DISTRIBUTED NETWORKING

BSc (Hons) Assignment
2011
DISTRIBUTED NETWORKING
Hansa K. Edirisinghe
BSc (Hons) University of Po...
Case Study
After establishing a reputation in the Arts and Design Markets, the Singapore Arts Academy
(SAA) considers expa...
2) To implement access points for wireless access for the students, staff and guests,
3) To link up all the office network...
QUESTION 4
Critically evaluate three key strategic network security safeguards that can help to secure the
Academy Network...
Table of content
Question 1..................................................................................................
1. Question 1
Considering the current network of Singapore Arts Academy, We have to improve several arias
when establishin...





Ethernet can work with Star topology, as well as Bus topology
Trustworthy and reliable when working with home and...
Ring

Star

Mesh

Transition data packets among two
nodes pass through the all other
nodes in the network.
Central server ...
Hierarchical Star

The hierarchical topology is used to make
more connection ports available within an
building, office, u...
Twisted-pair cables

Two insulated copper wires warped around each other are Twisted-pair. When the electric
signals walki...
As above mentioned, my suggestion is UTP cable the most suitable cable for SAA networks out
of the other 4 cable types, ac...
2. Question 2

Page 8 of 23
Network Congestion
When a nod or device transmits more data at ones and overload, network congestion takes place.
This con...
Frame Relay
Frame relay is a digital dedicated low cost data transmission service, which has higher data rate
intermittent...
X.25

X.25 is the advances version of Frame Relay. X.25 divides into three categories. Those are data
DTE, DCE and PSE. DT...
Figure 2.2 Characteristics between Frame relay and X.25
Source : http://www.dcbnet.com/notes/framerly.html

3. Question 3
...
to which port, the data frame to copy. If the data frame’s destination MAC is unknown, then
switch will broadcast the fram...
Threats affect to the network availability
Flood, Earthquakes, Tsunami

These are natural threats which we cannot stop or ...
These are small software which designed to delete or corrupt data in the computers, databases
and servers. This makes the ...
How Firewall Works…

There are lots of firewall screening methods. A Simple one is to screen requests to make sure
they co...
5. Question 5

Branch campuses network

Page 17 of 23
Full network, main campus network and branch

Page 18 of 23
Reference
SearchNetworking.com (2011) accessed 4 March 2011
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/protocol
Bib...
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Case Study - After establishing a reputation in the Arts and Design Markets, the Singapore Arts Academy (SAA) considers expanding and investing into a new Multimedia department and courses by setting up campuses around Asia pacific region. - By Hansa Edirisinghe

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DISTRIBUTED NETWORKING - By Hansa Edirisinghe

