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Abstract Universal Design for Learning (UDL) as with universal designed architectural buildings is intended to allow classroom instruction access to everyone regardless of the disability. The classroom will be an inclusive classroom that will give all learners the opportunity to acquire knowledge, skills and improve performance. In congruency with Assisted Technology and taking into account diversity and the difference of all learners the Universal Design for Learning will enable all learners to succeed in school. 2
Goals 3 Understand the concepts of Universal Design for Learning Apply the concepts of Universal Design for Learning to classroom practice
UD Origin and Definitions 4 “Consider the needs of the broadest possible range of users from the beginning” Architect, Ron Mace By following this consideration the instructor creates the best possible learning situation for all learners in the classroom.
“Universal design for learning integrates accessibility, usability, and research on effective teaching methods.” The universal design concept, which began as a way to provide greater access for individuals with physical challenges to the physical world through inclusive architecture and product design, has broadened in scope to include access to computers (assistive technology), access to the internet (web accessibility), and ultimately access to learning on an individual basis. As a framework for inclusive pedagogy, universal design for learning strives to benefit not only students with disabilities, but all students” (Colorado State University 2008). 5
Universal design first began as a concept to make accessibility for everyone in the physical aspects. This gave the individuals with physical challenges access to buildings by incorporating ramps, elevators and other physical concepts in the design. Another example of universal design is sidewalks that are wheel-chair accessible. These are examples of universal design applied to the physical world. 6
Universal Design Not one size fits all – but alternatives. Designed from the beginning, not added on later as an afterthought. Increases access opportunities for all learners Create products and environments that are designed, from the onset, to accommodate individuals with a range of abilities and challenges.
Universal Design Examples of Universal Design for physical space are: Ramps Curb Cuts Electric Doors Captions on Television Building and Room Signage with Braille translation Easy Grip Tools
The Challenge 9 Access, participation, and progress in the general education curriculum for all learners. Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA ’97)
Origins of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Definition: Universal Design in Learning is an educational approach to teaching, learning, and assessment, drawing on new brain research and new media technologies to respond to individual learner differences.
UDL and the Learning Brain Everything we do involves three major networks in the brain: cooking a meal, driving to work, planting a garden, reading a book. Across and within the brain networks, we all have different combinations of strengths and challenges and these differences shape the ways in which we learn and work most effectively. Three networks Recognition network Strategic network Affective network
UDL and the Learning Brain Recognition networks: “the what of learning” identify and interpret patterns of sound, light, taste, smell, and touch
UDL and the Learning Brain Strategic networks: “the how of learning” plan, execute, and monitor actions and skills
UDL and the Learning Brain Affective networks: “the why of learning” evaluate and set priorities
UDL and the Learning Brain One must recognize information, ideas, and concepts One must be able to apply strategies to process the information One must be engaged Lev Vygotsky
UDL and the Learning Brain Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Task is too difficult for learner Lev Vygotsky Task is within the primal zone the learner is engaged Task is too easy for learner
UDL and the Learning Brain All learners are unique and universal does not mean “one size fits all” but to make sure “the shoe fits” is more appropriate and considerations are incorporated to make it fit.
Principles of UDL Three brain networks are involved in learning Provide multiple, flexible methods of presentation Provide multiple, flexible methods of expression and apprenticeship Provide multiple, flexible options for engagement
New Assumptions: UDL Students with disabilities fall along multiple continua Typical classes are highly diverse Teacher adjustments benefit all learners Curriculum needs fixing, not the students Curriculum materials must be flexible, varied, and diverse General Education and Special Education teachers plan curriculum
Questions Which methods of teaching are most effective with the ways that each brain network functions? What kinds of flexibility must instructional materials have to address the uniqueness of each learner?
Supporting Recognition Learning Provide alternative formats for presenting information Provide multiple examples Highlight critical features Provide multiple media and formats Support background context
Recognition: Provide multiple examples K-2 Goal: Recognize that animals (including humans) and plants are living things that grow, reproduce, and need food, air, and water. Examples of living things Examples of non-living things
Recognition: Highlight Critical Features Highlight critical features to identify a bird Birds have wings. Birds have beaks. Birds have feathers. Is this a bird?
Recognition: Multiple Media & Formats Provide a range of formats and media to ensure access for all Some disabilities are invisible
Supporting Strategic Learning Provide alternative means for action and expression Provide flexible models of skilled performance Provide opportunities to practice with supports Provide ongoing, relevant feedback Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill
Supporting Affective Learning Provide alternative means for engagement Offer choices of content and tools Offer adjustable levels of challenge Offer choices of rewards Offer choices of learning context
The UDL Approach Diversity is the norm in today’s classrooms Applying the UDL principles in education is enabled by: Appropriate goals Flexible and supportive digital materials Flexible and diverse methods, and Accessible and flexible assessments
PERSONAL LEARNING PREFERENCES:Think about the ways you would and would not like to learn to do a task.
The Red Tape which binds the learners from their full potential as learners. BarriersBooks and other items that are standard for some learners are barriers to others.
UDL Action Plan Steps Define goals – be sure to separate goals from means Determine project focus Draft UDL project that can be implemented in the near future, using project template
Tools to Support UDL:Graphic Organizers The effectiveness of graphic organizers in facilitating learning support most learners by using the three brain networks. Literature Review Graphic Organizerhttp://www.cast.org/ncac/GO article
Tools to Support UDL: Text-to-Speech What tools are available? What content can I use? How do I find content? eReader: Hands on
Text-to-Speech Tools ReadPlease CAST eReader WYNN/ Kurzweil Many more
Content: Legal Issues What copyright materials can be used in a digital format, and who can use them? Any copyrighted material can be used in a digitized format by students who have a recognized print based disability, as long as the corresponding book has been purchased for the individual. www.loc.gov/nls/reference/factsheets/copyright.html
Content: Textbooks for the Blind and… Publishers: Call or Email American Printing House for the Blind www.aph.org American Foundation for the Blind www.afb.org Recording for the Blind and Dyslexicwww.rfbd.org
Content: Online Digital Text Public Domain Libraries eBook Libraries Non-copyright materials
Tools to Support UDL:Using Microsoft®Word to Support Diverse Learners Advanced features of Microsoft®Word Spelling CheckGrammar CheckReadability StatisticsTemplatesHighlightHidden TextAuto SummarizeAuto CorrectAuto Text
Federal Legislation Regulations, Requirements & InterpretationThe Top 11
Federal Legislation Question #1 1. If an IEP team determines that a learning disabled fifth grader requires a portable word processor in order to meet the goals stated in his IEP, is the student allowed to take the device home?
Federal Legislation Question #2 2. Is the LEA (Local Education Agency) required to provide and pay for all special services and equipment recommended in the IEP?
Federal Legislation Question #3 3. Under IDEA’97 [IndividualswithDisabilitiesEducationAct Amendments of 1997], which factor takes precedence in determining the placement of a student with special needs – the amount of specialized instruction or the degree of inclusion?
Federal Legislation Question #4 4. Can a middle school student with a documented disability who is achieving above grade level in all subject areas still receive accommodations and/or assistive technology? Under what regulations?
Federal Legislation Question #5 5. Is it a copyright violation for a school or educational institution to transform (via scanning) a print textbook into an accessible digital version without publisher permission?
Federal Legislation Question #6 6. In a postsecondary setting, does a student with a documented disability automatically qualify for accommodations?
Federal Legislation Question #7 7. A college freshman with an extensive history of behavioral and adjustment difficulties throughout K–12 wants to register with a college DSS office and receive accommodations based on her behavioral needs – what accommodations is she entitled to?
Federal Legislation Question #8 8. A postsecondary student with documented learning disabilities requests tutorial support in order to meet foreign language requirements. Is he entitled to this under Section 504 or the ADA [American with Disabilities Act]?
