Hanipsych, marita confilcts


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Hanipsych, marita confilcts

  1. 1. Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture Prof. Hani Hamed Dessoki, M.D.Psychiatry Prof. Psychiatry Chairman of Psychiatry Department Beni Suef University Supervisor of Psychiatry Department El-Fayoum University APA member
  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction • Normal Family Development • Characteristics of “happy” couples • Domestic Violence in a Sample of Egyptian Female Psychiatric Patients (Pilot Study) • Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture
  3. 3. •‫لقب‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫بمصر‬ ‫وصلت‬ ‫الطالق‬ ‫معدالت‬‫األولى‬ ‫الدولة‬‫يخص‬ ‫فيما‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫على‬ ‫القرار‬ ‫واتخاذ‬ ‫دعم‬ ‫معلومات‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫عن‬ ‫صادرة‬ ‫دراسة‬ ‫بحسب‬ ،‫الطالق‬ ‫معدالت‬ ‫معدال‬ ‫ارتفاع‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫أوضحت‬ ‫كما‬ ،‫العام‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫بداية‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الوزراء‬ ‫لمجلس‬ ‫التابع‬‫ت‬ ‫من‬ ‫الماضية‬ ً‫ا‬‫عام‬ ‫الخمسين‬ ‫خالل‬ ‫الطالق‬7%‫إلى‬40%‫المطلقات‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫ووصل‬ ، ‫إلى‬ ً‫ا‬‫تقريب‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫فى‬2.5‫صادمة‬ ‫جاءت‬ ‫التى‬ ‫اإلحصائية‬ ‫وهى‬ ،‫مطلقة‬ ‫مليون‬ ً‫ا‬‫قديم‬ ‫مصر‬ ‫عرفتها‬ ‫التى‬ ‫المستقرة‬ ‫واألسرة‬ ‫الزوجية‬ ‫الحياة‬ ‫هيكل‬ ‫لتحطم‬‫واختفت‬ ، ‫االجتماعية‬ ‫المشكالت‬ ‫من‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫ظل‬ ‫فى‬ ‫اليوم‬. ،‫الخميس‬26‫سبتمبر‬2013-01:21
  4. 4. Marriage and Partnership • Marriage is a legal, lasting union that is created in a public ritual
  5. 5. Normal Family Development • Satisfying relationships: balance between giving and getting. There is “a high ratio of benefits relative to costs”. • Critical influences on relationship satisfaction: • affection • communication • child care • Conflict resolution seems to be one of the most critical skills associated with family harmony.
  6. 6. Understanding Marital Conflicts • Marital conflicts combine problems of communication, alienation or some threat to the relationships security which lead to high anxiety and erosion of the marital system. • Feelings of neglect, disrespect, unloved, anger, loneliness, abandonment and growing feelings of inadequacy all contribute to the breakdown in the marriage.
  7. 7. • Cause of Marital Discord: • Receiving too little reinforcement from the marriage. • Two few needs given marital reinforcement. • Marital reinforcement no longer provides satisfaction. • New behaviors are not reinforced. • One spouse gives more reinforcement than he or she receives. • Marriage interferes with extramarital sources of satisfaction. • Communication about potential sources of satisfaction is not adequate. • Aversive control (nagging, crying, withdrawing, or threatening) predominates over positive reinforcement.
  8. 8. Development of Behavior Disorders (cont.) • Distressed marriages include fewer rewarding exchanges and more punishing exchanges. • “Spouses typically reciprocate their partners’ use of punishment, and a vicious cycle develops”. • Parents who respond aversively to children are likely to have aversive responses reciprocated.
