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  • This presentation is based on a workshop taught by Heidi Hayes Jacobs, at Teachers College, in July of 1999.
  • Being a public declaration of expectations makes it not hidden, and especially not dependent on teacher mood swings.
  • The parts of the rubric call attention to parts of my assignment so I can revise (improve) it. Rubric comes from the Latin: Rubrica, which means: highlight in red, used to call attention to something (not to mark errors).
  • Grids, feedback systems, surveys should have EVEN numbers of choices, so people are forced to make a choice. If you use ODD number of choices, people will tend to chose a middle one! Results will not be as accurate.
  • This is the hardest part! It tells the student what the levels of performance should look like very clearly.
  • Model aspects (qualitative) you want students to learn (such as something insightful and/or original).
  • You don’t have to use the rubric all at once! You can do some parts at a time with students.
  • We need to teach the kids to use the rubrics as a TOOL (not only as an evaluation). Create a habit of mind = self-assess.
  • Checklists do not reflect developmental—indicates only presence or lack of a trait
  • An overall judgment. Generally speaking, not recommended for classroom use because of diagnostic limitations. If our goal is to give students feedback on performance, the more specific, the better.
  • Analytic and holistic can be combined—sum of analytical scores =integration or holistic score. Or add scores and take average for holistic representation
  • Analytic and holistic can be combined—sum of analytical scores =integration or holistic score. Or add scores and take average for holistic representation
  • If you’re going to invest the effort necessary to make a good rubric, be sure that you can use it in a range of situations. Make a template for kind of product or performance. Adjust accordingly. Departmental, grade level, cross-curricular input Consistency of expectation, language; track students across performances
  • This is the other extreme of too many task-specific rubrics. A project rubric should not be used to assess everything from a digital montage to a PowerPoint presentation on market economics. Yet, there are excellent resources available for you to adapt. Evaluate the resources available on the Web—don’t just use one because it is “free” and don’t think because it’s in a textbook that it is good! Find the middle ground—a template that you can adjust and tweak according to the specifications of a given task.
  • This includes educational jargon! Avoid sole adjective descriptors such as “inadequate” and avoid adjectives of “averageness”—below, above. The lowest score should describe what a novice, not “bad” performance looks like. Wordiness—often happens when groups devise—includes a little something for everyone
  • What’s important?
  • Not so much an issue of diction as describing the concrete behaviors and evidence of critical thinking Creativity= uses ideas from others (Developing), modifies ideas implemented by others (Basic), composition is self-generated (Proficient), composition is unique and imaginative(Advanced)--Myra
  • Not so much an issue of diction as describing the concrete behaviors and evidence of critical thinking Creativity= uses ideas from others (Developing), modifies ideas implemented by others (Basic), composition is self-generated (Proficient), composition is unique and imaginative(Advanced)--Myra
  • Actual traits that constitute good or poor persuasion, problem-solving. Be careful not to bury criteria—here is where some people find that their rubrics do not match their expectations—be sure that the descriptor is not a criterion and vice versa
  • 4 or 6 recommended Even recommended for delineating proficiency---Unless you want an equivocal position. Even number requires a decision between almost there and “barebones.” No implied levels.
  • You may also want students to self-assess and even use highlighters to document their claims.
  • Have students list criteria for “What Counts.” Prompt them to think about any criteria they have missed and add them yourself. After class, combine criteria—create categories, making sure not to bury criteria that you want to emphasize.
  • See “cookie”
  • Rubrics

    1. 1. Designing Rubrics Nancy Allen, Ph.D. College of Education Office of Faculty Development Qatar UniversityAdapted from: Baggio, C. (n.d.). Tips for designing rubrics. Retrieved on May 29, 2007, from and
    2. 2. Designing Rubrics Students as Self Assessors Teachers as Focused Coaches
    3. 3. What is a rubric? A rubric is a guideline for rating student performance. Benefits:  The rubric provides those doing the assessment with exactly the characteristics for each level of performance on which they should base their judgment.  The rubric provides those who have been assessed with clear information about how well they performed.  The rubric also provides those who have been assessed with a clear indication of what they need to accomplish in the future to better their performance. Asmus, E, (1999). Rubrics. Retrieved on May 29, 2007, from
    4. 4. What is a rubric? Quality Continuum A rubric must define the range of possible performance levels. Within this range are different levels of performance which are organized from the lowest level to the highest level of performance. Usually, a scale of possible points is associated with the continuum where the highest level receives the greatest number of points and the lowest level of performance receives the fewest points.
