CHECHNYA-<br />a decade of conflict<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHPJZgZXbB0<br />
A brief history<br />Chechnya<br />Chechnya is a small republic located in South Eastern Europe. Since its beginning it has been subject to rule via external forces, most prominently Russia. In November 1920 it was named an autonomous region for the first time. In WW11 Stalin took back control of Chechnya and ruled it until 1936 when Nikkita Khrushchev named it a republic once more. The first conflict between Russia and Chechnya began in 1991. <br />
2. ‘The First Chechen war’<br />Dudayev led in an anti-Russian nationalistic way which flared anger and a creation of resistance groups within Chechnya. These groups along with the help of the Russian army attempted to overthrow him but were unsuccessful. And so on December 11th 1994 the Russian army invaded. The war that followed lasted until 1996 and is known as the ‘First Chechnya war’. Russia were again unsuccessful in this war and in 1996 Chechnya became completely independent and was recognised as the ‘Chechen Republic of Ichkeria’. However the conflict did not end here.<br />Overview of the conflict<br />1. Coup<br />Despite the fact that Chechnya was named a republic it was not granted sovereignty and never recognised under Krushchevs communist rule as an autonomous state. So in August of 1991 DzhokharDudayev (Chechen political leader) led a coup against the Communist Russian government who had control over Chechnya at the time, the coup succeeded and in October Dudayev was named Prime Minister. In November of the same year he declared Chechnya an independent state. <br />3.‘The Second Chechen war’ <br />In August 1999 the ‘Second Chechnyen War’ began. In this year terrorist attacks on Moscow had been going on and Russia blamed Chechnya. In August of 1999 Russian troops were sent into Chechnya to attempt to take back the newly formed nation. In May 2000 Russia established direct rule of Chechnya but were unable to defeat rebels in mountainous regions of Chechnya and fighting continued. To this day fighting and terrorist attacks on Russia continue and troops continue to fight in Chechnya using the ‘War on Terror’ to mask their true agenda of regaining control over Chechnya.<br />Chechen troops take down a Russian helicopter during the first war<br />
Where the conflict occurred<br />Image obtained from: http://sites.google.com/site/militaryconflictsinchechnya/home/presentationofchechnya<br />
Cause of the conflict<br />The reason that Chechnya has experienced two wars and numerous terrorist movements within 10 years is because the Russian Federation is unwilling to recognise it as an autonomous state. In 1991 the people of Chechnya held a coup against the communist Russian government and declared their nation independent for the first time. The first war in Chechnya began just three years after this when Chechnya refused to surrender to the Russian Federation. Russia invaded with the intent of taking back the nation, the people of Chechnya fought back and a two year war ensued. Despite the war ending in 1996, internal terrorist movements went on and attacks on Moscow spurred Russia to again invade in 1999. This war was presented by the Russians as a war on terror but as was the case in 1994, Russia had the ultimate attempt of taking Chechnya back and avoiding its independence from the Russian Federation. <br />
Nature of the conflict<br />Nationalism:<br />The Chechnya conflict has been spurred by a strong nationalist movement among the people. Despite strong manipulation from the Russian Federation, the people of Chechnya have remained strong willed in their fight for independence. <br />Terrorism <br />Terrorism is also a cause for conflict within and around Chechnya. Chechnya rebels have in the past and continue to hold terrorist movements against the Russian people. The 1999 war was spurred by terrorist attacks in Moscow and other Russian cities.<br />
Resolutions?<br />Second Chechen war: <br />When the second Chechen war began in 1999 the nation still had no official title. This second war lasted much longer than the first and violence is still ongoing. There have been numerous official end dates of the war and yet fighting continues. Russia maintains that the war ended in 2002 and any conflict past that date has been for peacekeeping purposes, while Chechen rebels say the war is ongoing. The government in Chechnya are no longer anti-Russian nationalists and the fight for independence has been reduced to separist rebels fighting guerrilla warfare in the mountains of north Chechnya. Despite the withdrawal of almost all of the Russian troops in 2009, Chechnya remains a war torn nation suffering from humanitarian, unemployment, homelessness and terrorism issues.<br />First Chechen war: <br />Chechnya has been in conflict for over a decade now and peaceful resolutions have still not been met. The 1994-1996 war saw Chechnya victorious but it was not granted independence. Russia refused to acknowledge its autonomy and Chechnya refused Federal authority. This left Chechnya in a state of disarray with human rights abuses and terrorism becoming widespread.<br />Russian troops leaving Grozny in 1996<br />
Timeline of events-<br />Created on ‘Timetoast’<br />http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/chechen-conflict-1991-2009<br />
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