Is global cyberspace becoming individualized or globalized? Han Woo Park Department of Media and Information, WCU Webometrics Institute, YeungNam University, South Korea [email_address] George A. Barnett Department of Communication, University of California – Davis [email_address] Chung Joo Chung Department of Communication, State University of New York at Buffalo [email_address]
Figure 1. International Hyperlink Flow Network (2009)
The s ize of the concentric circles indicates the hyperlink connection density among countries. The thickness of the line connecting two nodes is proportional to the connection density between the two nodes. Only those ties exhibiting greater than 1 million hyperlinks are shown. All isolates have been removed from the figure. N=251.
The relation between the centrality of the 2003 and 2009 hyperlink networks of the 47 countries was significant (in-degree, r = .798, p < .01; out-degree, r = .815, p < .01; eigenvalue, r = .821, p < .01).
The QAP correlation between the 2009 and 2003 data was only .406 (p < .01), accounting for only approximately 16% of the variance in the two networks.
The international hyperlink network became more centralized over time.
The composite score (Gini-based core/peripheral measure) of the 2009 network was 0.466, whereas it was only 0.291 for the 2003 network.
The greatest changes were found among the most central countries.
Europe as a whole was much more central, particularly Germany.
The BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries showed a number of changes.
The numbers of Brazil’s and Russia’s hyperlinks increased from 2003 to 2009.
China had fewer outward links.
India had fewer inward links than expected.
T he centralities were distributed as a power curve (R 2 ranging from .798 to .821) as Barabasi (2002) predicted, suggesting disproportional growth in the number of hyperlinks by the increased nodes (countries).
Whereas there was only one group in 2003, regional, cultural, and linguistic groupings formed in Latin America, Scandinavia, and around China and Russia in 2009.