PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Stages, Hazards, and Influences of Development Hannah Rowe
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Three Stages: Germinal Stage Fertilization to 10-14 weeks Embryonic Period 2 to 8 weeks Fetal Period 8 weeks to birth
FERTILIZATION A sperm cell from the father penetrates and unites the ovum from the mother to form a new organism called the zygote. Each ovum contains one X chromosome, but requires either one X or one Y from the sperm cell. This is when the fetus is conceived.
GERMINAL STAGE Fertilization to 10-14 days Might be associated with bleeding 25% to 55% never achieve implantations Blastocyst forms Cluster of cells The blastocyst implants itself into the uterus wall 5-7 days after it establishes a placenta and circulation
GERMINAL STAGE Two weeks after, pregnancy is established The blastocyst produces hormones for two reasons: Prevent menstruation Protect the embryo
EMBRYONIC STAGE 2 to 8 weeks Physical appearance Major organ formation Also known as the “critical stage” Vulnerable to outside influences Probability of structural defects are the greatest
FETAL STAGE 8 weeks to birth Continued development Weight gain Facial features Active movement Quickening Rapid rate of growth Brain development
HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Teratogens: any agent that causes a birth defect Most susceptible in the embryonic stage Severity and type of defect depends on dosage, genetic susceptibility, and time of exposure
HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Prescription & Nonprescription Drugs Causes babies to be addicted Antibiotics Estrogen Aspirin Diet pills
HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Psychoactive Drugs Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, an change moods. Caffeine: High consumptions (2 or more 8-oz cups of coffee; 5 or more 12-oz cans of cola) can cause a high risk of miscarriage
HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Psychoactive Drugs Alcohol: During pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) FASD is abnormalities in the child including facial deformities, defective limbs and organs, and mild to moderate mental illness Nicotine: Can cause increased risk: Preterm births Fetal death Low birth weight Withdrawals Respiratory problems ADHD SIDS.
MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Maternal Diseases Diseases and infections can cause defects by crossing the placental barrier Rubella Syphilis Genital herpes HIV
MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Maternal Diet and Nutrition Malnourishment Can lead to low birth weight, infant mortality, poor intellectual abilities Undernourishment Can lead to low birth weight Obesity At risk for stillbirth, fetal death, and central nervous system defects
MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Emotional States and Stress Adrenaline producing factors such as intense fears, anxieties, and stress are linked to preterm delivery Risk factor for emotional or cognitive problems, ADHD, and language delay
MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Maternal Age 20s Fertility declines until mid-30s Mortality rates of infants born to adolescent mothers is double that of infants born to mothers in their 20s After 35 Down Syndrome increases Risk of low birth weight, preterm birth, and fetal death
PRENATAL CARE It is important to educate the mother about teratogens and other prenatal hazards to ensure a healthy beginning for her and her baby.
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