  1. 1. DISTRIBUTED NETWORKING BSc (Hons) Assignment 2011 DISTRIBUTED NETWORKING Hansa K. Edirisinghe BSc (Hons) University of Portsmouth, UK 3/1/2011
  2. 2. Case Study After establishing a reputation in the Arts and Design Markets, the Singapore Arts Academy (SAA) considers expanding and investing into a new Multimedia department and courses by setting up campuses around Asia pacific region. Currently, the Academy has a very poor data communication network. As you have designed most of the other institutions’ network infrastructure, the dean of the Academy contracted you to design a sound network that will cope with the current and the future demands. Some facts about the current network at the Academy: The school is located on the two-storey of the converted shopping mall in the City State of Singapore. Each floor has several departments. Each department has 10 to 15 members of staff. The ground floor comprehends the administration and the account departments. For payment, the administration and the account departments are considering the use of smart cards based on Biometrics technologies and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). The Academy has a corporate minicomputer (a UNIX computer) that processes all accounting data, and a Microsoft File Server for students support. The first floor accommodates a team of 30 academics, three IBM compatible labs, and two multimedia labs. The two-multimedia labs are to be equipped with the latest multimedia tools and technology. Each lab contains 20 personal computers, including wireless access points. The applications running on two servers include Lotus Notes, remote access, student/staff workbench and a management information system (MIS). Twenty of the existing classrooms in the school are not connected to the network. The faculty, staff and students require communication with each other via electronic mail, and have access to the Internet. As the Academy expands, the network connections were put in as required. There has been some discussion about establishing a corporate website as well. The dean is interested in running a collaboration application like groupware, Voice over IP (VoIP) and Video Conferencing with University partners in Boston, USA, and London, UK. The current infrastructure runs on a token ring network with a capacity of 4Mbps. Furthermore, the communication between various departments, connected to the network and the University partners, is established via emails and Internet services. Requirements of the proposed network for the Academy: 1) To implement a LAN and WLAN for the Academy which replace the current 4Mbps token ring network,
  3. 3. 2) To implement access points for wireless access for the students, staff and guests, 3) To link up all the office networks together on to a backbone network to support higher volume of data, 4) To Identify and evaluate the state-of-art smart card Biometrics Technologies, and the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) mechanisms for payment, 5) To include further network expansion at the Academy to tolerate additional increases in the network traffic such as the immediate inclusion of 20 computers, and to set up a web server in order to establish a corporate website, 6) To implement a WAN to automate the data transfer between all the offices and the University partners’ networks, 7) To provide a high bandwidth platform for collaboration application like groupware, Voice over IP (VoIP) and Video Conferencing with the University partners and other campuses, 8) To identify and resolve key issues relating to network security for the school. THERE ARE FIVE MARKS OVERALL ALLOCATED, FOR USE OF LANGUAGE AND PRESENTATION QUESTION 1 Discuss suitable LAN and WLAN technologies for the Academy. Critically evaluate your proposed solution in terms of protocols, topology and cabling used. A details description of the protocol, the advantages and pitfalls of the topology and a technical specification of the cables is mandatory. QUESTION 2 Critically discuss how to minimize the network congestion and the data access between Academy campuses and the University partners’ networks using WAN connectivity. Your discussions should include two different possible types of networks to connect between the two continents. Your answer should also include the protocols associated, data rate, cost, and performance aspect. QUESTION 3 Prepare a comprehensive contingency plan for the Academy network in terms of strategy and appropriate hardware/software solutions to ensure network availability. You should include four significant threats that would affect network availability in case of major service disruptions and propose counter measure mechanisms.
  4. 4. QUESTION 4 Critically evaluate three key strategic network security safeguards that can help to secure the Academy Network. You should provide a detailed description of how these security mechanisms can be used to secure the network and a comprehensive assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of your proposal. QUESTION 5 Design and explain, with the aid of a suitable fully labelled network diagram, how far the proposed Academy Network meets the requirements listed. Provide a detailed assessment to justify your proposed network, and any recommendations that you made for the specific hardware and software technologies. You must clearly stated their usage in your proposal.
