance System with secured payment gateway Reason: Customers could do the bookings at any time anywhere by their own very easily and can check the states of the booking any time. Customers can get guidance form online instructors for text, voice or video chatting in 24 hour service. Company guaranties the security of credit card and personal details of customers. Customer can check the booking states any time. Relation: A Customer service representation does not aware about the online system and they couldn’t guide customer to the online system and can connect them only in the working hours. Company could not guaranty the security of payment details. Customer service is not efficient to find the states of each and every booking at any time. Page 4 of 8
  8. 8. CATWOE test of Root Definition C – Customer A – Actors T – Transformation W – Weltanschauung O – Owner E – Environment Travelers Company Management Provide tower packages Provide transport Facilities Book air Tickets Provide facility for online bookings and Online purchases Guide Tourists Provide insurance premiums to tourists Customers always need guidance. Customer can get package details form office or from web site. From getting the details for finish the tower, the company bonded to guide the customer in a very efficient way. With the customer guiding system guides customers online Web, as well as offline from Information kiosk. Owner of the company Customer service office and the company web site Page 5 of 8
  9. 9. Question 3. SSM Stage 4 – The Conceptual Model Figure 1.2 Conceptual Model Page 6 of 8
  10. 10. Question 4. SSM Stage 5 – The Comparison i. Agenda Ref In Real World Present From Measure of Performance Proposed Changes Comment A1 Yes Customer service provide the necessary information to customers A2 Yes Recruit experienced customer service. Provide 24 hours online customer service with text, Audio and video calling facility. Organize workshops for staff. Implement an information kiosk and feed all the package details in-detail with graphs and images This kind of customer service attracts more customers. Customer service functions become very efficient. Customer find all the package information by their own A3 Yes Walk-in customer get about the packages form customer service and reading the broachers. Customer gets the membership form from customer service. How much they know about the packages. Communication skills to express ideas in several languages. Practical knowledge of traveling procedures. How many customers confirm the purchases. How much the customer needs to travel. The distance that customer travel. Number of customers ask membership forms for one day Customers do not waste time at long queues. A4 Unknown Cannot access the web page some times Yes Travel insurance policy is handled by company Insurance department. How many users can access the web site at once Number of travelers who are enroll for insurance premium Membership form attached in information kiosk and online web page fill and submit immediately Allocate web server with better conditions Negotiate with a reputed insurance company to provide travel insurance policy for customers to a low price. In part Number of customers call to ask the details about travel packages Customers encourage buying insurance. The value of the traveling package increases People aware about the company travel packages A5 A6 ii. News paper advertisement are the only way to promote travel packages which company provides Publish advertisement on television, radio and internet More customers get use of web site. Feasible changes Change in Procedure According to our agenda, there are several procedural changes need to be done.  The current Customer service is not efficient and customers are disappointed with the support for customer service. Online customers also need call company customer service and have to get the information. Customer service does not work on time and it is very difficult to catch a customer service office in rush Page 7 of 8
  11. 11. hours. - So we need to recruit experienced customer service officers as the customer service staff. There should be a 24 hours customer service, especially for online customers.  There are broachers and hand bills to promote the travel package which kept on a corner of the reception. Walk-in customer only gets the chance to at least read a broacher. Company use news paper which is the only media to advertise the company and their packages. - But there are such powerful Medias to go to customers include visual Medias and audio. Not only television and radio, web page advertisements are also a very powerful currently. So it is required to use television, radio and internet to advertise the company travel packages.  The company encourages customers to buy travelling insurance. The premium they have to pay is based on the number of days that they travel. Currently the travelling insurance handled by company insurance department. Comparing the company’s current customer service useless activities, customers do not encourage buying the insurance policy. From the company side, it is a big responsibility to give an insurance policy to a customer for $15. - So company should leave it out that responsibility to a reputed Insurance company. Customers always look at the quality of the components of package. Customers always attract the name of the insurance company which they get insurance premium, included to the package. Changes in Policy  There should be procedural change with the company customer service Department. Currently they work 8.30 am to 5.30 pm on weekdays and 9.00 am to 2.00 pm on Saturday. All customer service employees enable for over time and employee entitle hourly payments for Sunday. According to the new system the company implements 24 hours customer service unit. – So the Working shifts should design as Morning, evening and night. Morning Evening Night  : 6.00 am – 2.00 pm : 2.00 pm – 10.00 pm : 10.00 pm – 6.00 am (Provide transport to office) (Provide transport to home) (Provide transport for both ways) All customer service employees should cover 8 working hours. Employee allow to come 15 minutes late form shift in time and 15 minutes early from shift out time. If the work hours lower than 7.30, it calculates as a half day and if work hours lower than 4 hours, it calculates and full day leave. Late coming and early going hours calculated as late hours which could be effect to employee’s salary at the end of the month. Changes in Attitude  There should be organizing trainings and workshops for company staff to develop their skills. Toleration and hospitality is essential when working with customers. Work no time and provide what the customer expected helps to keep commitment.  Company should take all the customers as the potential  Make sure not skipping any telephone call Page 8 of 8
  12. 12. Change in Structure  Currently they have single office for their businesses. If we can increase the number of branch offices in main cities, it will be more effective to attract more customers and can provide very effective customer service. SSM Sage 6 – Debate Feasible changes According to the agenda, we analyze what we could do and take out the necessary debates with the customer and figure out what actually we can be done. In order to do this we need to:  Consider cost and benefits  Risk factors  Available technology  Time scales  Methodological Direction – noting that the proposed change may be one of several kinds Question 5 There are basically two main approaches in problem solving.  Hard system methodology is more relevant to technical and engineered systems.  Soft system methodology is more relevant to human and social systems. I. Hard system Methodology The hard systems Methodology are basically defining the problem solving sequence. The problems arise which defined from hard systems methodology can applied to soft systems, especially the systems that involve humans. Page 9 of 8
  13. 13. The hard systems methodology begins with a basic acceptance of the objectives, problem specification and organizational needs. This aims to provide solutions to a identified problem in the terms in which the problem is posed. Source : II. Soft System Methodology Soft systems methodology has its foundations in action research and general systems theory, but has evolved into a methodology in its own right. It is characterized by involvement in a problem situation and learning by doing. It is further characterized by trying to see a system from as many perspectives as possible, and through the eyes of others rather than the researcher. (James, P. 2005). Source : Page 10 of 8
  14. 14. III. Main differences between Hard and soft system Methodologies Source : IV. Advantages and disadvantages of Soft and hard methodologies Page 11 of 8
  15. 15. Reference James, P. (2005). actKM Online Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 2, Issue 1, Retrieved on 26th March 2011 from Bibliography Hard System Methodology (2011) Retrived on 28th March 2011 from Soft System Methodology (2011) Retrived on 19th March 2011 from Page 12 of 8