  9. 9. UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY • Most important function is socialization • Process by which children acquire the beliefs, motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate in their society
  10. 10. UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY • The Family as a Social System • Parents influence children • Children influence behavior of their parents • Families are networks of reciprocal relationships • Happily married mothers are more likely to have securely attached children • Children do best when couples coparent
  11. 11. Characteristics of “happy” couples • Characteristics: • foundation of affection and friendship • "validation sequences“ • ability to resolve disagreements • “positive sentiment override” • a 5 to 1(or better) compliment -criticism ratio is optimal • as the ratio decreases, marriage satisfaction decreases • Amount of conflict relatively unimportant (all relationships have conflict)
  12. 12. Distressed couples • Engage in a wide range of destructive fighting techniques • Personal attacks (name calling) • Dredging up the past • Losing focus (…and the “kitchen sink”) • Negative behaviors • Criticism (more common in women) • Defensiveness • Withdrawal (more common in men) • Contempt
  13. 13. The Workaholic as Parent • Often preoccupied with their own thoughts, “mentally absent” • Always “rushing around”, irritable, cranky, lacking humor • Focused on “adult pursuits”: colleagues, intellect, ‘trying to earn a living’ • Involvement with the family is on their own terms • Child tries to become like the parent in order to win their love and approval • Child measures his worth based on what he does, not by who he is…can never meet parent’s expectations
  14. 14. The Workaholic…in Love • WA usually demand a great deal of their marital partner (understanding, patience, deferral of needs, “adjusting”) • WA tend to avoid confrontation & engage in “silent treatment” • WA may engage in extramarital affairs, particularly with an office-mate • WA may develop alcoholism or substance abuse out of unresolved emotional issues & as a coping mechanism to relax, discharge emotional tension
  15. 15. Issues that lower the divorce rate: • First marriage • Higher education (college and above) • Married in 20s or 30s (not teens) • Not lived with many partners prior to marriage • Religious convictions
  16. 16. Domestic Violence in a Sample of Egyptian Female Psychiatric Patients (Pilot Study) Mahmoud El Batrawy*, Mostafa Shaheen*, Noha Sabry*, Hani Hamed** * Prof. of Psychiatry Faculty of Medicine. Cairo University ** Associate Prof.of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine. Beni-Suef University Abstract Domestic violence is one of the most pervasive of all social problems, Domestic violence for women is violence perpetrated within relationships; this violence is much serious than violence perpetrated by a stranger. The hypothesis of this work is that domestic violence is a general health problem and not present particularly in psychiatric patients, the study aims at studying domestic violence in married female psychiatric patients. Method: Sixty Egyptian married females were included, 20 of them had the I.C.D.-10 diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, 20 with neurotic disorder and 20 control group. All groups were clinically and psychometrically assessed using clinical psychiatric sheet of Kasr El-Aini hospital. All participants were subjected to: Zung Self Rating Depression Scale, Locus of Control Scale, Esyenck Personality Questionnaire (E.P.Q) and a specially designed questionnaire to assess intimacy, and marital abuse or violence. Conclusion: Domestic violence occurring in female psychiatric patients is not higher than normal. In addition, despite abuse, Egyptian wives tend to see their husbands positively. EuropeanPsychiatry Volume 26, n° S1 page 1657 (2011 )
  17. 17. Social Symptoms of Marital Conflict • Decrease in social activities by one or both. Withdrawal from time spent with the family, opting for time in front of the television, or on the internet. • Problems with employment such as a job transfer, increased job responsibilities, tendency to set poor limits for work schedule, frequent job losses, and unemployment • Onset of chronic disability in the family • Extra-marital affairs • Financial problems • Forms of abuse, such as domestic violence or addictions. • Disturbed child relationships
  18. 18. Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture
  19. 19. ‫حاال‬‫ت‬‫مصر‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الطالق‬ •‫دراسة‬‫أخرى‬‫توضح‬‫ما‬‫وصلت‬‫إليه‬‫حالة‬‫الطالق‬‫فى‬،‫مصر‬‫هى‬‫الدراسة‬‫األخير‬‫ة‬ ‫التى‬‫صدرت‬‫عن‬‫مركز‬‫التعبئة‬‫العامة‬‫واإلحصاء‬‫أن‬‫مصر‬‫شهدت‬‫أكثر‬‫من‬75 ‫ألف‬‫حالة‬‫طالق‬‫فى‬‫العام‬‫الماضى‬‫فقط‬. •‫زيادة‬‫معدالت‬‫الطالق‬‫كظاهرة‬‫ال‬‫ترجع‬‫فى‬‫األساس‬‫إلى‬‫مرض‬‫نفسى‬‫أو‬‫تغيرا‬‫ت‬ ‫نفسية‬‫بقدر‬‫ما‬‫ترجع‬‫إلى‬‫تغيرات‬،‫اجتماعية‬‫واختالف‬‫فى‬‫تركيب‬‫المجت‬‫مع‬ ‫وطريقة‬‫تعامل‬‫األزواج‬‫مع‬‫المشاكل‬‫واختالف‬‫ردود‬‫األفعال‬‫عن‬،‫الماضى‬‫وأكبر‬ ‫هذه‬‫التغيرات‬‫وتأثيرها‬‫هو‬‫عدم‬‫تحمل‬‫المسئولية‬‫من‬‫الطرفين‬‫واعتبار‬‫الزوا‬‫ج‬ ‫فسحة‬‫أو‬‫لعبة‬‫تنتهى‬‫بتصاعد‬‫الخالفات‬‫أو‬،‫الملل‬‫على‬‫عكس‬‫الماضى‬. ،‫الخميس‬26‫سبتمبر‬2013-01:21
  20. 20. Understanding Marital Conflicts in Egyptian Culture • Many conflicts center on financial issues, parenting styles, sexual intimacy difficulties, and even differences in lifestyles. • A couple with marital conflicts may be contemplating divorce, even though they may never have verbalized it.