  5. 5. Table of content Question 1................................................................................................................................... 2 Question 2................................................................................................................................... 8 Question 3................................................................................................................................... 12 Question 4................................................................................................................................... 15 Question 5................................................................................................................................... 17 List of reference.......................................................................................................................... 19 Page 1 of 23
  6. 6. 1. Question 1 Considering the current network of Singapore Arts Academy, We have to improve several arias when establishing a strong data communication network within the branch campuses and among the campuses.      Topologies which are going to use Hardware the build the network Reliability, effectiveness and cost Contingency Plane Network system Software Token Ring is the currently using Technology which connects all the computers to ring or stare and use a token passing methodology to transfer data or communicated between two computers. When one computer needs to transfer data, it receives a free token, discard it and replace new token with its own data, address to IP and release to the network. When the addressed IP received data, it makes as received and passes it back to originating station, discard data frame and release new token to the network. Token Ring data transfer rate is 4Mbps or 16Mbps. This is a quite old technology and its devices are much more expensive. The main disadvantage of token ring is only two stations in the network can send and receive data at one time. Choose a LAN and WLAN technology Considering about the requirement, I would like to propose 4Mbps Token Ring connection replace with the Ethernet with the bandwidth of 1000Mbps as the Local Area Network of the Academy. Ethernet use the Carrier Sense, Multiple Access / Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) protocol to data communication. CSMA/CD Carrier Sense: Every nod is listening to the Ethernet wire and check whether any device transmitting data. If transaction happens, the nod waits while the current transaction gets finish. Multiple Access: It is possible to sensing (listening and waiting to transmit) data from one or more devices at the same time. Collision Detection: If more than one ethane nods transmit data the same time, Ethernet is able to detect collision. Figure 1.1 CSMA/CD Advantages of the Ethernet Source : http://www.payer.de/cmc/cmc0801.gif  An any network nod can send data in any time  Bandwidth availability 10, 100, 1000Mbps  Much easy to plane and low installation cost  Network components such as cables, Network interface cards and Connectors as low in cost Page 2 of 23
  7. 7.     Ethernet can work with Star topology, as well as Bus topology Trustworthy and reliable when working with home and office network environments It is easy to add and remove computers on the network Supported by most Software and hardware systems Disadvantages of Ethernet  A large traffic rate such as 40% - 50% may delay the whole network  Packet swishing produces visible delay Which protocols to select A protocol is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. (SearchNetworking.com 2011) OSI and TCP/IP are the two models which gather network protocols in to layers. TCP/IP is an open source protocol which uses to any kind of network, but there are some restrictions also in the TCP/IP. In the SAA network there are lot of changes can happen in that protocol. So in side this protocol there is advantages and disadvantages in the protocol which use this university network. There are IBM main frames compares also in this Academy building. But the TCP/IP protocol is unable to use in the IBM servers. So it will be a pitfall in the university network in Singapore. However as its mention the Art and Design University the TCP/IP is a very reliable protocol because less cost effect and it’s easy to implement the network in any second. Because the there are selected web sites or host or IPs has to block in the university. TCP/IP can make change the routing configuration easy and make block the site and access the sites the user need and wants. This makes advantage of the TCP/IP. Selection of a Network Topology Topology is a layout which devices can interact with each other. There are four major types of topologies and there are plus points, as well as minuses in each and every topology. According to them we should select the best suitable topology for our environment. Topology Bus Advantages Easy to control. Easy to implement. Most suitable for small networks with 10 – 15 nods. Disadvantages Cable length limited. Number of stations limited. Cannot perform well. Page 3 of 23
