QM-038-什麼是6Sigma good


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  • QM-038-什麼是6Sigma good

    1. 1. 什麼是 6 sigma What is Six Sigma?
    2. 2. 什麼是 6 sigma Six Sigma – 是一種新思維 程序 是一種系統式的降低會對顧客滿意有重要影響的不良 工具 Qualitative, 統計的以及 and Instructional Devices for “ 觀測 ” 程序上的變數 & 它們的關係及 “ 管理 ” 它們的特性
    3. 3. 它是跟據什麼 ? 顧客是 ..... 任何接受產品 , 服務 , 或資訊的人 機會是 ..... 任何會將一些事情做 “對” 或 “錯”的可能性 成功 Vs. 失敗 ..... 任何機會的結果符合或不符合顧客的期望
    4. 4. 降低不良 改善產出 改善顧客滿意度 更高的淨營利 6-Sigma 的目標
    5. 5. 利潤 產品的製造及運輸總成本 利潤 理論的 成本 低品質成本 Price Erosion 利潤 COPQ Which Feels Better?? 為什麼要針對低品質成本 ( COPQ) ? 利潤 低品質成本 理論的 成本 理論的 成本
    6. 6. <ul><li>Leadership Commitment, Competence & Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>方法 & 工具 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>由數據驅動 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>經統計驗證 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>最好的人員 100% 致力於降低不良 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Focused </li></ul>6 Sigma 有什麼不一樣 ?
    7. 7. Foundation of the Tools Data is derived from objects, situations, or phenomenon in the form of measurements. Data is used to classify, describe, improve , or control objects, situations, or phenomenon. 1. We only use experience, not data. 2. We collect data, but just look at the numbers. 3. We group the data so as to form charts and graphs. 4. We use census data with descriptive statistics. 5. We use sample data with descriptive statistics. 6. We use sample data with inferential statistics. Levels of Analysis: Cost Likelihood of improvement Depth of Understanding Quality of Knowledge
    8. 8. 收集數據 <ul><li>Communicate in an objective manner </li></ul><ul><li>針對問題或機會以收集計量化的事實 </li></ul><ul><li>建立問題或程序的基準資料 </li></ul><ul><li>便利建議解決方案的成本利潤分析 </li></ul><ul><li>改善前後比較 – 將解決方案的影響計量化 </li></ul><ul><li>判斷解決方案的延伸施行 </li></ul>數據形成知識 相同數據語言的重要性
    9. 9. 改變中的品質哲學 最高品質的產品和服務是 最低成本的產品和服務
    10. 10. <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Metric </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul> What is Six Sigma ? .... A means to stretch our thinking with respect to quality Sigma is a letter in the Greek Alphabet A level of performance that reflects significantly reduced defects in our products A statistical measurement of our process capability, as well as a benchmark for comparison A set of statistical “tools” to help us measure, analyze, improve, and control our processes A commitment to our customers to achieve an acceptable level of performance
    11. 11. 6 Sigma – 目標 (DPMO Distribution Shifted ± 1.5  )  PPM 製程能力 每百萬個不良機會
    12. 12. Getting to Six Sigma  PPM 2 308,537 3 66,807 4 6,210 5 233 6 3.4 (Distribution Shifted ± 1.5s) H ow far can inspection get us ?
    13. 13. (with ± 1.5  shift) 美國國內航線致命率 (0.43 PPM) IRS – 財稅顧問 (phone-in) (140,000 PPM) 7 Sigma Scale of Measure • 餐廳帳單 醫生處方單 薪資通知單 填寫訂單 旅行支票 電話傳真 飛機行李託運 購買原料退貨率 產業最佳 產業平均 © 1994 Dr. Mikel J. Harry - V4.0 市場的情況 © 1994 Six Sigma Academy 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 PPM 3 4 5 6 2 1
    14. 14. Characterization Phase 1: M easure Phase 2: A nalyze Optimization Phase 3: I mprove Phase 4 C ontrol : 3 4 5 6 7 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 2 Sigma Scale of Measure PPM Average Company Best-in-Class The Breakthrough Methodology D efine the problem... DMAIC to the Rescue ! The Basic Objective Breakthrough Strategy
    15. 15. 問題的本性 Six Sigma 的方法可以辨識製程是偏離目標 和 / 或者是高度變異 , 以及訂正製程 偏離目標 變異大 正中目標 修訂製程 降低變異 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
    16. 16. 問題的本性 - 統計觀點 另類觀點 On-Target 從統計觀點來看問題 USL LSL LSL = Lower spec limit USL = Upper spec limit 偏離目標 變異大 修訂製程 降低變異 LSL USL USL LSL
    17. 17. Variation Is the Enemy 不確定 不知 不相信 冒險 不良率 變異 1_01_01_014