Federal Legislation Question #9 9. Are K-12 institutions required to locate, identify and remediate students with disabilities? Are post-secondary i.e. colleges and universities …?
Federal Legislation Question #10 10. Under IDEA ’97, what is the per pupil dollar limit (i.e., the amount the district is required to spend) for assistive technology devices and services?
Federal Legislation Question #11 11. Can the parent of a fifth grader with documented special needs request that her child be provided with digital versions of all essential curriculum materials?
Assistive Technology (AT) Application of a range of tools, electronic and other, to provide access to otherwise inaccessible learning tasks or environments. Tools employed to assist individuals to overcome existing barriers in the learning environment.
Both AT and UDL are essential and together are powerful Relying on AT alone is limiting UDL increases usability for everyone and done from the beginning do not contain barriers Universal Design for Learning & Assistive Technology
60 Addressing DiversityA graphic organizer will be presented to the students as a visual representation of the course for the students that are visual learners. student achievement lesson a.mmGraphic organizers site. To help visualize thoughts on problem.http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/For students that have difficulty reading a free text to voice application site will be provided. **http://www.naturalreaders.com/download.htm**Language translator software for students that are more comfortable reading or listening to other languages.Sites to build communities of inquiry such as blogger. https://www.blogger.com/Computer basics tutorial for students that are not familiar with computers. http://www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/lessonintro.htmGraphic organizer examples so students will visualize their thought process. http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, The Library of Congress. Individual application for Free Library Service. http://www.loc.gov/nls/pdf/digiappenglish.pdfAvailable items:Headphones where speakers are not permittedPillow speaker for readers confined to bedAmplifier for readers with profound hearing lossRemote control unit for readers confined to be or limited mobilityBreath switchExtension leversBraille printed matter including books, journals, magazines, etc.Recorded books, journals, magazines, etc.And many other minor equipment and adapted materials to accommodate.If you are having difficulty reading; please download free natural reader at:**http://www.naturalreaders.com/download.htm**. You can then move the mini-board to the page you wish to listen to and highlight the text and push play button on natural reader mini board.Helping students with disabilities resources: http://www2.ed.gov/teachers/needs/speced/edpicks.jhtmlHelping students with other special needs [gifted, migrant, etc]: http://www2.ed.gov/teachers/needs/speced/edpicks.jhtml
61 Quotations on Differences and Diversity:“Differences challenge assumptions.” - Anne Wilson Schaef“As long as the differences and diversities of mankind exist, democracy must allow for compromise, for accommodation, and for the recognition of differences.” - Eugene McCarthy“One day our descendants will think it incredible that we paid so much attention to things like the amount of melanin in our skin or the shape of our eyes or our gender instead of the unique identities of each of us as complex human beings.” - Franklin Thomas, in Gloria Steinem, Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions, 1983“The price of the democratic way of life is a growing appreciation of people's differences, not merely as tolerable, but as the essence of a rich and rewarding human experience.” - Jerome NathansonWe have become not a melting pot but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams. - Jimmy Carter“If we are to achieve a richer culture, rich in contrasting values, we must recognize the whole gamut of human potentialities, and so weave a less arbitrary social fabric, one in which each diverse human gift will find a fitting place.” - Margaret Mead“Non-cooperation is a measure of discipline and sacrifice, and it demands respect for the opposite views.” - Mohandas K. Gandhi“Human diversity makes tolerance more than a virtue; it makes it a requirement for survival.” - Rene Dubos, Celebrations of Life, 1981“Ultimately, America's answer to the intolerant man is diversity, the very diversity which our heritage of religious freedom has inspired.” - Robert F. KennedyTo effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. - Tony Robbins Quotations Reference: http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_diversity.html