  8. 8. Ring Star Mesh Transition data packets among two nodes pass through the all other nodes in the network. Central server not required for configuration. Simplicity of operation. Add and remove nod is easy. Failure of one node will not affect to the whole network. Error detection is easy. No network traffic occurs. Modification of a cable or nod does not affect to the entire network. Failure of single device or cable will down the entire network. Add and remove nod is difficult. Failure central device fails the entire network. High cost. Considering of SAA environment, I would like to suggest Star Topology. Star topology connects all the devices in the view of a visual star. There is a central HUB or Switch. All the other Nods (Computers, servers, printers, fax machines, clock Machines) connected to the Central Device. This central HUB or Switch acts as a repeater for the data flow. The total data communication network handles by the central device. Each and every bit of data drives through the central device to its destination nod. So a failure of one cable or failure of one nod does not harm to the entire network. But failures of the central device (it can be HUB or a Switch) come out with an error the entire network goes down. The nature (layout) of star network makes really easy of trouble shooting within the network. For the configuration of star, it is possible to use twisted pair (STP or UTP) cables or Fiber-optic Cables. Widely using cable type for Star is UTP cables (Unshielded Twisted Pair cables) and the network port that is connected to both ends are RJ45 ports. Looking at the Singapore Art Academy’s environment, it’s a two storied building. It’s facilitated with 3 IBM and 2 Multimedia labs with two departments for Staff. Two departments and the File servers are in ground floor. Scenario: An IBM lab equipped with 20 IBM PCs per each lab and Multimedia labs with 20 PCs. According to the standard switch sizes, we have to use 24 port switches and connect the entire lab PCs directly to switch as per the star topology layout. It was connected by UTP cables Page 4 of 23
  9. 9. Hierarchical Star The hierarchical topology is used to make more connection ports available within an building, office, university or Institute. Plugging outlying switches (access switches) into a master switch (Distribution or Core switch) gives more hosts a place to plug in without having to pull additional cable into the area. Advantages of Star        Star topology has simply understandable layout It makes easy to install the topology Figure 1.4 Hierarchical Star Source : http://tjliu.myweb.hinet.net/COA_CH_12.htm Star performance is good. The way of star transaction process, it performs better than other network topologies. When there is a communication goes on, just only tree network devices and two network links actively participate to the communication process from the entire star. It can avoid the unnecessary traffic within the network. The rate of Error detection in star network devices, higher than other networks, because of the simplicity of network structure. If a failure occur in one nod does not harm the entire network connection and it is easy to repair or replace the defected nod without breaking the entire network. According to star structure, it is very easy to adding new devices and grove the network. Disadvantages of Star    The entire network is highly depending on the central hub. If the hub (Switch) comes up with error, the functionality of entire network goes down. There are limited in the central hub. So there is a limit to grove the network and connection of one new nod to star effect entire performance cycle of the network. The performance level is dropped, when switch hands its high traffic, then the entire network will get slow. Network Cables Within a wired network, cables play one of the main roles on the network.  Twisted-pair (Shielded and Unshielded twisted are the two categories of Twisted pair) cables  Coaxial cable (very famously used before twisted pair)  Fiber-optic cables are the generally using network cable types. By looking at the cost of cables, data transfer speed, usability and durability, we need to identify, what is the most suitable cable type for our network. Page 5 of 23
  10. 10. Twisted-pair cables Two insulated copper wires warped around each other are Twisted-pair. When the electric signals walking through the copper wire, it generate a small magnetic field around the wire (according to Fleming’s right-hand thumb rule). The twisted nature of twisted pair cables is minimize this disturbance. Ethernet over twisted-pair is not new within a building amount several floors and several partitions. Two typed of twisted-pair cables are;  Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)  Shielded twisted pair. (STP) Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) UTP cable composed with eight copper wires which are covered by material which reduce electromagnetic interferences. It reduces its electromagnetic interference according to the way it twisted. UTP is low in cost and it is possible to use major networking