    5. 5. What is a rubric? A rubric is a lesson in quality A public declaration of expectations A communication tool A self-assessment tool for learners A gauge for examining performance A self-fulfilling prophecy
    6. 6. What is a rubric? Quality PERFORMANCE POINTS POINTS Continuum LEVEL Excellent 4 90-100 Good 3 80-89 Satisfactory 2 70-79 Needs 1 60-69 Improvement Clearly 0 <60 unsatisfactory
    7. 7. Rubric vs. ChecklistChecklist for a friendly letter ______ Date, flush left at top ______ Address ______ Greeting ______ Body ______ Salutation ______ Signature
    8. 8. Rubric vs. Checklist Checklists have not judgment of quality. Checklists can only be used when “present or absent” is a sufficient criterion for quality.
    9. 9. Rubric vs. Checklist Rubrics include descriptors for each targeted criterion. Rubrics provide a scale which differentiates among the descriptors.
    10. 10. What is a rubric? Descriptors Each level of performance should have descriptors which clearly indicate what is necessary to achieve that level of performance. Example Organization of Thought (4-points): “Work is clearly organized and includes a diagram or step-by-step analysis.” criterion point value descriptor
    11. 11. The parts of a rubric: R u b r ic S t a n d a r d s o f E x c e l le n c e C r it e r ia I n d ic a t o rs
    12. 12. Determining Standards ofExcellence How many degrees of quality should you include? Should you use language or numbers? If language, what descriptive terms should you use? Should you weigh the items?
    13. 13. Criteria The specific areas for assessment Focus areas for instruction Clear and relevant Age appropriate Form and function represented Objectives
    14. 14. Indicators Descriptors of level of performance for the criteria Conclusion includes whether the findings supported the hypothesis, possible sources of error, and what was learned from the experiment. Clear, observable language Examples for learners
    15. 15. How do rubrics alterinstruction? The teacher commits to teaching quality. The teacher commits to assisting the student self-assess. The focus is on each product and/or performance. The labels are removed from students. Specificity appears in all communications. Everyone gives and receives feedback.
    16. 16. Whom does a rubric assist? It is a feedback system for students to judge a product or performance. It is a feedback tool for teachers to provide clear, focused coaching to the learner. It is a system that promotes consistent and meaningful feedback over time. It is a communication tool for parents.
    17. 17. What makes a qualityRUBRIC? An even number of If points… clear to standards of students upfront excellence Deliberate sequence Clear essential of criteria criteria Realistic number of High interjudge criteria reliability Explicit, observable Tested out with indicators students
    18. 18. What makes a good judge? Knowledge and experience with specific skill Practice with rubri. Objectivity Questions rubric in advance to be sure all participants understand
    19. 19. How do I get started? Critique current models. Ask students to define “quality” in relation to specific product or performance. Translate into a modest rubric.
    20. 20. Expert InputExperts agree:  Rubrics are hard to design.  Rubrics are time-consuming to design.  “A rubric is only as useful as it is good. Using a bad rubric is a waste of time…” --Michael Simkins in “Designing Great Rubrics” Experts disagree:  How to design a “good” rubric Bottom line: Is it working for you and for your students?
    21. 21. Holistic Or Analytic—Which ToUse? HOLISTIC Views product or performance as a whole; describes characteristics of different levels of performance. Criteria are summarized for each score level.
    22. 22. Holistic Or Analytic—Which ToUse? Excellent Researcher  included 10-12 sources  no apparent historical inaccuracies  can easily tell which sources information was drawn from  all relevant information is included 2 - Good Researcher  included 5-9 sources  few historical inaccuracies  can tell with difficulty where information came from  bibliography contains most relevant information 1 - Poor Researcher  included 1-4 sources  lots of historical inaccuracies  cannot tell from which source information came  bibliography contains very little information
    23. 23. Holistic Or Analytic?HOLISTIC—pros and cons+ Takes less time to create.+ Effectively determines a “not fully developed” performance as a whole+ Efficient for large group scoring; less time to assess- Not diagnostic- Student may exhibit traits at two or more levels at the same time.