    18. 18. Consequences of Variation 確定 + 知 + 不相信 + 確信 + 不良率 + 不確定 不知 不相信 冒險 不良率 = 100% = 100% = 100% = 100% = 100% 1_01_01_015
    19. 19. 我們如何衡量變異和品質 ?  <ul><li>衡量變異和品質 </li></ul><ul><li>衡量製程能力 </li></ul>
    20. 20. 標準差  轉折點 1  T USL p(d) 規格上限 (USL) 目標規格 (T) 規格下限 (LSL) 分佈值平均 (m) 分佈值的標準差 (s) 3  在轉折點和平均值的距離形成一個標準差 . 假如目標值和規格上限之間可以放置三個標準差 我們可以說這個製程有“ 3 sigma 的 能力 .” LSL
    21. 21. 標準差  1  T USL p(d) p(d) 1 2 3 4 5 6  轉折點 3  This is a 6 Sigma Process
    22. 22. 6 Sigma 有什麼不一樣 ? 製程 KPIV KPIV KPIV KPOV 品質的關鍵 管理 “ Correct” (In-Spec.) 免於不良 ! KPIV 1. 經由統計證明輸入變數和產出的關係 2. 有系統化的 控制 , 控制 , 再控制 只要管理好 輸入變數自然會有好的產出 主要製程變數
    23. 23. The Focus of Six Sigma To get results, should we focus our behavior on the Y or X ? If we are so good at X, why do we constantly test and inspect Y ? Focus on X rather than Y, as done historically f (X) Y= <ul><li>X1 . . . XN </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Input-Process </li></ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Y </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul>
    24. 24. Improvement Strategy ( DMAIC ) Focus Vital Few x i Y Y Y Y Y x 1 , x 2 , ... x n x 1 , x 2 , ... x n Vital Few x i Vital Few x i Vital Few x i Vital Few x i 步驟 M easure A nalyze I mprove C ontrol SIX SIGMA METHODS GENERATE DATA-BASED DECISIONS Select Product or Process Key Characteristic(s); e.g..., Customer Y Define Performance Standards For Y Validate Measurement System for Y Establish Process Capability of Creating Y Define Improvement Objectives For Y Identify Variation Sources In Y Screen Potential Causes For Change In Y & Identify Vital Few x i Discover Variable Relationships Between Vital Few x i Establish Operating Tolerances On Vital Few x i Validate Measurement System For x i Determine Ability To Control Vital Few x i Implement Process Control System On Vital Few x i
    25. 25. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Harvesting the Fruit of Six Sigma Sweet Fruit Design for Manufacturability Bulk of Fruit Process Characterization and Optimization Low Hanging Fruit Seven Basic Tools Ground Fruit Logic and Intuition Process Entitlement - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - We don't know what we don't know We can't act on what we don't know We won't know until we search We won't search for what we don't question We don't question what we don't measure Hence, We just don't know
    26. 26. If Quality Leadership is to consist of… The Company must embrace… Superior Quality of Conformance Six Sigma Process Control - DMAIC Superior Quality of Design Design for Six Sigma Availability Design for Reliability The Many Facets of Six Sigma
    27. 27. <ul><li>Project Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Team Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>MAIC </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Tools </li></ul>What Does Six Sigma Look Like ?
    28. 28. The Roadmap Improve Control No Redesign Yes Define Measure Analyze Modify Design?
    29. 29. <ul><li>What It Is & What It Isn’t </li></ul><ul><li>It Will: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Defects </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Variation </li></ul><ul><li>. . . from existing processes </li></ul>Process Driven........ NOT Event Driven It Won’t: Create a New Marketing Strategy Run a Conference Invent a New Product Find a New Supplier Hire a New Employee DMAIC Problem Solving & Fixing Method
    30. 30. Process A blending of Inputs to achieve some Output Inputs Materials Controls Machinery etc.. Outputs The things you measure as an indication of the success of the process A Picture of a Process
    31. 31. The Roadmap Improve Control No Redesign Yes Questions to Ask Questions to Answer... Define Measure Analyze Modify Design?
