Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5

Dr. Hani Hamed Dessoki, M.D.Psychiatry
Prof. Psychiatry
Chairman of Psychiatry Department...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Replaces
Autistic disorder
Asperger’s disorder
Childhood disinteg...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Deficits in social communication/interaction
Restrictive/Repetiti...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Specifiers can describe variants
e.g., ASD
Without intellectual im...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Intellectual Disability
Term fixed by federal statute
(ICD-11: intellectual developmental di...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Communication Disorders
 ( formerly phonological disorder and stuttering)

Language Disorde...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
ADHD
Same criteria checklist, but expanded to
include examples
Age of onset “before 12 year...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISORDER
Umbrella of criteria
Specifiers for math, reading, written
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
MOTOR DISORDERS
Developmental Coordination Disorder
Stereotypic Movement Disorder
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Tic Disorders
Tourette’s,

Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal TD
Provisional TD (previous...
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
OTHER NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

Other ND
Unspecified ND
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative disorders in DSM-5

300.14 Dissociative identity disorder
300.12 Dissociative amnesia
Specify if:
300.13 ...
Major changes in dissociative disorders in
DSM-5 include the following:
1. derealization is included in the name and
symp...
Dissociative Identity Disorder

Changes in Criterion A:

1. Expanded - includes certain possession-form
phenomena and neu...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Substance-Related and Addictive
Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Substance Use Disorders
Substance-Induced Disorders
Substance Intoxication and Withdrawal
...
Caffeine-Related Disorders
Caffeine Intoxication
Caffeine Withdrawal
Other Caffeine-Induced Disorders
Unspecified Caf...
 Hallucinogen-Related Disorders
 Phencyclidine Use Disorder
 Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder
 Phencyclidine Intoxicati...
 Opioid-Related Disorders
 Opioid Use Disorder
 Opioid Intoxication
 Opioid Withdrawal
 Other Opioid-Induced Disorder...
Stimulant-Related Disorders
Stimulant Use Disorder
Stimulant Intoxication
Stimulant Withdrawal
Other Stimulant-Induce...
Other (or Unknown) Substance–Related
Disorders
Other (or Unknown) Substance Use Disorder
Other (or Unknown) Substance I...
Substance-Related and Addictive
Disorders
 DSM-5 consolidates substance abuse and dependence
into one disorder:
substance...
Substance-Related and Addictive
Disorders

New disorders in substance-related &
addictive disorders chapter of DSM-5:
Gam...
Substance-Related and Addictive
Disorders
Specifiers:
In DSM-5 severity for substance use disorders is
based on the numbe...
Substance-Related and Addictive
Disorders
In DSM-5 early remission is defined as at least 3 but
less then 12 months witho...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Feeding and Eating Disorders:
Feeding and Eating Disorders:

DSM IV-TR chapter “Disorder Usually First Diagnosed in
Infancy Childhood, or Adolescence” h...
Feeding and Eating Disorders:
Cont…

Pica and Rumination Disorder:
Criteria has been revised to allow diagnosis for indivi...
Feeding and Eating Disorders:
Cont…

Anorexia Nervosa:
The requirement for amenorrhea has been eliminated.
Clarity and gui...
Feeding and Eating Disorders:
Cont…

Bulimia Nervosa :
The only change is the reduction in the required minimum
average fr...
Feeding and Eating Disorders:
Cont…

Binge Eating Disorder:
Elevated to main body of manual from appendix B in
DSM-IV.
The...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Elimination Disorders:

No significant changes have been made to elimination
disorders.
The disorders in this chapter (enu...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Sleep-Wake Disorders:
Sleep-Wake Disorders:

Sleep disorder related to another mental disorder and
sleep disorder related to a general medical c...
Sleep-Wake Disorders:
Cont…

Narcolepsy:
Is now distinguished from other forms of
hypersomnolence.
Breathing-Related Sleep...
Sleep-Wake Disorders:
Cont…

Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders:
Subtypes expanded to include: advanced sleep phase
syn...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Sexual Dysfunctions
“a group of disorders that are characterized by
clinically significant disturbance in a person’s abili...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Gender Dysphoria
New diagnostic class in DSM-5
Reflects change in definition, emphasizes “gender
incongruence” rather than...
Gender Dysphoria
Is considered a multi-category concept, not
a dichotomy
Separate criteria sets are provided for
gender dy...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct
Disorders

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Criteria exhibited “with at least one
i...
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct
Disorders

Conduct Disorder
 Adds specifier “With limited prosocial emotions”

...
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct
Disorders

Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Verbal aggression 2x weekly for 3 mo...
Disruptive, Impulse-Control,
and Conduct Disorders

