Investigating Internet-based  Korean politics using e-research tools Prof.  Han Woo PARK Associate Professor  Dept. of  Me...
 
What is e-research? A minor but growing approach to the study of e-science is the  methodological perspective  based on th...
Two areas of e-research in Social Science <ul><li>1) development of online tools  to automate the research process , such ...
http://participatorysociety.org/wiki/index.php?title=Online_Research
<Table 1> Development stage of e-Science  Nentwich(2003)  Type Traditional Science   ------------------------->  e-Science...
WCUBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Empirical findings on current status of...
<ul><li>Frequently occurring key words in e-science webpages in Korea </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Results Words ar...
<ul><li>Websites retrieved more than two times </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Websites are larger according to their ...
Author types of Korea e-science websites   WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Media sites were the most frequently retrieved, with ...
<ul><li>The size of the ‘plus’: Individual sites corresponds to the frequency of their retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>The siz...
Inter-link network analysis WU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>One large cluster: Eight organizational sites + One small clu...
Why do we need e-research to investigate Internet-mediated politics in South Korea?   <ul><li>Highest proportion of broadb...
Korea’s politicized cyberspace Core-peripheral structure of diffusion Similar to ‘Slash dot effect’ in the US, web-based d...
Blogging and citizenship <ul><li>Free, easy blogging allows Internet-connected citizens to become journalists </li></ul><u...
Political role of the Internet <ul><li>Equalization VS Normalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on the Internet’s effe...
Sunstein’s  Republic.com 2.0 <ul><li>Argues (from a U.S. perspective) that  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Internet supports di...
Sunstein’s Republic.com 2.0 <ul><li>Points (from a U.S. perspective) to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cybercascade </li></ul></ul...
Theoretical controversy of  Balkanization Unjustified temporal effect: Some  negative  evidences about deepening divide Si...
Is ‘balkanization’ an intentional outcome? Axel Brun’s produsage is defined as  &quot;the collaborative and continuous bui...
Theoretical controversy of  Mobilization Several factors  involved: Socio-political-cultural constraints and practices (e....
<ul><li>My study tends to investigates the use of web features and hyperlinks in politicians’ web sites  </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>This approach is particularly useful because there has been little previous research into Internet community studi...
Balkanization:  Structure of political hyperlink connectivity in South Korea As of 28 October 2009
Hogan (2008)
Network of bilinked citizen blogs URI=Centre DLP=Left GNP=Right Just A-list blogs exchanging links with politicians
Bi-linked network of politically active  A-list Korean citizen blogs (July 2005) URI=Centre DLP=Left GNP=Right Just A-list...
Affiliation network diagram using pages   linked to Lee’s and Park’s sites   N = 901 (Lee: 215, Park: 692, Shared: 6) Prim...
Inter-linking associations  among political actors Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and Twitter As of 28 October 2009
 
 
<ul><li>Compete </li></ul>
Web 1.0, Web 2.0 &Twitter  (1/7) <ul><li>Research purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate structural changes in hype...
Star networks without any isolation 2000 VS 2001
2005 VS 2006
<ul><li>Size of node: number of tweets </li></ul>
<ul><li>Size of node: number of followers </li></ul>
Web 1.0, Web 2.0 &Twitter  (6/7) Web Types Year Sum of links (Mean) Density Centralisation Gini Coefficient IN OUT Web 1.0...
Web 1.0, Web 2.0 & Twitter  (7/7) <ul><li>Web 1.0: Hub, but sparse network </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0: Hub disappearing, bu...
Tool development  & Live research <ul><li>Politicians use the internet to promote their ideas, enhance their awareness ind...
Automatic search tool using Korea engines
 
WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITIC WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Background information of 18 th  Kore...
* Female: Red ,  Male: Blue ,  Ruling party: italic From 27th Aug to 10th Sep, 2009   Online presence of Korean politician...
Online visibility Female
Male Online visibility
WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITIC WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Overall Results <ul><li>These results...
WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Background Case 1. 2007 Korean Presi...
2  Dec 2007 11  Dec 2007 17  Dec 2007
Network Measures with Three Different Points Network measures 2 Dec 07 11 Dec 2007 17 Dec 2007 Clustering coefficient 2.58...
Cyworld Extractor - Overview Java-based software tool that, given the URL of a politician on Cyworld, extracts comments gi...
① ② ③ The status of mini-homepy ① How active ②How famous ③How friendly Gender Name Geun-Hye Park’s mini-hompy Visitor count
Captured on 19th June, 2009 * Female: Red ,  Male: Blue ,  Ruling party: italic Cyworld presence of Korean politicians Cyw...
WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Case 2.  Cyworld Mini-hompies of Kor...
IP address Cyworld-IP screen capture Seong-Min Yoo’s mini-hompy
Cyworld Extractor  –  Data One example of possible uses for the collected data is to determine the region of posters comme...
Cyworld Extractor - Data The country of origin of those users commenting from outside Korea is also possible
Table 1.   Summary of comments posted on ten political profile pages between  April 2008 and June 2009 . One politician wa...
Why do Kyeong-Tae Jo and Kyoeng-Won Na  have so many comments? <ul><li>After South Korean government concluded negotiation...
South Koreans fearing 'mad cow disease' fight US beef imports in May and June 2008
<ul><li>On May 7th, 2008, Kyeong-Tae Joe disputed with Woon-choen Chung, a minister of Ministry for food, agriculture, for...
<ul><li>In June 2008, Kyeong-Won Na received the biggest comments from the citizens among all politicians using mini-hompy...
Why do they have so many comments? <Comments on Kyeong-Won Na’s mini-hompy>  <Comments on Kyeong-Tae Jo’s mini-hompy> Date...
Discussion <ul><li>Important socio-political issues are instantly reproduced in social network sites such as Cyworld. </li...
 
<ul><li>Number of labels by category </li></ul>
Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’  Cyworld mini-hompy
Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’  Cyworld mini-hompy
Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’  Cyworld mini-hompy n = 650 n = 756
Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’  Cyworld mini-hompy Positive comments Negative comments <ul><li>안녕하세요 ^^  힘내시...
*Occurred at least 4 times among the Top 10 Words per each politician positive negative center male female
Twitter Extractor - Overview Sharing a similar interface and extraction mechanism with the Cyworld extractor, this applica...
Twitter Extractor - Data A simple use for this data would be to visualize a user’s network and ascertain which users are r...
* A type of tweets - A case Study on twitter of 18th National Assembly Members * Audiences of tweets * Topic of tweets
Thank you for listening!   WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Acknowledgments.   WCU Webometrics Institute acknowledges that  this ...
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Investigating Internet-based Korean politics using e-research tools Kaist Culture Technology Symposium(2 Nov2009)

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  • http://www.democracykorea.org/blog/2008/07/04/peace-continues/
  • http://henryjenkins.org/2008/05/interview_with_axel_bruns.html
  • 정당이름 ?
  • Note : Data were dichotomized for the calculation of clustering coefficient and geodesic distance values, and degree centralities were normalized for comparison across networks.
  • Correlations between indicators?
  • Investigating Internet-based Korean politics using e-research tools Kaist Culture Technology Symposium(2 Nov2009)

    1. 1. Investigating Internet-based Korean politics using e-research tools Prof. Han Woo PARK Associate Professor Dept. of Media & Communication, YeungNamUniversity 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si,Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749, S.Korea [email_address] http://www.hanpark.net Director of WCU Webometrics Institute http://english-webometrics.yu.ac.kr This was presented at International Symposium on Culture Technology 2009 organized by KAIST, “Internet, Society, and Humanity” Nov. 02 - Nov. 03 http://www.culturetechnology.org/ This is in collaboration with Dr. Yon-Soo Lim, Dr. Chieng-Leng Hsu, DPhil. Steven Sams, DPhil, Se-Jung Park, and Ting Wang. Many thanks to my colleagues and assistants!! WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    2. 3. What is e-research? A minor but growing approach to the study of e-science is the methodological perspective based on the use of new digital tools available online for conducting humanities and social science research.