    32. 32. <ul><li>Who is my Customer ? </li></ul><ul><li>What matters ? ( CTQ ) ? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the Scope ? </li></ul><ul><li>What Defect am I trying to Reduce ? </li></ul><ul><li>By how much (Realistic/Appropriate Goal ) ? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the current Cost of defects (Poor Quality) ? </li></ul><ul><li>(What Benefits will we get by reducing defects ?) </li></ul>Project D efinition
    33. 33. <ul><li>What’s my Process ? How does it function ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which Outputs affect CTQ’s most </li></ul><ul><li>Which Inputs seem to affect Outputs (CTQ’s) most ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is my ability to Measure / Detect “Good Enough?” </li></ul><ul><li>How’s my process doing today ? </li></ul><ul><li>How good could my (current) process be when everything </li></ul><ul><li>is running “smoothly”? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the best that my process was “ Designed ” to do ? </li></ul>M easure
    34. 34. D efine and M easure Process KPIV KPIV KPIV KPOV CTQ Manage “ Correct” (In-Spec.) Defect- Free! KPIV Define : Clearly State the Problem in terms of “Defects” or “Variation” which Upset the Customer Measure : Describe the Performance of the Process Quantitatively Measured Units Counted Units then, Identify Key Inputs
    35. 35. <ul><li>Which Inputs actually (For Sure) affect my CTQ’s most ? </li></ul><ul><li>By how much ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do combinations of variables affect outputs? </li></ul><ul><li>If I change an input, do I really change the output ? </li></ul><ul><li>If I observe results (outputs) from the same process, different </li></ul><ul><li>locations, and results appear to be different.. ... are they really ? </li></ul><ul><li>How many observations do I need to draw conclusions ? </li></ul><ul><li>What level of confidence do I have regarding my conclusions ? </li></ul>A nalyze
    36. 36. A nalyze Process KPIV KPIV KPIV KPOV CTQ Manage “ Correct” (In-Spec.) Defect- Free! KPIV Statistically Describe the Relationship Between Inputs and the Output . . . to Find the Inputs with the Biggest Impact on the Output
    37. 37. <ul><li>Once I know “for sure” which inputs most affect my </li></ul><ul><li>outputs, how do I “ set ” (properly implement) them ? </li></ul><ul><li>How many trials do I need to run to find and confirm </li></ul><ul><li>the optimal setting/procedure of these key inputs ? </li></ul>I mprove
    38. 38. I mprove Process KPIV KPIV KPIV KPOV CTQ Manage “ Correct” (In-Spec.) Defect- Free! KPIV High Low Medium High ???????? Systematically Experiment with the Inputs to Find the Combination Which Delivers the Optimal Output
    39. 39. <ul><li>Once I’ve reduced the Defects, how do the functional team and I keep them there ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the functional team keep it going (routinely) ? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I set up to keep it going even when things change ...... People, Technology, and Customers </li></ul>C ontrol
    40. 40. Control Control Control Process KPIV KPIV KPIV KPOV CTQ Manage “ Correct” (In-Spec.) Defect- Free! KPIV High Low Medium High Lock In the Inputs to Routinely Generate the Optimal Output ! C ontrol
    41. 41. What is important to the Customer? How do we know?
    42. 42. Imagine you are the General Manager of a very successful Movie Theatre Chain with many employees. You will be out of the country for three months and have asked your staff to fax you a weekly report on Monday morning. What information would you like to see in that fax? Hollywood Inc. Weekly Report Exercise
    43. 43. Exercise Cont. You are headed to the movies with some friends… The movie you would like to see is playing as several movie theatres in the area. All are about equidistant from your home. What criteria do you use to decide which theatre to patron?
    44. 44. Critical to Satisfaction <ul><li>Ticket Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Concession Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Labor/Work Force Data </li></ul><ul><li>Profit Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Other... </li></ul>Supplier Perspective (Theatre Management) <ul><li>Good Popcorn </li></ul><ul><li>No Sticky Floors </li></ul><ul><li>Clean High Capacity Restrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable Seats </li></ul><ul><li>Big Screens, good sounds </li></ul>Customer Perspective (Movie Goers) <ul><li>. . . So why do such differences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in perspective exist ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. What Makes a Good Coffee Service? Supplier Perspective (Hotel) <ul><li>Good Hot Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Line, Especially for Refills </li></ul><ul><li>Close to High-Capacity Restrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Close to Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Room to Chat </li></ul>Customer Perspective (Conference Attendees) <ul><li>. . . So why do such differences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in perspective exist ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Barry Bebb & Associates - World Class by Design Conference November 1993 - Buffalo, New York <ul><li>Good Hot Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Clean China </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Linen </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive Display </li></ul><ul><li>Extras - Snacks </li></ul>Identifying CTQ’s