AntiSocial Personality Disorder
(criteria in PD chapter) “Dual coded”...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Neurocognitive Disorders:

Dementia and amnestic disorder are now included under
neurocognitive disorder (NCD).
Rationale:...
Neurocognitive Disorders:
Cont…

DSM-5 now recognizes a less severe level of cognitive
impairment, mild NCD, allowing a dx...
Neurocognitive Disorders:
Cont…

The DSM-5 also provides an updated listing of
neurocognitive domains to establish presenc...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Paraphilic Disorders
Distinguishes between paraphilic behaviors
(paraphilias), and paraphilic disorders.
A Paraphilic Di...
Paraphilic Disorders
Voyeuristic Disorder

nonconsenting person, or distress/ impairment

>18
 Specifier: controlled en...
Paraphilic Disorders
Frotteuristic disorder

Nonconsenting person, or distress/impairment
Specifier: controlled environm...
Paraphilic Disorders
Pedophilic Disorder
Acted on urges, or distress/impairment, or
interpersonal difficulty
Fetishistic ...
Paraphilic Disorders

Transvestic Disorder
No longer specifies “In a heterosexual male”

Specifiers:
(Gender Dysphoria n...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Other Mental Disorders
Four disorders in this chapter
“This residual category applies to presentation
of symptoms characte...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Medication-Induced Movement Disorders
and the Adverse Effects of Medication
These disorders are included in Section II of
...
22 Chapters:
1. Neurodevelopmental
Disorders
2. Schizophrenia Spectrum &
Other Psychotic Disorders
3. Bipolar & Related Di...
Other Conditions that may be a
Focus of Clinical Attention
“The conditions and problems listed in this chapter
are not men...
Other Conditions that may be a
Focus of Clinical Attention
Commonly referred to as “the V codes”
Child Maltreatment and Ne...
More radical criticisms
The extremely high rates of comorbidity (ranging
from dimensional diagnosis to various forms of
e...
Future Directions
Future directions
National Institute of Mental Health – “NIMH will be reorienting its research away from DSM categories,”
...
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  1. 1. Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 Dr. Hani Hamed Dessoki, M.D.Psychiatry Prof. Psychiatry Chairman of Psychiatry Department Beni Suef University Supervisor of Psychiatry Department El-Fayoum University APA member
  2. 2. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  3. 3. Neurodevelopmental Disorders
  4. 4. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Autistic Spectrum Disorder Replaces Autistic disorder Asperger’s disorder Childhood disintegrative disorder Pervasive developmental disorder NOS Rationale: Poor reliability in application of DSM criteria
  5. 5. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Autistic Spectrum Disorder Deficits in social communication/interaction Restrictive/Repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, activities Table for 3 levels of severity
  6. 6. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Autistic Spectrum Disorder Specifiers can describe variants e.g., ASD Without intellectual impairment without structural language impairment (Instead of Asperger’s)
  7. 7. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Intellectual Disability Term fixed by federal statute (ICD-11: intellectual developmental disorder). “Deficits… confirmed by assessment …testing..” instead of just IQ #.  Greater emphasis on adaptive functioning deficits Same severity specifiers: mild, moderate, severe, or profound Descriptive table for specifiers Under 5 years: “Global Developmental Delay”
  8. 8. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Communication Disorders  ( formerly phonological disorder and stuttering) Language Disorder, Speech Sound disorder, Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder (stuttering) Social (pragmatic) Communication Disorder-new  Impaired Social Nonverbal communication “not better explained by ASD”
  9. 9. Neurodevelopmental Disorders ADHD Same criteria checklist, but expanded to include examples Age of onset “before 12 years” (was 7) (Studies show emergence after greater challenge in school) Only 5-Symptom threshold for adults (17+) based on longitudinal studies Expect minimal increase in the prevalence of adult ADHD.
  10. 10. Neurodevelopmental Disorders SPECIFIC LEARNING DISORDER Umbrella of criteria Specifiers for math, reading, written
  11. 11. Neurodevelopmental Disorders MOTOR DISORDERS Developmental Coordination Disorder Stereotypic Movement Disorder
  12. 12. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Tic Disorders Tourette’s, Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal TD Provisional TD (previously“Transient”) Other Unspecified
  13. 13. Neurodevelopmental Disorders OTHER NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Other ND Unspecified ND
  14. 14. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  15. 15. Dissociative Disorders
  16. 16. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5 300.14 Dissociative identity disorder 300.12 Dissociative amnesia Specify if: 300.13 With dissociative fugue 300.6 Depersonalization/Derealization disorder 300.15 Other specified dissociative disorder 300.15 Unspecified dissociative disorder
