-is any process in which energy emitted by one body travels through a medium or through space, ultimately to be absorbed by another body.
- is used for cancer and for blood disorders such as leukemia. Formerly it was used for overactive thyroids, acne, and benign tumors, but complications with more severe skin diseases and radiation-induced cancers caused almost complete abandonment of these procedures.
- is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. The most well known application of ultrasound is its use in sonography to produce pictures of fetuses in the human womb. There are a vast number of other applications as well.
<ul><li>is concerned with the use of various imaging modalities to aid in the diagnosis of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>-can be further divided into multiple sub-specialty areas. Interventional radiology, one of these sub-specialty areas, uses the imaging modalities of diagnostic radiology to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures. </li></ul>
This positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the brain shows the activity of brain cells in the resting state and during three types of auditory stimulation. PET uses radioactive substances introduced into the brain to measure such brain functions as cerebral metabolism, blood flow and volume, oxygen use, and the formation of neurotransmitters. This imaging method collects data from many different angles, feeding the information into a computer that produces a series of cross-sectional.
- is used in eye surgery to correct this woman’s vision problem.
- development of crop mutants with desirable agronomic traits and good eating quality (low to intermediate amylose content and high protein content).
A nuclear technique using the fallout isotope present in most soil surfaces – cesium-137- is being used by PNRI in its study on estimating soil erosion rates in agricultural areas. The technique involves the measurement of cesium-137 in soil samples using a high purity Germanium detector. These measurements are then converted to estimates of soil erosion/sedimentation rates using calibration models.
The need to develop effective and low cost procedures in insect handling for large scale operation will also be considered in the improvement of mass production system.
- improving the breeding and nutritional management of dairy cattle through radioimmunoassay (a nuclear technique of measuring reproductive hormone) and the use of urea molasses mineral block UMMB) as food supplement.
The ionization smoke detector makes use of the ( alpha) radiation emitted by Americium-241, which has a half- life of 432 years.
This makes use of the penetrating property of beta radiation and helps to control the thickness of papers or tyres in factories. The piece of paper (or tyre) is put between a beta source and a detector. If excessive radiation is detected, the paper (or tyre) is made too thin and vice versa.
Food Irradiation- Certain types of food are exposed to beta radiation or [gamma rays] to kill the microbes and bacteria on them. Potatoes, onions and garlic are irradiated to prevent sprouting; the shelf life of strawberries, mangoes and papayas can be increased by irradiation; Salmonella and Listeria, which are infectious bacteria, can be reduced to harmless level in meat, fish and poultry by food irradiation. However, irradiated food has led to a lot of controversies and therefore is not yet generally accepted and available to the public.
Delicate surgical instruments such as cardiac pacemakers cannot be sterilized by heat. They are either treated by ethylene oxide or by radiation. Disposable items such as scalpels, gloves and syringes are also treated in bulk by radiation.
Leakages of underground pipes can be detected by putting certain radioactive material into the pipe and detecting the radiation with a detector. Area in which excess radiation is detected corresponds to area of pipe leakage.
Effects on the Economy <ul><li>The quality of the products will improve </li></ul><ul><li>The needs of the people will be provided </li></ul><ul><li>More food supply </li></ul><ul><li>The health of the labor force is assured </li></ul>
Bibliography… <ul><li>* Espirilla, Et Al. Dynamic Physics .Diliman </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing.1970.pp.107- 109 </li></ul><ul><li>* Application of Radiation. 30 Jan. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic- </li></ul><ul><li>ref/teachers/unit2.html> </li></ul><ul><li>Programs and Projects . 1 Feb. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http:/www.pnri.gov.ph> </li></ul>
GROUP V IV- Aquino Ahmelia Ahmed Alrashdi John Luke Gregorio Princess Charianne Marcos Jan Carlo Espinueva Maureen Elaine Mosquerra Rachel May Villanueva Catherine Louise Yambao Rachel Dela Cruz Denise Concio