This Fluency presentation for October Regional Meetings is designed as a tool to be used in the schools, by the reading specialists. Most slides have notes attached to guide the presenter. This presentation highlights the most effective, research-based instructional practices for developing automaticity and fluency. A description of both instructional and practice/center activities and examples are included. The presentation ends with a slide that delineates the assignment for our next regional meeting: reading specialists will be asked to share their plan for fluency instruction; successes and challenges for either a k/1 or 2 nd /3 rd grade level class and specific instruction and practice activities, used. Big ideas include: distinguishing between automaticity and fluency; distinguishing between explicit instruction and practice/center activities; and identifying most effective, research-based practices. At our last regional meeting, we will apply these big ideas in order to review and evaluate fluency instruction in our CORE programs.
This slide portrays the complexity of reading and the numerous components that must be woven together, simultaneously by the proficient reader. With regard to language skills, the reader must become increasingly strategic in applying his/her background knowledge, knowledge of word meanings (vocabulary), knowledge of language structures, verbal reasoning. Likewise, the reader’s phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding and encoding and sight word recognition must be increasingly instantaneous and automatic. The skilled reader is one who is able to weave or coordinate these underlying processes with automaticity which then results in fluency and comprehension. .
Notice here, we mention Accuracy. Accurate reading is a precursor to fluent reading. Kecia
Participants practice with passage in handout—fresh read
Define meaningful– not sight words, not articles… Participants practice with passage in handout—skill builder
Discus how to use the handout resource-- phrases with fry words
Discuss at tables: why grouping students that way? How often to change partners, management technique Kecia
Explain first, turn and tell a partner which one you already use and why you like it, or which one you can incorporate this week Jacqui starts…. Kecia graph and rubric – visual and motivating for students
Readers who are “fussing with words” are likely finding it necessary to attend closely to the mechanics of decoding. In addition, they may be reading in a word by word manner because they recognize few words, immediately. Instruction focused on building automatic word recognition and decoding skills is necessary. Torgesen’s recent research as shown a strong relationship between fluency and comprehension. Phrasing, intonation and expression is another important aspect of fluency and can be taught and practiced.
This slide lists steps for creating a plan for assessment, instruction, practice and monitoring of each child’s fluency. Next slides refer to DIBELS progress monitoring. * Note that participants will be asked to share their plans at the next regional meeting. Specifically, they will be asked to share instruction and practice activities used with either kindergarten/first grade students or second/third graders and successes and challenges.
Once we identify students needing additional instructional support, we need to evaluate how he/she is responding to the instruction on a regular, timely basis. By progress monitoring, we can make our instruction more effective and responsive. Progress monitoring assessment should be closely aligned with instruction.
It is important to assess fluency because of fluency’s relationship to comprehension. Assessment informs instruction, predicts student performance on high stake tests (e.g. third graders achieving benchmark on ORF score in proficient range MCAS). Benchmarks for words read correct per minute are consistent.
Highlight popular but less effective practices which include: Choral reading, round robin reading and readers’ theatre. These practices might be used outside of 90 minute instructional time, but should not be used during instructional time.
Distinguish between instructional activities and practice activities emphasizing that automaticity and fluency must by explicitly taught not simply practiced. Explicit instruction is teacher directed.
Read slide emphasizing systematic, explicit instruction. Some may require specialized, intervention program. These children should be progress monitored and their instruction should be adjusted, I.e. intensity increased if they are not making adequate growth.
Read, review with participants.
Here are some examples of instructional activities for developing automaticity at letter, sound letter-sound levels.The instructional activities listed on this slide and successive slides are those cited in research as most effective.
Instructional activities at word level. Six Syllable types can be critical for helping students with multisyllabic words. As students’ automatic recognition of different syllable types increases they will more readily recognize these patterns in lengthy words they encounter when they are reading. Multisensory techniques can be powerful in helping students learn high frequency words with irregular patterns.
Instructional activities for fluency building in connected text. These three techniques have proven to be the most effective instructional practices as reported in National Reading Panel report (2000). These three techniques should be used in small, needs-based instruction instead of less effective, but popular practices which may be suggested by core program and other resources.
Fostering Fluency Why Fluency is Important
Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes