Teacher Notes: Countries that are the most are England and France Reasons for overtaking a country: natural resources, power, money, greed
Denied by Germans and by American reporters traveling with the German army
WWI 1700 – 1900 SummaryM.A.I.N Causes & reasons for US Entry
Militarism (Arms Race)• Definition: Making your military bigger and better than other countries.• Why would you want your military bigger than other countries?- show your strength, pride in your country, show that you’re better• What problems can arise when compete against other countries military strength? You’ll think that you need to use your bigger military, test your strength against another countries, try and solve your problems through force.
Alliances• An agreement between two or more countries to help each other. It can include military help, money or providing of weapons.• Late 1800’s many countries in Europe made various alliances, Triple Entente (Britain, Russia and France) and The Triple Alliance (Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy) – Italy left alliance after Austria-Hungary took offensive against Serbia
Imperialism• Definition: When one country takes over another country to build an empire.• Land equals power, which countries are the most powerful? Britain and France have the most territory at this time. Germany wants to get into the action.• Why would a country want to take over another country? Resources, place to sell their products, show their strength—more land, more power.
Nationalism• Pride for your country.• What does it mean to have pride for your country? Happy to be a citizen of that country or land. You’d be willing to support your countries causes. Display your pride-go out of your way to show it.• If you have pride for your country, what would do to help your country? Join the war effort, enlist in the army, save food for the army.
Morocco• France and Germany compete for land in Morocco from 1905-1913• France ends up with control but is upset with German attempts to interfere with their imperial goals.• France has secret military talks with England in the event of war with Germany.
What’s the deal with the Balkans?• Look at your map…• Many countries in Balkans gain independence from the Ottoman Empire (Greece, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria – Slavic people from these countries still live in Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires• Serbia plays real life Hitman. Form the Black Hand-liberate Serbians living under Austro-Hungary control. Assassinations of people if necessary
Franz Ferdinand• Arch-duke of Austro- Hungarian Empire – Heir to the thrown• Shot by Serbian Nationalists-Blank Hand• Serbia given an ultimatum: Accept all conditions or go to war! – Accept all but one. – The rest is history…
US wants to stay neutral• Why would the US want • Predict what problems to stay out of war? USA would face in• Since George keeping this stance. Washington—history of • Economic staying neutral in • Attacked European affairs • Propaganda• Military was small • No Allies• Allies?• Russian leadership?
Submarine Warfare• Read U-Boat section in • Why was the use of U- your textbook pg. 286 boats controversial? • Why was the sinking of the Lusitania• 15 min significant? • What was the Sussex pledge?
US stays neutral• Value of U.S. exports [products sold in other countries] for 1914: – 1914 - $824.8 million to Allies – 1914 - $169.3 million to Central Powers• Value of U.S. exports for 1916: – 1916 - $3.2 billion to Allies – 1916 - $1.2 million to Central Powers• Value of U.S. loans for 1917: – 1917 - $2.5 billion to Allies – 1917 - $27million to Central PowersPrior to US entry into WWI, was the war good or bad for the US economy? Explain with detail.
Zimmerman Note• Review the translated note with a partner.• Questions: What was Germany’s first goal concerning the USA? Keep the USA neutral.• If that plan failed, what did Germany hope an alliance with Mexico would produce? If US entered the war, Mexico should attack America and retake lost land (Texas, Arizona, New Mexico)• What kind of reaction would this have in the US?
Going to War• Other reasons for going to war and staying in it?• Propaganda: biased or misleading information used to promote or publicize a particular cause or point of view.• Examples to follow…
Propaganda Techniques• Authority- use an important person to support the idea, argument. Ex. Lebron James selling b-ball shoes• Bandwagon – You should do this because everyone else is doing it.• Cause/Effect – if you do this, this will happen.• Symbols – Appeal to emotions ex. Patriotism-Flag, eagle, Uncle Sam• Demonizing – making other people appear to be less than human. Make false claims about person. Appear immoral.• Emotion – appealing to fear, sadness, pride, etc.• Direct Order – telling people the steps they need to take.
Propaganda: Retreat of GermansFrench Report of German Retreat, by Georges Payelle.Commission investigated the destruction said to have been caused by retreating German forces“In February 1917, the Germans were beginning to prepare for their retreat, they committed the savage damage which is now known to the entire world. It looks as if a group of violent maniacs had passed through it, and in truth the Germans displayed a sort of frenzy in destroying everything they could not carry offOne asks oneself how the army of a nation, which claims to be civilized, could have been guilty of such deeds. After they had been pillaged houses and farms were destroyed by explosives, or were set on fire. The Germans pillaged the town, carrying off furniture, ripping open strong boxes, and sacking churches; and for a night they proceeded to destroy the houses carefully.Nearly everywhere the fruit trees in the open country and in gardens have been cut down, savagely hacked about, or barked in such a way as to kill them. Long rows of great poplar-trees, sawn through at the base, strew the fields near the roads. One has only to look at all these ruins to recognize that they were not heaped one upon another merely for military reasons, and that the desire to injure was the motive.Such words reveal a very poor mind.”
Propaganda: Story of Edith Cavell • British Red Cross nurse serving in Belgium • Executed for assisting Allied prisoners escape during WWI
Propaganda: Bryce Report• British commission headed by Lord James Bryce (respected historian)• Report came out following the sinking of the Lusitania• Let’s look at the report: – Describes atrocities in Belgium – Report is translated into 27 languages—Why?
Bryce Report Excepts• In Hofstade a number of houses had been set on fire and many corpses were seen, some in houses, some in back yards, and some in the streets.• On a side road the corpse of a civilian was seen on his doorstep with a bayonet wound in his stomach, and by his side the dead body of a boy of five or six with his hands nearly severed.• The corpses of a woman and boy were seen at the blacksmiths. They had been killed with the bayonet.• It is proved-- – That in the conduct of the war generally innocent civilians, both men and women, were murdered in large numbers, women violated, and children murdered. – looting, house burning, and destruction of property were ordered and tolerated by the officers of the German Army
Propaganda Posters• Complete the war propaganda poster for the following poster.• Choose a picture from http://www.ww1propagand• Complete an analysis on the back of worksheet.
Be Loyal • Espionage Act 1917: – A crime to interfere with the draft, spying, or obstructing the war effort – Fire in a crowded theatre • Sedition Act 1918 – Made it a crime to say anything “disloyal, profane, or abusive” about gov.
New Technology• You’ll be handed a quote or description of a new technology• Find the person in class that matches the description of your technology – To check if you’re right, visit teacher to confirm• Be prepared to answer: – What stood out for your from your text? – How do you think this technology changed how war was fought?• As groups present, students take notes.• Machine Guns, Poison Gas, Flame Throwers, Airplanes, Tanks, Submarines (u-boats), Trenches
Total War• What do you think this term means?• How have we seen this played out in WWI?• Examine the sources on the board – What does it describe? – What does the source say about ?
Gov. Mobilization• Gov. produced posters• Reduce food consumption to save for troops. Also brings price of food down for the Gov to purchase for troops.• Buy local—save gasoline—see above for reasoning.