  17. 17. Major changes in dissociative disorders in DSM-5 include the following: 1. derealization is included in the name and symptom structure of depersonalization/derealization disorder 2. dissociative fugue is now a specifier of dissociative amnesia rather than a separate diagnosis, 3. the criteria for dissociative identity disorder have been changed .
  18. 18. Dissociative Identity Disorder Changes in Criterion A: 1. Expanded - includes certain possession-form phenomena and neurological symptoms 2. specifically states that transitions in identity may be observable by others or self-reported Changes in Criterion B: 1. Persons with DID may have recurrent gaps in recall for everyday events, not just for traumatic experiences.
  19. 19. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  20. 20. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
  21. 21. Substance-Related Disorders Substance Use Disorders Substance-Induced Disorders Substance Intoxication and Withdrawal Substance/Medication-Induced Mental Disorders Alcohol-Related Disorders Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Intoxication Alcohol Withdrawal Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders Unspecified Alcohol-Related Disorder
  22. 22. Caffeine-Related Disorders Caffeine Intoxication Caffeine Withdrawal Other Caffeine-Induced Disorders Unspecified Caffeine-Related Disorder Cannabis-Related Disorders Cannabis Use Disorder Cannabis Intoxication Cannabis Withdrawal Other Cannabis-Induced Disorders Unspecified Cannabis-Related Disorder
  23. 23.  Hallucinogen-Related Disorders  Phencyclidine Use Disorder  Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder  Phencyclidine Intoxication  Other Hallucinogen Intoxication  Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder  Other Phencyclidine-Induced Disorders  Other Hallucinogen-Induced Disorders  Unspecified Phencyclidine-Related Disorder  Unspecified Hallucinogen-Related Disorder  Inhalant-Related Disorders  Inhalant Use Disorder  Inhalant Intoxication  Other Inhalant-Induced Disorders  Unspecified Inhalant-Related Disorder
  24. 24.  Opioid-Related Disorders  Opioid Use Disorder  Opioid Intoxication  Opioid Withdrawal  Other Opioid-Induced Disorders  Unspecified Opioid-Related Disorder  Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Related Disorders  Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Use Disorder  Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Intoxication  Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal  Other Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Disorders  Unspecified Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or AnxiolyticRelated Disorder
  25. 25. Stimulant-Related Disorders Stimulant Use Disorder Stimulant Intoxication Stimulant Withdrawal Other Stimulant-Induced Disorders Unspecified Stimulant-Related Disorder Tobacco-Related Disorders Tobacco Use Disorder Tobacco Withdrawal Other Tobacco-Induced Disorders Unspecified Tobacco-Related Disorder
  26. 26. Other (or Unknown) Substance–Related Disorders Other (or Unknown) Substance Use Disorder Other (or Unknown) Substance Intoxication Other (or Unknown) Substance Withdrawal Other (or Unknown) Substance–Induced Disorders Unspecified Other (or Unknown) Substance– Related Disorder Non-Substance-Related Disorders Gambling Disorder.
  27. 27. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders  DSM-5 consolidates substance abuse and dependence into one disorder: substance use disorder accompanied by criteria for: intoxication, withdrawal, substance-induced disorders, and unspecified related disorders.  Criteria are nearly identical to DSM-IV w/ exception of: -Recurrent substance-related legal problems criterion has been deleted from DSM-5. -And new criterion: craving, or a strong desire or urge to use a substance added.  The threshold is set at 2 or more criteria vs. 1 or more for abuse and 3 or more for dependence in the DSM-IV
  28. 28. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders New disorders in substance-related & addictive disorders chapter of DSM-5: Gambling Disorder (non-substance related disorder) Cannabis Withdrawal Caffeine Withdrawal * The dx of polysubstance dependence has been eliminated
  29. 29. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders Specifiers: In DSM-5 severity for substance use disorders is based on the number of criteria endorsed: -mild= 2-3 criteria -moderate = 4-5 criteria -Severe= 6 or more criteria The DSM-IV specifier for psychological subtype has been eliminated
  30. 30. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders In DSM-5 early remission is defined as at least 3 but less then 12 months without substance use disorder criteria (except craving). Sustained remission is defined as at least 12 months without criteria (except craving). New specifiers include: -in a controlled environment -on maintenance therapy
  31. 31. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  32. 32. Feeding and Eating Disorders:
  33. 33. Feeding and Eating Disorders: DSM IV-TR chapter “Disorder Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy Childhood, or Adolescence” has been eliminated. Therefore this chapter includes several disorders from DSM-IV “Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood”.
  34. 34. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Cont… Pica and Rumination Disorder: Criteria has been revised to allow diagnosis for individuals of all ages. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder: Previously feeding disorders of infancy or early childhood. Criteria is significantly expanded making it a broader category to capture a wider range of clinical presentations.