    24. 24. Holistic Or Analytic? Analytic Separate facets of performance are defined, independently valued, and scored. Facets scored separately
    25. 25. Holistic Or Analytic?Analytic—pros and cons+ Sharper focus on target+ Specific feedback (matrix)+ Instructional emphasis- Time consuming- Takes skill and practice
    26. 26. Task specific or general? Task specific: Rubric designed for and references a specific assignment. General: Rubric designed for and references a type of assignment frequently repeated.
    27. 27. Tip #1 Use as many generalized rubrics as possible.  Efficient  Builds recognition of excellence
    28. 28. Tip #2 If using pre-designed rubrics carefully consider quality and appropriateness for your project.
    29. 29. Tip #3 Aim for concise, clear, jargon-free language “…in most instances, lengthy rubrics probably can be reduced to succinct…more useful versions for classroom instruction. Such abbreviated rubrics can still capture the key evaluative criteria needed to judge students’ responses. Lengthy rubrics, in contrast, will gather dust” (Benjamin 23).
    30. 30. Tip #4 Limit the number of criteria, but Separate key criteria.  “Very clear” and “very organized” may be clear but not organized or vice versa.
    31. 31. Tip #5 Use key, teachable criteria. Key Questions: What are my objectives? Are there other generalized objectives that should be included?
    32. 32. Tip #6 Use concrete versus abstract and positives rather than negatives  Instead of “poorly organized” use “sharply focused thesis, topic sentences clearly connected to thesis, logical ordering of paragraphs, conclusion ends with clincher”. Key Question to ask yourself: Would student know what quality “looked like” by this description?
    33. 33. Tip #7 Use measurable criteria.  “Includes two or more new ideas…” instead of “creative and imaginative”
    34. 34. Tip #8 Aim for an even number of levels  Create continuum between least and most  Define poles and work inward  List skills and traits consistently across levels
    35. 35. Tip #9 Include students in creating or adapting rubrics Consider using “I” in the descriptors  I followed precisely—consistently— inconsistently—MLA documentation format.  I did not follow MLA documentation format.
    36. 36. Tip #10 Provide models of the different performance levels.
    37. 37. The Assignment Sheet Link the assignment sheet and the rubric. Use same language. Include all non-negotiable items.  On time  Formatted correctly  Follows standard conventions…  Etc.
    38. 38. Rubrics for formativeassessment Encourage students to “check progress” using the rubric. Encourage / require self-assessment and/or peer assessment.
    39. 39. Steps in Developing a Rubric Design backwards—rubric first; then product/performance. Decide on the criteria for the product or performance to be assessed. Write a definition or make a list of concrete descriptors— identifiable-- for each criterion. Develop a continuum for describing the range of performance for each criterion. Keep track of strengths and weaknesses of rubric as you use it to assess student work. Revise accordingly. Step back; ask yourself, “What didn’t I make clear instructionally?” The weakness may not be the rubric.
    40. 40. Rubrics On Line "Rubistar Rubric Generator" ( "Teacher Rubric Maker" ( “Rubrician” (” Rubrics for Web Lessons ( ) An Online Rubric Maker (http://landmark-
    41. 41. References Andrade, H.(2000). Using rubrics to promote thinking and learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Asmus, E, (1999). Rubrics. Retrieved on May 29, 2007, from http:// Baggio, C. Designing rubrics: Revising instruction and improving performance. Retrieved on March 1, 2007, from Baggio, C. (n.d.). Tips for designing rubrics. Retrieved on May 29, 2007, from Benjamin, A.(2000). An English teacher’s guide to performance tasks and rubrics. Larchmont: Eye on Education. Leavell, A. (n.d.). Authentic assessment: Using rubrics to evaluate project-based learning. WEBLIBRARY. Matthews, J. (2000). Writing by the rules no easy task. Retrieved on October 25, 2000 from < dyn/articles/A63599-2000Oct23.html> Simkins, M. (1999, August). Designing great rubrics. Technology and Learning. Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998). Tips for developing effective rubrics. Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
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