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Boreal comes from the Greek word meaning NORTH. Largest terrestrial biome on earth Boreal forest ortaiga is a world of wood and water that covers over11% of the Earth’s land area
Boreal forests are confined in the northern hemisphere. This extends from Scandavia, through European Russia, across Siberia, to central Africa and across central Canada in a band between 50° and 65° N latitude.
There is no comparable zone in the southern hemisphere, probably because there is little land area there with the proper climate (cold temperatures in the southern hemisphere being moderated by close proximity to the sea; at highlatitudes in the southern hemisphere most land is relatively close to the ocean, unlike the northernhemisphere. Also, circulation of the oceans in the southern hemisphere is not blocked by the continental land masses to the same extent as it is in the north.
Soil Low fertility Thin Acidic Low temperatures and low pH impede decomposition of plant litter and slow therate of soil building. Nutrients are largely tied up in a thick layer of plant litter that carpets the forestfloor. Most trees in the boreal forest have a dense network of shallow roots that, alongwith associated mycorrhizal fungi, tap directly into the nutrients bound up in thislitter layer. Topsoil which underlies the litter layer is thin. Subsoil in permanently frozen in a layer of permafrost that may be several metersthick in boreal forests with extreme climates.
Adaptations Conical shape - promotes shedding of snow and prevents loss of branches. Needleleafs - narrow leaves reduce surface area through which water can be lost (transpired), especially in the winter when the frozen ground preventsplants from replenishing their water supply. The needles of boreal conifers also have thick waxy coatings--a waterproof cuticle--in which stomata are sunken and protected from drying winds.Dark color - the dark green of spruce and fir needleshelps the foliage absorb maximum heat from the sun and begin photosynthesis as early as possible. Evergreen habit - retention of foliage allows plants to photosynthesize as soon as temperatures permit in spring, rather than having to waste time in the short growing season merely growing leaves.
American Black BearScientific Name: Ursus americanus The black bears coat is well adapted to the cold weather of winter because of its many layers of shaggy fur. Its claws are also very adapted to its environment, this is because they are just the right length to climb the many trees that surround its forest home. This bear also hibernates to avoid having to find food in the winter.BobcatScientific Name: Felis rufus The bobcat has two color changes per year. The fur of the bobcat is striped, blotchy, and dense; tawny gray for t he winter and reddish brown for the summer. The baby bobcat has spotted fur that disappears when they get older.
Northern Lynx Scientific Name: Lynx canadensisIt has eyes that provide excellent vision for the night, and its feet have furcovered pads and are silent in the snow so it can sneak up on small prey. It isntvery fast so it has to ambush an animal instead of chasing it down.
Wolverine Scientific Name: Gulo luscus The wolverine is powerfully built and is well adapted to living in the cold. It has very strong jaws that can bite through frozen meat and bone. Their feet also act as snowshoes and keep them from sinking into deep snow.The Taiga Biome is populated with special animals that all havetechniques of keeping warm and dry or away from the harsh coldnessof the Taiga.
Deforestation - Current extensive logging in boreal forests maysoon cause their disappearance.Acid rain is also causing significant problems for the Taiga forests.Acid rain is rain that is more acidic than normal. Global Warming - Biologists and scientists think temperature changes over the next century may occur at rates 15 to 50 times faster than historical averages.