Camera ObscuraCamera means room in latin and obscura means dark.The earliest mention of this type of device was by theChinese philosopher Mo-Ti (5th century BC). He formallyrecorded the creation of an inverted image formed bylight rays passing through a pinhole into a darkenedroom. He called this darkened room a "collecting place"or the "locked treasure room. Artists created a smallerversion of this, a box big enough to fit a peice of paperin, through the hole the image of the outside worldprojected onto the paper and the artists traced the imageto make art.
Joseph Nicephore NeipceNiépce took what is believed to be the world’s first photogravure etching, in 1822,of an engraving of Pope Pius VII, but the original was later destroyed when he attempted to duplicate it.The earliest surviving photogravure etchings by Niépce are of a 17th century engraving of a man with a horse and of an engraving of a woman with a spinning wheel. Niépce did not have a steady enough hand to trace the inverted images created by the camera obscura, as was popular in his day, so he looked for a way to capture an image permanently. He experimented with lithography which led him in his attempt to take a photograph using a camera obscura.
Louis DaguerreDaguerre was born in Cormeilles-en-Parisis, Val-dOier,France. He apprenticed in architecture, theatre design,and panoramic painting with Pierre Prévost, the firstFrench panorama painter. Exceedingly adept at his skillof theatrical illusion, he became a celebrated designerfor the theatre and later came to invent the Diorama,which opened in Paris in July 1822.In 1829, Daguerrepartnered with Nicéphore Niépce, an inventor who hadproduced the worlds first heliograph in 1822 and the firstpermanent camera photograph four years later.Niépcedied suddenly in 1833, but Daguerre continuedexperimenting and evolved the process which wouldsubsequently be known as the Daguerreotype. Afterefforts to interest private investors proved fruitless,Daguerre went public with his invention in 1839.
CyanotypeThe English scientist and astronomer Sir John Herscheldiscovered this procedure in 1842.Though the processwas developed by Herschel, he considered it as mainly ameans of reproducing notes and diagrams, as inblueprints. It was Anna Atkins who brought this tophotography. She created a limited series of cyanotypebooks that documented ferns and other plant life fromher extensive seaweed collection. Atkins placedspecimens directly onto coated paper, allowing theaction of light to create a sillhouette effect. By using thisphotogram process, Anna Atkins is regarded as the firstfemale photographer.
William Henry Fox TalbetBorn11 February 1800 Melbury, Dorset, England. Died17September 1877) (aged 77) Lacock, Wiltshire ,England.Occupation Inventor. Known for Inventing of the calotype process.William Henry Fox Talbot (11 February 1800 – 17 September1877) was a British inventor and photography pioneer who inventedthe calotype process, a precursor to photographic processes of the19th and 20th centuries. Talbot was also a noted photographer whomade major contributions to the development of photography as anartistic medium. His work in the 1840s on photo-mechanicalreproduction led to the creation of the photoglyphic engravingprocess, the precursor to photogravure. Talbot is also rememberedas the holder of a patent which, some say, affected the earlydevelopment of commercial photography in Britain. Additionally, hemade some important early photographs of Oxford, Paris, Reading,and York
The Collodion ProcessThe collodion process is an early photographic process, inventedby Frederic Scott Archer. It was introduced in the 1850s and by theend of that decade it had almost entirely replaced the first practicalphotographic process, the daguerreotype. During the 1880s thecollodion process, in turn, was largely replaced by gelatin dry plates—glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halidessuspended in gelatin. The dry gelatin emulsion was not only moreconvenient but could be made much more sensitive, greatlyreducing exposure times.
The First Moving Image1878: Photographer Eadweard Muybridge uses high-speed stop- motion photography to capture a horse’s motion. The photos prove that the horse has all four feet in the air during some parts of its stride. The shots settle an old argument … and start a new medium and industry. So, on June 15, 1878, before assembled gentlemen of the press, Stanford’s top trainer drove Stanford’s top trotter across the trip wires at about 40 feet per second, setting off all 12 cameras in rapid succession in less than half a second.
Kodak1888 - The name "Kodak" was born and the KODAK camera wasplaced on the market, with the slogan, "You press the button - we dothe rest." This was the birth of snapshot photography, as millions ofamateur picture-takers know it today.1889 - The first commercial transparent roll film, perfected byEastman and his research chemist, was put on the market. Theavailability of this flexible film made possible the development ofThomas Edisons motion picture camera in 1891. ♦ A newcorporation - The Eastman Company - was formed, taking over theassets of the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company
PolaroidA Polaroid is a camera that develops the picture itself. A Polaroid holds self processing paper that when exposed to the image through the lens it develops the picture onto the paper through a chemical process. The very first poloroid held the paper in a sleeve that when peeled off, the picture was revealed onto the paper. Newer Polaroids removed the need for the sleeve that developed the photograph and used a chemical process within the paper whilst being released from the camera itself.
Megapixel CameraA digital camera (or digicam) is a camera that takes video or stillphotographs by recording images on an electronic image sensor.Most cameras sold today are digital, and digital cameras areincorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobilephones (called camera phones) to vehicles.Digital and film camerasshare an optical system, typically using a lens with a variablediaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. Thediaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to theimager, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronicrather than chemical. However, unlike film cameras, digital camerascan display images on a screen immediately after being recorded,and store and delete images from memory. Many digital camerascan also record moving video with sound. Some digital cameras cancrop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing.
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