architectures. Cable is very flexible and easy to install. I suggest UTP cabling is the most suitably to an environment like SAA. UTP cable can transfer from 10 Mbps to 1000Mbps in speed and the maximum cable length for gigabit is Ethernet is 100 meters. Connecter would be RJ 45 and the cost is low. So UTP is the most suitable cable type for SAA network. Because we have more than 120 computers and servers to connect with WAN and we selected 1000Mbps (gigabit) Ethernet to implement the new network. Shielded twisted-pair (STP) STP has four pairs of copper wires and each pair is wrapped with a metallic foil, then these four pairs again wrapped with a metallic foil. This is why we call it as Shielded and this reduces the outer electromagnetic interferences and the inner electronic disturbances as well. Comparing with the UTP cable STP prevents inner and outer disturbances better than UTP. But STP is expensive and installation is difficult. Considering the SAA environment, it is not good enough to go for STP cabling network according to the academy’s requirement and the STP cabling cost probably be and additional cost to the academy. Selection Cables for the topology When we selecting a cable, we should the always look into bellow characteristics of a cable. The characteristics which are  Maximum segmentation Length (max length of the cable that can transfer data)  Speed (speed in bits per second)  Cost (cheap or expensive)  Advantages and disadvantages of the using the selected cable type of cable. Page 6 of 23
  11. 11. As above mentioned, my suggestion is UTP cable the most suitable cable for SAA networks out of the other 4 cable types, according to requirements. UTP Cable Standards UTP cables divide into categories according to UTP standards. They are Cat 3 UTP, Cat 5 UTP, Cat 5e UTP, Cat 6 UTP Cat 6A UTP and Cat 7 UTP. But we have to forget about the Cat 3 UTP and Cat 5 UTP, because those can carry data only up to 10Mbps and 100Mbpd Ethernet. Cat 6A UTP and Cat 7 UTP are designed for 10 Gbps Ethernet. So we are not necessary to go to that much unwanted expense. Cat 5e UTP and Cat 6 UTP is only suite for Gigabit Ethernet. Thus Cat 5e UTP can handle Gigabit Ethernet; I select Cat 6 UTP to configure the Academy network. Cat 6 UTP has backward compatibility. It support to the occurring rate of Crosstalk and noise damage to the signal, keep on low level. Provide performance frequency up to 250MHz. Cat 6 UTP 10BASE-T UTP, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet) UTP, 1000BASE-T/1000BASE-TX (Gigabit Ethernet) UTP. Proper integrated Cat 6 UTP cables supports up to 10Gbps speed. Page 7 of 23
  12. 12. 2. Question 2 Page 8 of 23
  13. 13. Network Congestion When a nod or device transmits more data at ones and overload, network congestion takes place. This congestion reduces the accuracy and trustworthiness of network and communication data. Because it delay the communication speed and the congestion might loess or block data packets. When the switching nod getting congested and the round trip time duration increases, the network problems are not addressable. Going through the SAA network, we can find several points which can occur network congestion. When multiple links feed its data into to single link. It usually happen the points which internal LANs are connected to WAN, such as the academy internal network links University partners in Boston and London. According to the proposed network, the academy network usage is very high. Other than the current use wireless router implementation Smart card Biometrics Technology, RFID, newly including computers, web server, VoIP Video Conferencing and new security futures require more bandwidth and speed. So the routers in core network are capable to handle a large traffic. Otherwise it will be another reason for occurring congestion. Mainly the academy internal and external communication purposes and data and file transaction purposes with partner Universities, TCP/IP such as Internet is essential. But it is a major point which occurs of terrible network congestion, because the basic connection is less nature. Minimise the network Congestion We can use several telecommunication technologies to minimise congestions and sometimes it makes fast data transmission. These telecommunication services designed for connect LAN and WAN connectivity. As we discussed earlier, network congestion directly related theses services. Frame Relay, X.25 and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are some of them. Page 9 of 23