62 I thank the CAST organization for their many resources. In addition, I thank you very much for your attention to this presentationon Universal Design for Learning. Henry Briggs
63 References: The Access Center. Universal Design for Learning. Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8. The Access Center.. CAST. http://www.cast.org on 7/13/10 American Printing House for the Blind. www.aph.org on 7/15 American Foundation for the Blind. www.afb.org Booksharewww.bookshare.org Chafee Amendment. http://www.loc.gov/nls/reference/factsheets/copyright.html Children’s Literature Web Guide http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~dkbrown Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky. Educational Psychology. http://www.education.uiowa.edu/resources/tep/eportfolio/07p075folder/Piaget_Vygotsky.htm Copyright Central http://www.copyrightcentral.org/ Copyright and fair use guidelines for teacherhttp://www.mediafestival.org/copyrightchart.html Diversity Quotations Reference: http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_diversity.html eReaderhttp://www.cast.org/ereader eText Spider. CAST. http://www.cast.org/udl/index.cfm?i=1300 Freedom Scientific Text-to-Speech Tools. http://www.cast.org/research/udl Graphic Organizer. http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/ Graphic Organizer.. CAST.. http://www.cast.org/ncac/GO article Graphic Organizers a literature review. Tracey Hall and Nicole Strangman. http://www.cast.org/ncac/index.cfm?i=3015 7/13/10. IDEA ‘97 Regulations. http://www2.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/Policy/IDEA/regs.html on 7/7/10 Inspiration. http://www.inspiration.com/tutorials/index.cfm?fuseaction=insp 7/12/10. Internet Public Library http://www.ipl.org on 7/14/10 Japanese Technical Engineer with Cerebral Palsy Works Effectively and Productively Using Her Computer, Assistive Technology, and Built-in Windows Accessibility Options Case Study of AyakaoNakaura. http://www.microsoft.com/enable/casestudy/oki.aspx The Jigsaw Classroom http://www.jigsaw.org/ 7/10/10. The K-8 Access Center at AIR http://www.k8accesscenter.org on 7/9/10 Legal Issues. www.loc.gov/nls/reference/factsheets/copyright.htmlon 7/12/10
64 References Continued National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials. http://aim.cast.org on 7/13/10 National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, The Library of Congress. Individual application for Free Library Service. http://www.loc.gov/nls/pdf/digiappenglish.pdf on 7/11/10 Natural Reader . **http://www.naturalreaders.com/download.htm** on 7/12/10 No Child Left Behind. U.S. Department of Education. http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.html on 7/10/10 Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504: Update 2001 http://ericec.org/digests/e606.html on 7/5/10 NLS Factsheets: Copyright Law Amendment, 1996: PL 104-197 http://www.loc.gov/nls/reference/factsheets/copyright.html 7/7/10 Professional Development Resource Center. http://www.inspiration.com/prodev/index.cfm on 7/11/10 Project Gutenberg http://promo.net/pg/ on 7/7/10 Recording for the Blind and Dyslexic. www.rfbd.org on 7/6/10 Seven architectural Universal Design Principles .http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/univ_design/princ_overview.htm 7/8/10 Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). U.S. Department of Education. http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html on 7/10/10 OmniPage. Optical Character Recognition (OCR). http://www.scansoft.com/omnipage/7/6/10 TextBridge Pro. Optical Character Recognition (OCR). http://www.scansoft.com/textbridge/ 7/6/10 UDL Toolkits: Digital Content in the Classroom. http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/toolkits/tk_introduction.cfm?tk_id=41 on 7/8/10 United States Copyright Office http://www.loc.gov/copyright/ 7/9/10 Using UDL to Set Clear Goals http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ideas/tes/chapter5.cfm7/8/10 Universal Design for Learning (UDL). CAST. http://www.cast.org/udl on 7/7/10 Universal Design Principles .Ron Mace .http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/center/history/ronmace.htm on 7/7/10 Universal Library http://www.ul.cs.cmu.edu/html/index.html on 7/9/10 University of Virginia Electronic Text Center http://etext.lib.virginia.edu on 7/7/10