    3. 4. Two areas of e-research in Social Science <ul><li>1) development of online tools to automate the research process , such as communication, research management, data collection and analysis, and publication software </li></ul><ul><li>2) experimentation with new types of data visualization , such as social network and hyperlink analysis and multimedia and dynamic representations </li></ul>
    4. 5. http://participatorysociety.org/wiki/index.php?title=Online_Research
    5. 6. <Table 1> Development stage of e-Science Nentwich(2003) Type Traditional Science -------------------------> e-Science Stage 1 2 3 4 Information gathering Libraries; personal conversations Offline database Online databases; link collections; discussion lists Digital libraries; Knowbots Data production Interviews; experiments Electron, text analysis; simulation/ modeling Internet surveys Distributed computing; virtual reality Data management Card files; lists Hypertextual card files; databases Networked card files; de-central databases Data processing/ analysis With paper and pencil Electron, data-processing; expert systems Modelling; simulations Artificial intelligence
    6. 7. WCUBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Empirical findings on current status of e-research in South Korea - Search queries and returned webpages and websites Korean English webpages found webpages returned sites 사이버인프라 C yberinfrastructure 8,210 296 230 사이버연구 C yberresearch 65,900 285 219 디지털인문학 digital humanities 12,300 164 128 E - 사이언스 E -science 17,000 199 142 사이버과학연구 C yberscience 58 43 35 E - 인프라 E -infrastructure 98 39 35 E - 리서치 E -research 102 28 20 E - 인문학 E -humanities 1 1 1 E - 사회과학 E -social science 0 0 0 Total   103,709 1,055 810
    7. 8. <ul><li>Frequently occurring key words in e-science webpages in Korea </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Results Words are larger according to the frequency of their occurrence but their positions are randomly-chosen for the best visualization
    8. 9. <ul><li>Websites retrieved more than two times </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Websites are larger according to their frequency of retrieval; however, heir colors and locations are randomly-chosen for the best visualization
    9. 10. Author types of Korea e-science websites WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Media sites were the most frequently retrieved, with slightly less than half of the sites for this study (44 out of 104 sites) Author types No. of sites Percent Mass media 27 26.0 Public/Government 18 17.3 Technology Media 17 16.3 Portals/Search engines/Blogs 15 14.4 Private/Industry 14 13.5 Academic/University 13 12.5 Total 104 100.0
    10. 11. <ul><li>The size of the ‘plus’: Individual sites corresponds to the frequency of their retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the lines between sites : Number of external websites </li></ul><ul><li>co-linking to the sites </li></ul><ul><li>Sites tend to be closely clustered when they are often co-linked, but the location of Each group on the diagram is randomly chosen. </li></ul>Co-link network analysis WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    11. 12. Inter-link network analysis WU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE <ul><li>One large cluster: Eight organizational sites + One small cluster of </li></ul><ul><li>three sites </li></ul><ul><li>Seven out of the 18 sites are not connected with the other sites in </li></ul><ul><li>the public domain and isolated in this particular online network. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative positions of important e-science actors within the </li></ul><ul><li>public domain </li></ul>
