290 prenatal developmentppt

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290 prenatal developmentppt

  1. 1. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Stages, Hazards, and Influences of Development Hannah Rowe
  2. 2. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Three Stages:  Germinal Stage  Fertilization to 10-14 weeks  Embryonic Period  2 to 8 weeks  Fetal Period  8 weeks to birth
  3. 3. FERTILIZATION A sperm cell from the father penetrates and unites the ovum from the mother to form a new organism called the zygote. Each ovum contains one X chromosome, but requires either one X or one Y from the sperm cell. This is when the fetus is conceived.
  4. 4. GERMINAL STAGE Fertilization to 10-14 days  Might be associated with bleeding  25% to 55% never achieve implantations  Blastocyst forms  Cluster of cells  The blastocyst implants itself into the uterus wall  5-7 days after it establishes a placenta and circulation
  5. 5. GERMINAL STAGE Two weeks after, pregnancy is established The blastocyst produces hormones for two reasons:  Prevent menstruation  Protect the embryo
  6. 6. EMBRYONIC STAGE 2 to 8 weeks Physical appearance Major organ formation Also known as the “critical stage”  Vulnerable to outside influences  Probability of structural defects are the greatest
  7. 7. FETAL STAGE 8 weeks to birth Continued development  Weight gain  Facial features  Active movement Quickening Rapid rate of growth Brain development
  8. 8. HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Teratogens:  any agent that causes a birth defect Most susceptible in the embryonic stage Severity and type of defect depends on dosage, genetic susceptibility, and time of exposure
  9. 9. HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Prescription & Nonprescription Drugs  Causes babies to be addicted  Antibiotics  Estrogen  Aspirin  Diet pills
  10. 10. HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Psychoactive Drugs  Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, an change moods.  Caffeine:  High consumptions (2 or more 8-oz cups of coffee; 5 or more 12-oz cans of cola) can cause a high risk of miscarriage
  11. 11. HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Psychoactive Drugs  Alcohol:  During pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)  FASD is abnormalities in the child including facial deformities, defective limbs and organs, and mild to moderate mental illness  Nicotine:  Can cause increased risk:  Preterm births  Fetal death  Low birth weight  Withdrawals  Respiratory problems  ADHD  SIDS.
  12. 12. MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Maternal Diseases  Diseases and infections can cause defects by crossing the placental barrier  Rubella  Syphilis  Genital herpes  HIV
  13. 13. MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Maternal Diet and Nutrition  Malnourishment  Can lead to low birth weight, infant mortality, poor intellectual abilities  Undernourishment  Can lead to low birth weight  Obesity  At risk for stillbirth, fetal death, and central nervous system defects
  14. 14. MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Emotional States and Stress  Adrenaline producing factors such as intense fears, anxieties, and stress are linked to preterm delivery  Risk factor for emotional or cognitive problems, ADHD, and language delay
  15. 15. MATERNAL INFLUENCES TO DEVELOPMENT Maternal Age  20s  Fertility declines until mid-30s  Mortality rates of infants born to adolescent mothers is double that of infants born to mothers in their 20s  After 35  Down Syndrome increases  Risk of low birth weight, preterm birth, and fetal death
  16. 16. PRENATAL CARE It is important to educate the mother about teratogens and other prenatal hazards to ensure a healthy beginning for her and her baby.
  17. 17. CITED SOURCES  Information:  Santrock, J. W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development. Dallas,Texas: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  Pictures:  Government of Western Australia. (2011). Reducing Alcohol Related Harm. Commissioner for Children and Young People. Feb 25, 2012, from www.ccyp.wa.gov.au  Unknown. (2009). Images. Knowledge Rush. Feb 25, 2012, from www.knowledgerush.com  Muckle, C & Feinberg, E. (2008). Developmental Abnormalities of the Female Reproductive System. Global Library of Women’s Medicine. Feb 26, 2012, from www.glowm.com  Jane, D. (2011). Prenatal Development. Nursing Crib. Feb 26, 2012 from nursingcrib.com  Jacobson, N. M. (2002). Fetal Development. eNotes. Feb 26, 2012 from www.enotes.com  Chang, L. (2011). Fetal Development Month by Month. WebMD. Feb 26, 2012, from www.webmd.com/baby  Wilson, J. (2012). Caffeine Content of Popular Drinks. Caffeine. Feb 26, 2012, from wilstar.com  Reavely, J. (2011). Baby Bump Photography. Josie Reavely. Feb 27, 2012, from jreavely.com

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