  35. 35. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Cont… Anorexia Nervosa: The requirement for amenorrhea has been eliminated. Clarity and guidance: how to judge if an individual is at “significantly low weight” has been added. Criterion B has been expanded to include not only “overtly expressed fear of weight gain” but also “persistent behavior that interferes w/ weight gain”.
  36. 36. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Cont… Bulimia Nervosa : The only change is the reduction in the required minimum average frequency of binge eating & inappropriate compensatory behavior frequency from twice to once weekly for 3 months.
  37. 37. Feeding and Eating Disorders: Cont… Binge Eating Disorder: Elevated to main body of manual from appendix B in DSM-IV. The only change is the minimum average frequency of binge eating required for diagnosis is once weekly over the last 3 months (identical to frequency criterion for bulimia nervosa).
  38. 38. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  39. 39. Elimination Disorders: No significant changes have been made to elimination disorders. The disorders in this chapter (enuresis & encopresis) were previously under “Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence” in DSM-IV and are now independent classifications in DSM-5.
  40. 40. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  41. 41. Sleep-Wake Disorders:
  42. 42. Sleep-Wake Disorders: Sleep disorder related to another mental disorder and sleep disorder related to a general medical condition have been removed. Insomnia Disorder: Previously named primary insomnia. Rationale: to avoid the differentiation between primary & secondary insomnia.
  43. 43. Sleep-Wake Disorders: Cont… Narcolepsy: Is now distinguished from other forms of hypersomnolence. Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders: • Now divided into 3 distinct disorders: obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea; central sleep apnea; and sleep related hypoventilation. Rationale: reflects the growing understanding of pathophysiology in these disorders.
  44. 44. Sleep-Wake Disorders: Cont… Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Subtypes expanded to include: advanced sleep phase syndrome; irregular sleep-wake type; and non-24 hr sleep wake type. * Jet lag has been removed. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Restless Legs Syndrome Both are now independent disorders.
  45. 45. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  46. 46. Sexual Dysfunctions “a group of disorders that are characterized by clinically significant disturbance in a person’s ability to respond sexually” In DSM -5 gender-specific sexual dysfunctions have been added For purpose of diagnostic precision -Criteria require a minimum duration of six months -Criteria for severity are more precisely defined as mild, moderate, or severe.
  47. 47. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  48. 48. Gender Dysphoria New diagnostic class in DSM-5 Reflects change in definition, emphasizes “gender incongruence” rather than cross-gender identification. In DSM-IV, three disparate diagnostic classes grouped in one chapter, “Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders” Gender Identity Disorder is neither a sexual dysfunction nor a paraphilia.
  49. 49. Gender Dysphoria Is considered a multi-category concept, not a dichotomy Separate criteria sets are provided for gender dysphoria in children, and in adolescents and adults Terminology changes include: -“the other sex” is replaced by “some alternative gender” -“gender” is used instead of “sex”
  50. 50. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  51. 51. Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders Oppositional Defiant Disorder Criteria exhibited “with at least one individual who is not a sibling” “Spiteful or vindictive twice in 6 months” Severity: Mild, moderate, severe <5years most days for 6 months; >5 years, weekly
  52. 52. Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders Conduct Disorder  Adds specifier “With limited prosocial emotions” Persistently in 12 months (2 of 4)  Lack of Remorse/ guilt  Callous—lack of empathy  Unconcerned about performance  Shallow or deficient affect
  53. 53. Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders Intermittent Explosive Disorder Verbal aggression 2x weekly for 3 months Destruction or assault: 3x in 12 months 6 years + Not premeditated
  54. 54. Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders AntiSocial Personality Disorder (criteria in PD chapter) “Dual coded” Pyromania Kleptomania Other DICCD Unspecified DICCD
  55. 55. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  56. 56. Neurocognitive Disorders: Dementia and amnestic disorder are now included under neurocognitive disorder (NCD). Rationale: dementia has been associated w/ the older population whereas NCD will capture etiologies occurring in younger adults as well. The term dementia is not excluded from use in etiological subtypes.
  57. 57. Neurocognitive Disorders: Cont… DSM-5 now recognizes a less severe level of cognitive impairment, mild NCD, allowing a dx of a less disabling syndrome that may be a focus of concern and treatment. Diagnostic criteria are provided for both mild NCD and major NCD, followed by diagnostic criteria for the different etiological subtypes.