    12. 13. Why do we need e-research to investigate Internet-mediated politics in South Korea? <ul><li>Highest proportion of broadband users in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique evolution of online culture in Korean cyberspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The country’s impressive level of technological uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly “digitalized” political activity </li></ul><ul><li>- We need to conduct “live research” to understand the dynamics of Korea politics through tracking how web objects, related terms, and hyperlinks are circulated in Korea's webosphere. </li></ul>WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE
    13. 14. Korea’s politicized cyberspace Core-peripheral structure of diffusion Similar to ‘Slash dot effect’ in the US, web-based discussion media have been playing a tremendous role in raising public awareness and providing an investigative reporting abut social media
    14. 15. Blogging and citizenship <ul><li>Free, easy blogging allows Internet-connected citizens to become journalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks the monopoly of the capital-intensive media? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the creation of Habermas’s free discussion Public Sphere ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But political User-Generated Content is more likely to be banned during South Korean elections! </li></ul>
    15. 16. Political role of the Internet <ul><li>Equalization VS Normalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on the Internet’s effect on the campaign practice of formally recognized political actors (e.g., parties, candidates, NGOs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobilization VS Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on the Internet’s effect on the citizen’s participation and political involvement </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Sunstein’s Republic.com 2.0 <ul><li>Argues (from a U.S. perspective) that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Internet supports diversity, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals choose to cocoon themselves in areas of agreement, so </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the net result is protection from exposure to differing opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the death of democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is this the case with a highly networked society (both technically and socially) like South Korea? </li></ul>
    17. 18. Sunstein’s Republic.com 2.0 <ul><li>Points (from a U.S. perspective) to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cybercascade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberbalkanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echo chambers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is this the case with a highly networked society (both technically and socially) like South Korea? </li></ul>
    18. 19. Theoretical controversy of Balkanization Unjustified temporal effect: Some negative evidences about deepening divide Simplified media usage model: Shifting from DailyMe to Produsage Limited to political cooperation issues in a well-connected social world: ‘ Collective intelligence ’ certainly occurs in some (loose) contexts??
    19. 20. Is ‘balkanization’ an intentional outcome? Axel Brun’s produsage is defined as &quot;the collaborative and continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement&quot; , not all participants are even aware of their contribution to produsage projects; their motivations may be mainly social or individual, and still their acts of participation can be harnessed as contributions to produsage
    20. 21. Theoretical controversy of Mobilization Several factors involved: Socio-political-cultural constraints and practices (e.g., regulation, policing, IT infra, power-distance etc.) Inter-media agenda setting: Influential conventional media’s impact on users Competitive media market: Obsolete DailyMe Increasing media education: Multiple site-browsing and balanced approach
