Gestalt - FINAL


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Gestalt Psychology for AP Psych Class

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  • Gestalt - FINAL

    1. 1. Gestalt Theory Hanna Heishman“the whole is different from the sum of its parts” ( Vi c e k , 2 0 11 )
    2. 2. GESTALTgestalt:
“whole” “an
wholes” Maintains
 Each individual puzzle piece is unique - together,assessment
 they form a completelysurroundings
 different perspective than alone.situa@ons Munson 2011 Hothersale 2004
    3. 3. BEGINNINGSThe Gestalt perspective formed partially as a response tostructuralism which focuses on breaking down mentalevents and experiences to the smallest elements;furthermore, Structuralism states that all knowledge isderived from sensation and introspection. Basically, thisstates that in order to ascertain knowledge, one mustexperience every aspect of the information.An example of this would be an individual driving, andseeing a stop sign. First, the individual must see the sign,consciously comprehend it’s meaning, and then choose Hothersale 2004
    4. 4. PROBLEM SOLVING - GESTALT • Gestalt psychologists find it is important to think of problems as a whole. Max Wertheimer considered thinking to happen in two ways: productive and reproductive. • Productive thinking is solving a problem with insight. • This is a quick insightful unplanned response to situations and environmental interaction. • Reproductive thinking is solving a problem with previous experiences and what is already known. Woodward 1988
    5. 5. FUNDAMENTALS OF GESTALT• When a person is given several segments of information, they deliberately examine the relationships among its parts, analyze their purpose, concept, and totality, and reaches the "aha!" moment, using what is already known. Understanding in this case happens intentionally by reproductive thinking.• Other Gestalts psychologist believe that insight deals with three processes: 1) Unconscious leap in thinking. 2) The increased amount of speed in mental processing. 3) The amount of short-circuiting which occurs in normal reasoning Woodward, 1988
    6. 6. FIRST PRINCIPLE: FIGURE GROUNDOur visual systemsimplifies the visual sceneinto a figure that we lookat and a ground which iseverything else and formsthe background. Thistendency is exploited inreversible figure-groundfigures. Do you see a face or a vase? Rex 2007 Maturana, 1961
    7. 7. Do you see an Old Lady or a Young Girl? Unknown 2011The figure-ground relationship continually reverses- butalways we organize the stimulus into a figure seen against aground. Such reversible figure-and-ground illustrationsdemonstrate again that the 1988 Cohen same stimulus can trigger more
    8. 8. SECOND PRINCIPLE: GROUPING After we discriminate between figure and ground, we now have to organize the figure into meaningful form. To bring about order and form to basic sensations our minds follow certain rules for grouping stimuli together. They include: Proximity Similarity Continuity Connectedness Closure Lettvin 1961
    9. 9. PROXIMITY Notice how you group the dots Ohio State 2010Objects that are close together are likely to be seen as a group. Examples: music - you hear the melody, not the individual notes of music; and when you arrange words into sentences Turchin 1977
    10. 10. Individually, the parts of the arrow aresimply lines, we associate their proximity to make the arrow. Ohio State, 2010
    11. 11. SIMILARITY Do you see the group of circles and squares as a whole - or separate parts? Ohio State, 2010We group familiar figures together. Occurs when objectslook similar to one another. People often perceive them asa group. Turchin 1977
    12. 12. Ohio State, 2010 We see columns of similarity instead of rows of dissimilarity.We see the squares and circles as vertical columns ofsimilar shapes, not as horizontal rows of dissimilar shapesdue to similarity. Sternberg, 1995
    13. 13. ANOMALY Where are your eyes drawn? Ohio State, 2004When similarity occurs, and object can be emphasized if itis dissimilar to others. This is called an anomaly.The figure on the far right becomes the focal point becauseit is dissimilar to the other shapes. Langely 1987
    14. 14. CONTINUITY Did your eyes follow the swish? This is the Law of Continuity at work. Ohio State, 2010We perceive smooth, continuous pattern rather thandiscontinuous ones. Langley 1987
    15. 15. Immediately, do you perceive the individual parts or do you follow the line? Ohio State, 2010Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to movethrough one object and continue to another object. Green 1966
    16. 16. CONNECTEDNESSBecause they areuniform and linked, weperceive each set oftwo dots and the linebetween them as asingle unit. How many groups do you see? Ohio State, 2010 Green 1987
    17. 17. CLOSUREWe fill in gaps tocreate a complete,whole object. Are these meaningless blobs - or is it a panda? Green 1987 Ohio State, 2010
    18. 18. CLOSURE “IF YOU CAN RAED TIHS, YOU MSUT BE RAELLY SMRAT”"Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosnt mttaer in waht oredr theltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng istaht the frist and lsat ltteers be at the rghit pclae.The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raedit wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamnmnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but thewrod as a wlohe." Hothersall 2004
    19. 19. Can you read the word? Or, are they incomplete and therefore indecipherable? Ohio State, 2010The principle of closure applies when we tend to seecomplete figures even when part of the information ismissing. Green 1967
    20. 20. CONCLUSIONGestalt principles help us toconstruct realityWe react to patterns that arefamiliar even though we oftenreceive incomplete information. Itis speculated that this is a survivalinstinct, allowing us to completethe form of a predator even withincomplete form.Basically, we are far morecomplex, capable, and evolvedthan structuralism entails Recap. Hothersall 2004 Ohio State, 2010
    21. 21. WORKS CITEDDavid Hothersall: History of Psychology, chapter seven,(2004)William Ray Woodward, Robert Sonné Cohen - World views and scientific discipline formation: science studies in the German DemocraticRepublic : papers from a German-American summer institute, 1988Lettvin, J.Y., Maturana, H.R., Pitts, W.H., and McCulloch, W.S. (1961). Two Remarks on the Visual System of the Frog. In SensoryCommunication edited by Walter Rosenblith, MIT Press and John Wiley and Sons: New YorkValentin Fedorovich Turchin - The phenomenon of science - a cybernetic approach to human evolution - Columbia University Press, 1977Sternberg, Robert, Cognitive Psychology Third Edition, Thomson Wadsworth© 2003.Langley& associates, 1987; Perkins, 1981; Weisberg, 1986,1995”>Bruce, V., Green, P. & Georgeson, M. (1996). Visual perception: Physiology, psychology and ecology (3rd ed.). LEA. p. 110.Vi c e k , R . ( A r t i s t ) . ( 2 0 11 , J u l y 1 0 ) . F o r e s t [ I l l u s t r a t i o n ] . R e t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / w w w. f l i c k r. c o m /photos/kelehen/6069362800/M u n s o n , T. ( A r t i s t ) . ( 2 0 1 1 , M a y 2 2 ) . P u z z l e d [ I l l u s t r a t i o n ] . R e t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / w w w . f l i c k r . c o m /photos/tanyamunson/6236552938/R e x , D . ( A r t i s t ) . ( 2 0 0 7 , A u g u s t 0 7 ) . Va s e f a c e [ I l l u s t r a t i o n ] . R e t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / w w w . f l i c k r . c o m /photos/daverexwood/1058048330/Unknown. (Artist). (2011, May 10). Old lady young girl [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://m3 0 0 a .0p0h7o1t 3 6 0 4 .kj e tg ? o = 3 i m a g e / o l d l a d y y o u n g g i r l / b o u t d a n g t i m e / C o o l P i c s / I l l u s i o n s /1 edi0 obuc p .com/Ohio State. (Artist). ( 10). Proximity [Illustration]. Retrieved from