Transcript of "4.11 Korea General Election, Oxford Internet Institute Big Data Conference, Webecology, Webometrics"
An analysis of web ecology examinedthrough social webometrics during 2012 general election in south Korea Yoonjae Nam, PhD : Kyunghee University Yeon-Ok Lee, PhD : Royal Holloway, University of London Han Woo Park, PhD : Yeungnam University Internet, Politics, Policy 2012: Big Data, Big Challenges? Organised by the Oxford Internet Institute (OII, University of Oxford) on behalf of the OII-editedWeb Ecology - 2012 journal Policy and Internet, the conference academic 9/21/2012 will take place over two days (20-21 September 2012)
Outlines Web ecology Inter-relationship among websites by the human activity of using the Internet in information ecology Web Public opinion & Campaign ecology Issues Observing integration and changes of diverse information behavior across four platforms (News, Blog, Twitter, Facebook) during the campaign period of the 2012Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012 national elections in South Korea
Elections and Internet Use Large amounts of information /Updated quickly Opportunity to set their own agenda Multimedia, More interactive, & Less dependent on the journalist-controlled traditional media Mobilizing voters, Encouraging donations, & Enabling immediate transactions and recruitment Hyperlink system Allowing users to generate content -Public participation Interactive feedback functions, Discussion boards & SNSs.Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Web ecology and elections - 2 Information ecology is “a science which studies the laws governing the influence of information summary on the formation and functioning of bio-systems, including that of individuals, human communities and humanity in general and on the health and psychological, physical and social well-being of the human being; and which undertakes to develop methodologies to improve the information environment.” - Eryomin (1998) Integration of diverse types of information Recognition of evolutionary change Observation and DescriptionWeb Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012 Focus on people and information
Background General election in Korea (April, 11, 2012) Party (7) : Saenuri-dang (ruling party), Minju-dang (major opposition party) and 5 minors. Leader of party (9) : some party has joint leader Guenhye Park, Myungsook Han, Junghee Lee and 6 leadersWeb Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
RQs RQ1: Can current political situation during election campaigns be described effectively by examining web ecology (big data analysis)? RQ2: How differently do media platform serve to preserve a web ecology during political election campaigns?Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Methods : Networked visibility of a pair of actors Networked visibility of a pair of actors Networked visibility of a pair of actors: 190 queries A contextual word, “election”, is inserted Search query: Actor A, Actor B, election Date option was used: 23 March 2012 when the NEC closed candidate registrationPolitica Political party Election l party A B Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Methods: Networked visibility of apair of actors Data collected from 4 April Naver: Webpage, Blog, News article Google API: Twitter, Facebook 20 actors: eight political parties and their party leaders that nominated more than 20 candidates for congressional electionWeb Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Result 1 a series of network representation of the election from each platform at twelve points (days) (April 4 to 15, 2012) Network centralization scores which refer to what extent a web-ecology from each platform would be politically biased. Results indicated that Twitter had the highest centralization scores at all twelve points. During twelve days, network centralization scores of news and blog were relatively higher than those of social media.Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Results• Social media (Twit, FB) show higher centralized structure of network than news or blog media.• Social media are more biased media in terms of political communication than news or blog media. News Blog Twitter FB April 4 16.11% 15.81% 21.82% 21.45% April 5 15.61% 15.62% 21.82% 21.45% April 6 15.39% 15.74% 21.80% 20.72% April 7 15.36% 15.74% 21.71% 20.33% April 8 15.21% 15.82% 22.01% 20.34% April 9 15.06% 15.87% 22.17% 20.71% April 10 14.99% 16.01% 22.41% 20.68% April 11 14.88% 16.02% 22.23% 20.80% April 12 14.82% 16.24% 21.96% 19.67% April 13 14.84% 16.34% 21.65% 18.91% April 14 14.85% 16.32% 21.38% 18.14%Web Ecology - 2012 April 15 14.86% 16.35% 21.09% 9/21/2012 17.93%
Results Analyzing network centralities in four platform, both major ruling and opposition parties (e.g. Saenuri party and Minju party) and leaders of those parties (e.g. Park guenhye and Han myungsook) had generally higher degree centrality scores than minor parties and leaders of those parties. However, results showed that there were distinctive features and trends across four platforms.Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Results In news platform, both Saenuri party and Minju party have almost similar patterns of degree centralities and the highest web visibilities. In blog case, the opposition parties, Minju party and UPP, received relatively more attentions from bloggers as results showed the degree centrality scores of those parties had higher than those of the ruling party.Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Results Although, in Twitter case, the trend of degree centrality during twelve days was similar to that of degree centralities in news and blog cases, a distinguished feature was a leader of UPP, Lee junghee, who is one of power Twitter user (has over twenty thousand followers) had more degree centralities than a leader of Han, myungsook who is the leader of major opposition party. Degree centrality trends in Facebook case were quite different comparing to others. Before election day the trends of centrality were stable, then the scores of centrality rapidly increasedWeb Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012 after election.
ResultsCorrelations among centralities of 4 platforms MinJu Party News Blog Twitter Facebook - .976** .984** .644* - .949** .594* - .731**Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
ResultsLinear trends of centrality Linear Model Summary Parameter EstimatesEquatio R n square F df1 df2 Sig. Constant b1 News .97 306.48 1 10 .00 23590.99 3338.03 Blog .87 65.48 1 10 .00 53217.77 2250.88Twitter .97 318.22 1 10 .00 27325.92 1833.68Facebo .48 9.49 1 10 .012 1733.05 120.72 ok Centrality trend of Facebook: R square and Slope (b1) scores were relatively loWeb Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Discussion Networked visibility from big data is showing inter- relationships between current political situation and the data. Both major parties and their had generally higher degree centrality scores. There were distinctive features and trends across four platforms. Social media (Twitter, Facebook) show higher centralized structure of network than news or blog media. Social media are more biased media in terms of political communication than news or blog media.Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
Discussion Linearly increasing trend of centralities show information concentration on specific parties and leaders during campaign After election, centralities increased very rapidly. Facebook is relatively stable platform. The information retrieval methods tracing the trend of information seeking behaviors do not require contacting voters individually a complementary tool for polls.Web Ecology - 2012 9/21/2012
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