South Korea’s 2007 presidential election

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Understanding elections by the use of a mixed Webometric method:a case study of South Korea’s 2007 presidential election
Han Woo Park
YeungNam University, South Korea
Yeon-Ok Lee
Royal Holloway, University of London, UK

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South Korea’s 2007 presidential election

  1. 1. Understanding elections by the use of a mixed Webometric method: a case study of South Korea’s 2007 presidential election Han Woo Park YeungNam University, South Korea Yeon-Ok Lee Royal Holloway, University of London, UK AoIR annual conference 16-18 Oct 2008, Copenhagen Elections Online
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>A liberal underdog Roh Moo-Hyun won the 2002 presidential election by 2.3% of the votes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ward, A. ‘Netizens’ wooed in S Korea poll. Financial Times , 17 Dec 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Korea clicks for votes. CNN , 18 Dec 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>York, G. In South Korea, it’s the mouse that roars. globeandmail.com , 30 Dec 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watts, J. World’s first internet president logs on. The Guardian , 24 Feb 2003. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Research Objectives <ul><li>To see whether a similar scenario would unfold in the 2007 election (and if not, why is that the case?) </li></ul><ul><li>To ‘test out’ new research methods for exploring e-campaign practices </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theoretical Framework <ul><li>Equalisation or normalisation? </li></ul><ul><li>Wider mobilisation or reinforcement? </li></ul><ul><li>Typology of campaign Websites: informing, involving, connecting, mobilising (Kluver et al., 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>The role of contextual factors in (the evolution of) e-campaigning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Methodology <ul><li>Webometrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The respective sizes of the 20 official Websites of the candidates/parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency counts in search engine indexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Co-link analysis: LexiURL </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative complements </li></ul>
  6. 6. Summary of findings <ul><li>Online attention also focused on major parties/candidates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cf. Moon GH, Huh KY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency counts, Web traffic: </li></ul><ul><li>the (conservative) GNP > the liberals </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming links, size of the site: </li></ul><ul><li>the liberals & labour candidates > the GNP </li></ul>
  7. 7. Frequency counts (party)
  8. 8. Frequency counts (candidate)
  9. 9. cf. Freq. counts (minor candidate)
  10. 10. Incoming links (party)
  11. 11. Incoming links (candidate)
  12. 12. Website traffic (Raw data from Internetmetrix.com )
  13. 13. Size of the site (party) (i.e. Number of Webpages including all subdomains)
  14. 14. Size of the site (candidate)
  15. 15. Summary of findings (2) <ul><li>Colink maps = indicative of the relative level of public awareness and the ideological orientation of candidates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cf. Single incoming links = symbolic affiliation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Colink network (29 Nov)
  17. 17. Colink network (2 Dec)
  18. 18. Colink network (5 Dec)
  19. 19. Colink network (8 Dec)
  20. 20. Colink network (11 Dec)
  21. 21. Colink network (14 Dec)
  22. 22. Colink network (17 Dec)
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>No significant effect of online campaigning: the offline atmosphere reproduced in cyberspace </li></ul><ul><li>No e-campaign innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual factors mattered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The worsening economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal frameworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ‘animosity’ towards the outgoing government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political disenchantment of the newly eligible </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Han Woo Park, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor </li></ul><ul><li>Dept of Communication & Information </li></ul><ul><li>YeungNam University, South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Email: hanpark@ynu.ac.kr </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hanpark.net </li></ul><ul><li>Yeon-Ok Lee </li></ul><ul><li>PhD Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>New Political Communication Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Dept of Politics & International Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Holloway, University of London </li></ul><ul><li>Email: yenn.lee@rhul.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.yawningtree.net </li></ul><ul><li>* Many thanks to the members of the New Media & Society Lab at YeungNam University for their help during data collection. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Thank You !

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