    21. 22. <ul><li>My study tends to investigates the use of web features and hyperlinks in politicians’ web sites </li></ul><ul><li>without preconceived theories about </li></ul><ul><li>why they may have been created or what they are used for. </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>This approach is particularly useful because there has been little previous research into Internet community studies and </li></ul><ul><li>it is known that the web is used in very different ways </li></ul><ul><li>so that it is easy to misinterpret findings by applying inappropriate theoretical frameworks . </li></ul>
    23. 24. Balkanization: Structure of political hyperlink connectivity in South Korea As of 28 October 2009
    24. 25. Hogan (2008)
    25. 26. Network of bilinked citizen blogs URI=Centre DLP=Left GNP=Right Just A-list blogs exchanging links with politicians
    26. 27. Bi-linked network of politically active A-list Korean citizen blogs (July 2005) URI=Centre DLP=Left GNP=Right Just A-list blogs exchanging links with politicians
    27. 28. Affiliation network diagram using pages linked to Lee’s and Park’s sites N = 901 (Lee: 215, Park: 692, Shared: 6) Primary election within GNP in 2007
    28. 29. Inter-linking associations among political actors Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and Twitter As of 28 October 2009
    29. 32. <ul><li>Compete </li></ul>
    30. 33. Web 1.0, Web 2.0 &Twitter (1/7) <ul><li>Research purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate structural changes in hyperlink networks from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 in South Korean Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Units of analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress members of South Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year of observations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web 1.0: homepage, 2000 & 2001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0: blogs, 2005 & 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter: 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 34. Star networks without any isolation 2000 VS 2001
    32. 35. 2005 VS 2006
    33. 36. <ul><li>Size of node: number of tweets </li></ul>
    34. 37. <ul><li>Size of node: number of followers </li></ul>
    35. 38. Web 1.0, Web 2.0 &Twitter (6/7) Web Types Year Sum of links (Mean) Density Centralisation Gini Coefficient IN OUT Web 1.0 (Homepage) 2000 N=245 373 (1.52) 0.006 1.84 69.33 0.984 2001 515 (2.10) 0.009 1.19 99.55 0.996 Web 2.0 (Blog) 2005 N=99 652 (6.59) 0.067 22.07 41.66 0.759 2006 589 (5.95) 0.061 20.67 35.10 0.763 Twitter 2009 111 (5.05) 0.240 24.72 39.68 0.408
    36. 39. Web 1.0, Web 2.0 & Twitter (7/7) <ul><li>Web 1.0: Hub, but sparse network </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0: Hub disappearing, but becoming dense </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter: similar to Web 2.0 structure, and denser </li></ul><ul><li>More to work (example): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To compare top 10 politicians ego-networks and investigate how they change </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. Tool development & Live research <ul><li>Politicians use the internet to promote their ideas, enhance their awareness index, expand their interpersonal relationship and communicate with the citizen and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving that politicians’ online visibility will be changed constantly, it is important for us to trace and study those changes. </li></ul>
    38. 41. Automatic search tool using Korea engines
