POLITEKNIK IBRAHIM SULTAN HH514 NUTRITION TITLE:PROTEIN group :M. ZAIDI ZARIZAT BIN ABD. RAHMAN F2026 FARHANA BINTI HANAPI F2023 NUR ALIAH BINTI F2016TN. SH. MARLIANI BINTI TN. AHMAD F2028
DEFINITIONS OF PROTEIN Proteins are one of the essential building blocks of the human body. They provide amino acids, which are a nutritional requirement of the body to produce its own proteins and a variety of nitrogen-based molecules. It is common for programs to recommend a minimum of 50 grams of protein per day to maintain healthy levels. Proteins vary in structure as well as function. They are constructed from a set of 20 amino acids and have distinct three-dimensional shapes.
FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN Antibodies - are specialized proteins involved in defending the body from antigens (foreign invaders). One way antibodies destroy antigens is by immobilizing them so that they can be destroyed by white blood cells. Enzymes - are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions. They are often referred to as catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. Examples include the enzymes lactase and pepsin. Lactase breaks down the sugar lactose found in milk. Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that works in the stomach to break down proteins in food. Hormonal Proteins - are messenger proteins which help to coordinate certain bodily activities. Examples include insulin, oxytocin, and somatotropin. Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by controlling the blood-sugar concentration. Oxytocin stimulates contractions in females during childbirth. Somatotropin is a growth hormone that stimulates protein
FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN Contractile Proteins - are responsible for movement. Examples include actin and myosin. These proteins are involved in muscle contraction and movement. Structural Proteins - are fibrous and stringy and provide support. Examples include keratin, collagen, and elastin. Keratins strengthen protective coverings such as hair, quills, feathers, horns, and beaks. Collagens and elastin provide support for connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments. Storage Proteins - store amino acids. Examples include ovalbumin and casein. Ovalbumin is found in egg whites and casein is a milk-based protein. Transport Proteins - are carrier proteins which move molecules from one place to another around the body. Examples include hemoglobin and cytochromes. Hemoglobin transports oxygen through the blood. Cytochromes operate in the electron transport chain as electron carrier proteins.
EXCESSES OF PROTEINWeight gain Excess calories from excess protein may be stored as body fat.Intestinal irritation Too much protein has been linked to constipation, diarrhea and/or excessive gas.Dehydration Experts advise drinking a half gallon of water per 100 grams of protein.Seizures Seizures have been linked to excess protein intake but only if insufficient amounts of water are consumed.Nutritional Just focusing on protein intake causes some highdeficiencies protein dieters to overlook other nutrients. Ensure that your diet is balanced and nutritious.Kidney problem Some believe that high protein and low carbohydrate diets when done long term can possibly cause kidney issues, but more research needs to be done.
EXCESSES OF PROTEINRisk of heart This is a bit misleading. A healthy high-protein dietdisease is not associated with heart disease. But if you are getting all of your protein from unhealthy sources that are loaded in unhealthy fats, obviously the risk for heart disease will increase.Increase in liverenzymes.While this list may seem alarming, it’s important to remember that many ofthese side effects are only associated with highly excessive protein dietscoupled with unbalanced nutrition and/or dehydration. And this list pales incomparison to the side effects of protein deficiency, which includes generalillness, loss of hair, loss of sleep, poor coordination, vision problems, etc.The average person needs about .4 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight. Active individuals may require .6 grams. People that exercisefrequently and at a high intensity – like myself – require about a gram perpound of body weight. Bodybuilders and athletes may require even more.SOURCE : DAVEYWAVEYFITNESS.COM
WHAT CAN HAPPEN WHEN THERES NOT ENOUGH PROTEIN IN THE BODY FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME? Hypoglycemia, lowered blood pressure, anemia, water retention, muscle deterioration, frequent colds, wounds take longer to heal, failing vision, constipation, illness of liver and kidneys, sluggishness, stomach ulcers, nerve weakness, bad circulation, and raised cholesterol. The amount of protein varies with each individual. One way to estimate your daily requirement of Protein is to take what you weigh and divide it by two. You might want to consider that the harder a person works the more Protein is needed. Jobs that require heavy lifting definitely need extra protein.
WHAT ARE COMPLETEPROTEIN? They are Amino Acids. Amino Acids are either essential or non-essential. Twenty-two Amino Acids are known and Nineteen are essential. Any food that doesnt contain all the essential Amino Acids is considered incomplete. Foods that are considered Complete Proteins are soybeans, cottage cheese, eggs, wheat germ, milk, cheeses, Swiss or American, fish, and brewers yeast. You dont have to eat meat to get protein. In fact, vegetarians can have superb health. Vegetable Proteins are found in a few types of nuts, beans grasses, and peas, but are most predominate in Seeds, Legumes, and Sprouts.
WHAT ARE COMPLETEPROTEIN? There are people who find protein difficult to digest. Carnivores might find this more of a problem. Once meat leaves the stomach it has to rot before it can be of any use in the body. Even those non-meat eaters who eat cheese have found that cheese takes at least nine hours to digest in the stomach. Hydrochloric Acid released in the stomach is key to proper digestion of Protein. If your stomach isnt making enough Hydrochloric Acid you might assume you have heartburn and turn to an antacid for relief. Antacids only work if your stomach is producing too much Hydrochloric Acid. If after taking an antacid you find that it doesnt work you can buy Hydrochloric Acid pills. Many things can bring about a deficiency of Hydrochloric Acid such as lack of a mineral or vitamin. Worrying, arguing, and everyday stresses can all be a cause of poor production of Hydrochloric Acid. SOURCE : VOICES.YAHOO.COM/Leanna Teaque
SUMMARY Proteins serve various functions in the body. The structure of a protein determines its function. For example, collagen has a super- coiled helical shape. It is long, stringy, strong, and resembles a rope. This structure is great for providing support. Hemoglobin on the other hand, is a globular protein that is folded and compact. Its spherical shape is useful for maneuvering through blood vessels. sources: ABOUT.COM.BIOLOGY )