  58. 58. Neurocognitive Disorders: Cont… The DSM-5 also provides an updated listing of neurocognitive domains to establish presence of NCD, level of impairment (mild or major), and etiological subtypes. Delirium: Criteria for delirium has been updated and clarified to reflect currently available evidence.
  59. 59. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  60. 60. Paraphilic Disorders Distinguishes between paraphilic behaviors (paraphilias), and paraphilic disorders. A Paraphilic Disorder : "paraphilia that is currently causing distress or impairment to the individual or a paraphilia whose satisfaction has entailed personal harm, or risk of harm, to others." Demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual preferences and behaviors
  61. 61. Paraphilic Disorders Voyeuristic Disorder nonconsenting person, or distress/ impairment >18  Specifier: controlled environment or in remission Exhibitionistic Disorder nonconsenting person, or distress/ impairment Specifiers: children, adults, or both; controlled environment or in remission
  62. 62. Paraphilic Disorders Frotteuristic disorder Nonconsenting person, or distress/impairment Specifier: controlled environment or in remission Sexual Masochism disorder Specifier: with asphyxiophilia; controlled environment or in remission Sexual Sadism disorder Nonconsenting person, or distress/impairment Specifier: with asphyxiophilia; controlled environment or in remission
  63. 63. Paraphilic Disorders Pedophilic Disorder Acted on urges, or distress/impairment, or interpersonal difficulty Fetishistic Disorder (Add to “nonliving objects”): “highly specific focus on nongenital body parts” Specifiers: Body part(s),nonliving object(s) Other controlled environment or in remission
  64. 64. Paraphilic Disorders Transvestic Disorder No longer specifies “In a heterosexual male” Specifiers: (Gender Dysphoria now separate section) With fetishism With autogynephilia controlled environment or in remission
  65. 65. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  66. 66. Other Mental Disorders Four disorders in this chapter “This residual category applies to presentation of symptoms characteristic of mental disorders, which cause clinically significant distress or impairment, but do not meet the full criteria for any other mental disorder” -Other Specified Mental Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition -Unspecified Mental Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition -Other Specified Mental Disorder -Unspecified Mental Disorder
  67. 67. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  68. 68. Medication-Induced Movement Disorders and the Adverse Effects of Medication These disorders are included in Section II of DSM-5 “because of the importance of 1.The management by medication of mental disorders or other medical conditions 2.The differential diagnosis of mental disorders”
  69. 69. 22 Chapters: 1. Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2. Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders 3. Bipolar & Related Disorders 4. Depressive Disorders 5. Anxiety Disorders 6. Obs-Compulsive & Related 7. Trauma- & Stressor-Related 8. Dissociative Disorders 9. Somatic Symptom Disorders 10.Feeding & Eating Disorders 11.Elimination Disorders 12.Sleep/Wake Disorders 13. Sexual Dysfunctions 14. Gender Dysphoria 15. Disruptive, Impulse-Control & Conduct Disorders 16. Substance Related & Addictive Disorders 17. Neurocognitive Disorders 18. Personality Disorders 19. Paraphilic Disorders 20. Other Mental Disorders 21. Medication-induced Movement…Med Effects 22. Other Conditions (v codes)
  70. 70. Other Conditions that may be a Focus of Clinical Attention “The conditions and problems listed in this chapter are not mental disorders.” “They may be included in the medical record as useful information that may affect client’s care. “ Inclusion in the DSM-5 draws attention to the scope of issues encountered in clinical practice
  71. 71. Other Conditions that may be a Focus of Clinical Attention Commonly referred to as “the V codes” Child Maltreatment and Neglect Adult Maltreatment and Neglect Relational Problems Educational Problems Occupational Problems Housing Problems Economic Problems
  72. 72. More radical criticisms The extremely high rates of comorbidity (ranging from dimensional diagnosis to various forms of etiopathogenetic diagnosis). The financial association of DSM-5 panel members with industry continues to be a concern for financial conflict of interest. Of the DSM-5 task force members, 69% report having ties to the pharmaceutical industry, an increase from the 57% of DSM-IV task force members.
  73. 73. Future Directions
  74. 74. Future directions National Institute of Mental Health – “NIMH will be reorienting its research away from DSM categories,” towards it’s own research oriented criteria. “NIMH has launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project to transform diagnosis by incorporating genetics, imaging, cognitive science, and other levels of information to lay the foundation for a new classification system.” http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2013/transformingdiagnosis.shtml NIMH also stated that future research projects utilizing DSM-5 criteria will likely not be funded, and researchers will need to use RDoC’s to gain funding.
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