    39. 43. WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITIC WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Background information of 18 th Korean MPs Gender Age Type Male Female 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 Frequency (%) 251 (86.0%) 41 (14.0%) 3 (1.0%) 52 (17.8%) 144 (49.3%) 80 (27.4%) 13 (4.5%) The number of terms (how many times he/she has been elected for the national assembly) Term 1th 2th 3th 4th 5th 6th 7th Frequency (%) 130 (44.5%) 89 (30.5%) 44 (15.1%) 19 (6.5%) 6 (2.1%) 3 (1.0%) 1 (0.3%) Party Frequency (%) Constituency Classification Frequency (%) Grand National Party 168(57.5%) Seoul and its vicinity -Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi-do 110(37.7%) Democratic Labor Party 5(1.7%) Provincial regions -Daejeon, Ulsan, Gwangju, Busan, Daegu, Gangwon-do, Chungcheongnam/buk-do, Gyeongshangnam/buk-do, Jeollanam/buk-do, Jeju-do 131(44.9%) Democratic Party 84(28.8%) Liberty Forward Party 18(6.2%) Pro-Park Geun-hye Coalition 5(1.7%) Renewal of Korea Party 3(1.0%) Proportional representation 51(17.5%) New Progressive Party 1(.3%) Independent 8(2.7%)
    40. 44. * Female: Red , Male: Blue , Ruling party: italic From 27th Aug to 10th Sep, 2009   Online presence of Korean politicians Ranking Web visibility No. of Inlinks No. of webpages 1 Geun-Hye Park Geun-Hye Park Young Sun Park 2 Jin Park Dong-Yong Chung Chun Jin Kim 3 Dong-Yong Chung Moon-Soon Choi Jung Bae Cheon 4 Hoi-Chang Lee Gi-Gab Kang Yu Chul Won 5 Sek-Kyun Jung Jung-Sook Kwak Geun-Hye Park 6 Jung-Hoon Kim Gun-Hyun Lee Geun Chan Ryu 7 Young-Jin Kim Woo-Yeo Hwang Dong Chul Kim 8 Sung-Soo Kim Woon-Tae Kang Dong-Yong Chung 9 Hyung-O Kim Jin-ha Hwang Je Se Oh 10 Jun-Pyo Hong Sun-Sook Park Yang Seok Jung
    41. 45. Online visibility Female
    42. 46. Male Online visibility
    43. 47. WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITIC WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Overall Results <ul><li>These results prove that online visibility of a Korean politician is affected by three factors – the financial strength of his/her party, importance of a given politician to his/her own party, and individual popularity off-line. </li></ul><ul><li>Online visibility of a politician statistically differs by his or her socio-demographic variables of term, gender, party and constituency. Politicians’ term is a major variable of online visibilities. </li></ul>
    44. 48. WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Background Case 1. 2007 Korean Presidential Election Table 1. Websites of Presidential Candidates and Parties Case 1. 2007 Korean Presidential Election Candidate Website Candidate’s Party Website Lee Myung-Bak (Lee MB) www.mbplaza.net Grand National Party (GNP) www.hannara.or.kr Chung Dong-Young (Chung DY) www.cdy21.net United New Democratic Party (UNDP) www.undp.kr Lee Hoi-Chang (Lee HC) www.leehc.org Independent Moon Kook-Hyun (Moon KH) www.moon21.kr Creative Party (CKP) www.ckp.kr Kwon Young-Ghil (Kwon YG) www.ghil.net Democratic Labor Party (DLP) www.kdlp.org Rhee In-Je (Rhee IJ) www.ijworld.or.kr Democratic Party (DP) www.minjoo.or.kr Huh Kyung-Young (Huh KY) Same as party site Economy & Republican Party (ERP) www.gonghwa.com Geum Min (Geum M) www.minnmin.net Socialist Party (KSP) www.sp.or.kr Chung Kun-Mo (Chung KM) www.bestjung.kr True Owner Coalition (TOC) www.chamjuin.or.kr Chun Kwan (Chun K) www.chamsaram.or.kr Chamsaram Society Full True Act (CSFTA) Same as candidate site Sim Dae-Pyeng (Sim DY) www.dpsim.co.kr People First Party (PFP) www.mypfp.or.kr Lee Soo-Sung (Lee SS) www.leesoosung.com People’s Coalition (PC) Same as candidate site
    45. 49. 2 Dec 2007 11 Dec 2007 17 Dec 2007
    46. 50. Network Measures with Three Different Points Network measures 2 Dec 07 11 Dec 2007 17 Dec 2007 Clustering coefficient 2.581 2.368 1.777 Average distance (Cohesion value) 1.564 (0.215) 1.821 (0.273) 1.681 (0.346) Degree centralities of sites ijworld.or.kr leehc.org ckp.kr 0.158 0.000 0.000 0.263 0.053 0.053 0.684 0.263 0.053
    47. 51. Cyworld Extractor - Overview Java-based software tool that, given the URL of a politician on Cyworld, extracts comments given by citizens along with related profile attributes. The stored data, which can amount to thousands of records, is stored in a suitable format for import into statistical software