  14. 14. Frame Relay Frame relay is a digital dedicated low cost data transmission service, which has higher data rate intermittent traffic between Local area networks (LAN to LAN), between end points in Wide area networks (WAN), remote accesses and access to internet. The information divided into data packet, labelled with an ID and carries to the identified destination with very efficient way. This process is known as packet switching technology. It sends data frames (data packets) over the network for communication and checking errors while the transmission process. When there is any error detection it retransmits the data. In SAA network we can use Frame relay with the transition from Router. It makes our data transaction fast and efficient. This network service transmits data between remote networks with leased line access. Frame relay has 56Kbps to 45Mbps range of bandwidth and it is possible to select the bandwidth which is suit to our Academy usage. The physical connection to our frame relay circuit is known as port speed. Packet switching technology is also use with TCP/IP and X.25. Frame Relay Structure Figure 2.1 Frame Relay Structure Source : http://www.protocols.com/pbook/frame.htm Protocol use in Frame Relay The protocol which is using with frame relay is HDLC. HDLC stands for High-level Data Link Control. HDLC is the protocol which manages the flow of data in Frame Relay. This is the most common protocol using in layer 2 in OSI model. ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a technology based on transfer data in cells or packets for a fixed size. A cell which is used with ATM is small in size and it allows transmitting video, audio and computer data along network. So it is possible to use ATM to our technology between switches and end user computers of multimedia Labs. ATM creates a fixed cannel among two points when the beginning of the transmission process. ATM utilized for high bandwidths like 34Mbps to upwards. Page 10 of 23
  15. 15. X.25 X.25 is the advances version of Frame Relay. X.25 divides into three categories. Those are data DTE, DCE and PSE. DTE stands for terminal equipment, DCT stands for data circuitterminating equipment and PSE stands for packet-switching exchange. DTE devices are endpoints such as PCs, terminators, printers, scanners that communicate across X.25 networks. DCE devices are communication devisers such as modems and packet switches. DCE are the interface between DTE and PSE. PSE are swatches to compose bulk carriers of network. Page 11 of 23
  16. 16. Figure 2.2 Characteristics between Frame relay and X.25 Source : http://www.dcbnet.com/notes/framerly.html 3. Question 3 According to the structure of the Academy and considering about the new requirements there are several hardware devices to configure a better network and software to control the network and track the transaction. We have to consider about the several facts including reliability, efficiency and cost. Hardware Switch Switch is used to interconnect several hosts(nods) together. There are switches in different sizes. The common sizes are 4 port, 8 port, 16port, 24 ports and 48 port switches and the size of the switch can be selected according to the according to our network. For each port there is a light which blinks when it connected to network. Switch operates at the data link layer, which is the second layer of the OSI model. Figure 3.1 Switch Source : http://lh4.ggpht.com/_9R2czlR5ELs/SoDac_wAD1I/AAAAAAAAA Qs/5rl4f0gu5lc/img-xavb1004-back.jpg The MAC addresses of all the devices which connect to switch are in its storage. When a data frame passes through the switch, it examines the destination MAC address. According to the Destination device MAC and the data frame’s destination MAC, switch decides Page 12 of 23
  17. 17. to which port, the data frame to copy. If the data frame’s destination MAC is unknown, then switch will broadcast the frame to all of its ports. We have 5 computer labs and two departments at the ground floor. There are several serves to connect to the network. Because of that, this device is important to us. Make star network within the IBM and Multimedia labs, connect servers including file, application and web, to the Academy’s LAN. Switch can support 10/100/1000 Mbps port transfer rate and multiple switches in the same network can support for different speeds. The price of a switch differs from brand to brand, sizes and transfer rates. However a 24 port switch which supports for 1Gbps speed, we need to allocate $100 - $150 from our SAA networking budget. Wired Router and Wireless Router Router is a device which transfer data to nods and work as a filter of data and its task is to copy frames from one to another. It is a device which uses to connect on internet and other outside networks. Router configuration allows you to apply filters, block accesses and deny access to selected hosts. According to OSI model router operates at the network which is layer number three. Router use one more than one routing protocols to create its routing table and looking at the routing table router makes its decisions. Wired routes are accessible with interface types, such as DSL, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Token ring. In the SAA network we need a wired router and as well as wireless router. The academy’s IBM and Multimedia labs have computers with wireless access points and they require implementing access points for wireless access for Figure 3.2 Wireless Router Source : http://kb.netgear.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/1000/~/whatthe students, staff and guests. is-a-router%3F Wireless routers are available with interfaces such as IEEE 802.11(Wi-Fi) How router works Page 13 of 23