    48. 52. ① ② ③ The status of mini-homepy ① How active ②How famous ③How friendly Gender Name Geun-Hye Park’s mini-hompy Visitor count
    49. 53. Captured on 19th June, 2009 * Female: Red , Male: Blue , Ruling party: italic Cyworld presence of Korean politicians Cyworld Comments Visitor counts Bookmarked by Others Scraped Posting Active Score Famous Score Friendly Score Kyoeng-Won Na Geun-Hye Park Geun-Hye Park Geun-Hye Park Geun-Hye Park Geun-Hye Park Geun-Hye Park Geun-Hye Park Hoi-Chang Lee Jung-Wook Hong Guk-Hyun Moon Kyoeng-Won Na Kyoeng-Won Na Guk-Hyun Moon Hoi-Chang Lee Kyung-Won Na Guk-Hyun Moon Jung-Wook Hong Dong-Yong Chung Dong-Young Jung Dong-Young Jung Kyeong-Tae Jo Dong-Young Jung Dong-Young Jung Hoi-Chang Lee Soo-hee Jin Guk-Hyun Moon Kyoeng-Won Na Dong-Yong Chung Guk-Hyun Moon Kyoeng-Won Na Dong-Yong Chung Hee-Ryong Won Woon-Tae Kang Gi-Gab Kang Kook-Hyn Moon Jung-Wook Hong Hoi-Chang Lee Kyoeng-Won Na Hong-jun An Kyung-Tae Cho Hee-Ryong Won Gi-Gab Kang Woon-Tae Kang Hee-Ryong Won Eul-Dong Kim Jin-ha Hwang Hee-Ryong Won Mong-Jun Chung Sook-Mi Son Kyung-Tae Cho Mong-Jun Chung Sun-Kyo Han Jae-chul Sim Eul-Dong Kim Jae-chul Sim Mong-Jun Chung Hee-Ryong Won Eul-Dong Kim Mong-Jun Chung Woon-tae Kang Mong-Jun Chung Sun-Kyo Han Jeong-Wook Hong Eul-Dong Kim Sun-Kyo Han Gi-Gab Kang Sun-Kyo Han Jun-pyo Hong Jun-pyo Hong
    50. 54. WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE INVESTIGATING INTERNET-BASED POLITICS WITH E-RESEARCH TOOLS Case 2. Cyworld Mini-hompies of Korean Legislators Cyworld Mini-hompies of Korean legislators However, buddy data is not publicly available!! The network structure using co-link data shows a clear butterfly pattern. T here is one hub (ghism) that belongs to Park Gy un-Hye (Park GH, www.cyworld.com/ghism), the daughter of ex-president Park Jeong-Hee and one of two major GNP candidates (along with president-elect Lee MB) in the 2007 presidential race.
    51. 55. IP address Cyworld-IP screen capture Seong-Min Yoo’s mini-hompy
    52. 56. Cyworld Extractor – Data One example of possible uses for the collected data is to determine the region of posters commenting from Korea
    53. 57. Cyworld Extractor - Data The country of origin of those users commenting from outside Korea is also possible
    54. 58. Table 1. Summary of comments posted on ten political profile pages between April 2008 and June 2009 . One politician was selected at random from the eighty-one successfully scraped political profiles and the male and female comments posted were taken as the dataset. Politician Male Female Unknown Total 나경원 ( Kyeong-Won Na) 10547 6611 2288 19446 박근혜 ( Geun-Hye Park) 10086 7199 1651 18936 이회창 ( Hoi-Chang Lee) 8970 6284 2380 17634 조경태 ( Kyeong-Tae Cho) 2889 2412 11101 16402 정동영 ( Dong-Yong Chung) 4872 4430 981 10283 문국현 ( Kook-Hyn Moon) 3104 4229 711 8044 강기갑 ( Gi-Gap Kang) 1405 1065 3997 6467 손숙미 ( Sook-Mi Son) 1634 771 586 2991 정몽준 ( Mong-Jun Chung) 1146 409 842 2397 홍정욱 ( Jeong-Wook Hong) 913 753 126 1792
    55. 59. Why do Kyeong-Tae Jo and Kyoeng-Won Na have so many comments? <ul><li>After South Korean government concluded negotiation of American beef import in April, there are many conflicts between government and public opinion during the May, June, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>As graph indicates, compared to before, the biggest number of comments was recorded on all assembly members’ Minihompies in May and June, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Among of them, specially, the biggest number of comments is recorded on mini-hompy of Kyung-TaeJo and Kyeong-Won Na. </li></ul>
    56. 60. South Koreans fearing 'mad cow disease' fight US beef imports in May and June 2008
    57. 61. <ul><li>On May 7th, 2008, Kyeong-Tae Joe disputed with Woon-choen Chung, a minister of Ministry for food, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, on TV forum. </li></ul><ul><li>He severely criticized the minister for the American beef imports with considerable potential possibilities of ‘mad cow decease’. </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to this event, he became a star who represents citizens’ sound though he had relatively had little popularity and reputation in the real world. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Offline political events influenced online space </li></ul>
    58. 62. <ul><li>In June 2008, Kyeong-Won Na received the biggest comments from the citizens among all politicians using mini-hompy. </li></ul><ul><li>We analyzed all comments made by others on mini-hompy during the June of 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>We found most comments are also related to the American beef issue. On 5th June, she supported the import of American beef on TV discussion program. </li></ul><ul><li>Many citizens were angry and criticized her attitude and mentions when they visited her mini-hompy and leave many negative messages. </li></ul>
    59. 63. Why do they have so many comments? <Comments on Kyeong-Won Na’s mini-hompy> <Comments on Kyeong-Tae Jo’s mini-hompy> Date Total Irrelevant Related in issue on American beef Positive Negative June, 2008 9935 2309 23.24% 378 3.80% 7248 72.95% Date Total Irrelevant Related in Issue on American beef Positive Negative 7th May, 08 7,545 23 0.30% 7,514 99.59% 8 0.11% 8 th May, 08 2,744 6 0.22% 2,734 99.64% 4 0.15% 9 th May, 08 826 2 0.24% 818 99.03% 6 0.73% Total 11,115 31 0.28% 11,066 99.56% 18 0.16%
    60. 64. Discussion <ul><li>Important socio-political issues are instantly reproduced in social network sites such as Cyworld. </li></ul><ul><li>Offline politics strongly influenced online political landscape especially in sentimental message trend. </li></ul><ul><li>Online user comments can determine certain politician’s popularity and reputation. </li></ul>
    61. 66. <ul><li>Number of labels by category </li></ul>
    62. 67. Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’ Cyworld mini-hompy
    63. 68. Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’ Cyworld mini-hompy
    64. 69. Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’ Cyworld mini-hompy n = 650 n = 756
    65. 70. Sentimental Analysis of Korean Politicians ’ Cyworld mini-hompy Positive comments Negative comments <ul><li>안녕하세요 ^^ 힘내시고요 . 화이팅 !! </li></ul><ul><li>존경해요 !!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>의원님 너무 멋지십니다 ^^ </li></ul><ul><li>멋지십니다 !! 최고 !!^^ </li></ul><ul><li>사랑하는 의원님 ! 오늘하루도 힘내세요 ! </li></ul><ul><li>응원합니다 . ^0^ </li></ul><ul><li>힘내세요 당신을 믿습니다 .^^ </li></ul><ul><li>당선 축하드립니다 ^^ 정말 멋지신 분 ! </li></ul><ul><li>감사합니다 . 사랑합니다♡ </li></ul><ul><li>쏘핫 .. 머싯쓰세영ㅋ 저흰일촌 ..♡ ㅋㅋ </li></ul><ul><li>XX 야 ! 쌍판 내밀지 마라 ! 토나온다 </li></ul><ul><li>역겨워 .. </li></ul><ul><li>창피한 줄 아세요 </li></ul><ul><li>대가리 먹물깨나 든거 같은데 헛지랄했구나 </li></ul><ul><li>그대가 짱먹으세요 빈정대기짱 말꼬리잡기짱 </li></ul><ul><li>우즈 플리즈 ! 닥쳐줄래 ??? 실실 쪼개지도 말고 가만있어 ! </li></ul><ul><li>니들은 짖어라 그거군 ㅋㅋㅋㅋ 인간부터 되시오 X 양 ! </li></ul><ul><li>그저 웃긴다 참나 </li></ul>
    66. 71. *Occurred at least 4 times among the Top 10 Words per each politician positive negative center male female
    67. 72. Twitter Extractor - Overview Sharing a similar interface and extraction mechanism with the Cyworld extractor, this application requires the URL of a user on Twitter. It is then possible to collect all tweets and determine the attributes of the user’s follower / following network
    68. 73. Twitter Extractor - Data A simple use for this data would be to visualize a user’s network and ascertain which users are reciprocal in their friendships
    69. 74. * A type of tweets - A case Study on twitter of 18th National Assembly Members * Audiences of tweets * Topic of tweets
    70. 75. Thank you for listening! WCU WEBOMETRICS INSTITUTE Acknowledgments. WCU Webometrics Institute acknowledges that this research is supported from the WCU project investigating internet-based politics using e-research tools granted from South Korean Government

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