  18. 18. Threats affect to the network availability Flood, Earthquakes, Tsunami These are natural threats which we cannot stop or get rid of it. But we can minimise the damage from these threats. For an example we have out academy database server and the backup server in the same building. But will destroy all our property when sudden Tsunami disaster. If we keep another backup server in our branch campuses in another country, it will minimise the damage us. Fire Using fire alarm system and CO2 fire extinguishers will minimise the damage. Sudden power failures Sudden power failures can affect to computer software, hardware and network devices. UPS is a device which supplies power from its battery for about 5 - 10 minutes, until power supply connected to generators. Otherwise these UPS power supply time is enough to turn of the devices. Trojan horse, Viruses, Worm Page 14 of 23
  19. 19. These are small software which designed to delete or corrupt data in the computers, databases and servers. This makes the PCs and servers to slow, and sometimes it harms to the network. Using a fire wall and properly updated antivirus software can avoid these Virus infections. Hackers and Unauthorized Access People can come to our academy network without permission and harm or seal machined data and network data. Not only the data, they can seal our hardware items as well. Using a password protection to every PC is the primary protection for the network. Using different passwords even from lab to lab is better for the security. Keep network administration passwords and server passwords confidentially is essential. When the students, parents or staffs logging in to the system there should be audit log. Audit log means there will be records of logins and the record of the activities. 4. Question 4 It is essential to maintain a very good security system for large network like academy network, which spread worldwide. There are a lot of ways which can attack the network. Attack Sophistication vs. Intruder Technical Knowledge Figure 4.1 Attack Sophistication vs. Intruder Technical Knowledge Source : www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/95-752/notes/netsec.ppt Firewall Firewall is a secure machine, which is works between a private network and a public network. Normally firewall closely working with a router program, and check each and every network packet to determine whether to forward it toward its destination. Page 15 of 23
  20. 20. How Firewall Works… There are lots of firewall screening methods. A Simple one is to screen requests to make sure they come from acceptable domain name and Internet protocol address. Firewall use one of these methods to control the traffic flowing in and out of the network. Packet Filtering Proxy service. Shameful inspection Biometrics authentication Techniques Biometric authentication used to identify the person’s physical, biological characteristics uniquely. This can be used in ongoing and absolute identification. Eg: finger prints, Foot prints, Walking Style, DNA patterns, Voice VPN VPN is a private network which is used to communicate with remote sites. Page 16 of 23
  21. 21. 5. Question 5 Branch campuses network Page 17 of 23
  22. 22. Full network, main campus network and branch Page 18 of 23
  23. 23. Reference SearchNetworking.com (2011) accessed 4 March 2011 http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/protocol Bibliography Topologies Available at wikipedia.org (2011) accessed 18 Feb 2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_topology Advantages and Disadvantages of Topologies Available at buzzle.com (2011) accessed 27 Feb 2011 http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-different-networktopologies.html Star Topology Available at exforsys.com (2011) accessed 21 Feb 2011 http://www.exforsys.com/tutorials/networking/star-topology.html Advantages and Disadvantages of Tree Available at buzzle.com (2011) accessed 21 Feb 2011 http://www.buzzle.com/articles/star-topology.html and wikipedia.org (2011) accessed 21 Feb 2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_network Network Cables Available at freeonlineresearchpapers.com (2011) accessed 21 Feb 2011 http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/lan-topology-disgn-cabling-specifications UTP Cable Standards Available at tech-faq.com (2011) accessed 20 Feb 2011 http://www.techfaq.com/utp.html and comptechdoc.org (2011) accessed 21 Feb 2011 http://www.comptechdoc.org/independent/networking/guide/nettopology.html Network Congestion Available at linktionary.com (2011) accessed 27 Feb 2011 http://www.linktionary.com/c/congestion.html TCP Congestion Control Available at jpkc.ncwu.edu.cn (2011) accessed 27 Feb 2011 http://jpkc.ncwu.edu.cn/jsjwl/net/ross/book/transport_layer/congestion.html Frame Relay Available at shopforbandwidth.com (2011) accessed 1 March 2011 http://www.shopforbandwidth.com/frame-relay.php X.25 Available at networking.ringofsaturn.com (2011) accessed 2 March 2011 http://networking.ringofsaturn.com/Protocols/x25.php Network Hardware Available at book.opensourceproject.org.cn (2011) accessed 3 March 2011 http://book.opensourceproject.org.cn/distrib/ubuntu/unleashed/opensource/0672329093/ch18lev1 sec4.html and tech-faq.com (2011) accessed 3 March 2011 http://www.tech-faq.com/types-ofnetwork-hardware.html Page 19 of 23

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