    46. 46. Contrasting Views - Customers and Suppliers Customers Suppliers Definition of Quality Fitness for use during Conformance to spec life of the product on final test Cost Cost of use including: Cost of manufacture Purchase price Operating costs Maintenance costs Downtime Depreciation Responsibility for Over the entire useful During the warranty keeping in service life period Spare Parts A necessary evil A profitable business Juran’s Quality Handbook
    47. 47. When we say something is a CTQ can we describe it from the customer’s perspective? from our perspective? And can we demonstrate the linkage? Customers Speak a Different Language Customers say… Long life Reliable Powerful computer... Companies say… 20,000 hrs life 3000 hr MTBF 266MHz... <ul><li>What Customers Can and Can’t Tell You </li></ul><ul><li>Customers know what they want! </li></ul><ul><li>Wants and Needs, not exact Features and Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Customers are not engineers and usually do not set technical specs </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to the customer means understanding the NEEDS </li></ul>
    48. 48. Maximizing the Customer Supplier Relationship <ul><li>Deriving value from the Need - Do interaction </li></ul>INTERACTION Need Do Customers and Suppliers Exchange Value Through Need-Do Interaction Customer Supplier 1_01_01_008
    49. 49. Maximizing the Interaction <ul><li>Supplier strives for performance on Cycle Time, Cost and Defects to meet Customers’ increasing expectations on Delivery, Price and Quality. </li></ul>Delivery Price Quality Need Do Cycle Time Cost Defects 1_01_01_009
    50. 50. Linking Customer Needs and What We Do Need Do Critical to Satisfaction Critical to Quality Customer Supplier How the customer measures quality The result our processes must consistently produce CTQ CTS 1_01_01_010
    51. 51. Defining Variables
    52. 52. CT Concept Customer Satisfaction Delivery Quality Price/value Cycle time Defect-free Cost/function CTQ1- Critical to Quality CTQ2 CTQ3 CTD -Critical to Delivery Processes CTP1- Critical to Process CTP2 Need Do 1_02_01_002 CTC -Critical to Cost
    53. 53. CTQ and CTP Characteristics CTQ1- Critical to Quality CTQ2 CTQ3 Processes CTP1- Critical to Process CTP2 Output Input Y = f (x) 1_02_01_003
    55. 55. PRODUCT QUALITY BIG Y LIFE LUMENS COLOR EFFICIENCY LITTLE Y X’s <ul><li>PRODUCT CONFORMANCE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPONENT CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE </li></ul>AUTOMOTIVE <ul><li>HIR QUALITY </li></ul>HALOGEN <ul><li>END DISCOLOR./LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>INOPERATIVES </li></ul>FLUORESCENT <ul><li>CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>WARRANTY COST </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>LUMEN MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>VOLTAGE RISE </li></ul>HID <ul><li>LWBX CAPACITY </li></ul><ul><li>COMPONENT REPLACEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>LUMEN IMPROVEMENT </li></ul>CFL <ul><li>A-LINE CAPACITY </li></ul>INCANDESCENT Quality
    56. 56. ORDER SERVICE/ INFORMATION BIG Y KEEPING CUSTOMERS INFORMED <ul><li>ACCESSIBILITY OF INFO </li></ul><ul><li>AVAILABILITY OF INFO </li></ul><ul><li>ACCURACY OF INFO </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER CONFIRMATION </li></ul><ul><li>BILLING </li></ul><ul><li>CFS PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>CLAIMS/DISPUTES </li></ul>X’s ORDER ENTRY ACCURACY ORDER ENTRY FLEXIBILITY BILLING <ul><li>SPA EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>DELIVERY REQUIRED DATE </li></ul><ul><li>QUANTITY </li></ul><ul><li>SKU </li></ul><ul><li>SHIP TO/BILL TO </li></ul><ul><li>AVAILABLE METHODS OF ENTRY </li></ul><ul><li>CUSTOMER SERVICE CALL HANDLING </li></ul><ul><li>VMI </li></ul>LITTLE Y Delivery
    57. 57. FILL RATE/ ON-TIME DELIVERY BIG Y SKU MANAGEMENT INVENTORY PLANNING MFG. EXECUTION DISTRIBUTION EXECUTION LITTLE Y <ul><li>CAPACITY/ PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>SKU PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>NPI </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIAL EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>MTO SKUs </li></ul><ul><li>PSI PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>SS METHODOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITIONS/ DELETIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIAL EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>MTO SKUs </li></ul><ul><li>CYCLE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>ROLLED THROUGHPUT YIELD QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>ELS/PARAMETERS </li></ul><ul><li>YIELDS </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCT DEPLOYMENT </li></ul><ul><li>LEADS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>MDC INBOUND CYCLE </li></ul><ul><li>CUSTOMER OUTBOUND CYCLE </li></ul><ul><li>MDC THROUGHPUT </li></ul>X’s Delivery
    58. 58. BIG Y DOCUMENT PREP ORDER PREP PRODUCT CONDITION DELIVERY LITTLE Y <ul><li>PICK TICKET </li></ul><ul><li>BILL OF LADING </li></ul><ul><li>ASN </li></ul><ul><li>PICKING </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTING </li></ul><ul><li>COUNT ACCURACY </li></ul><ul><li>CARRIER SELECTION </li></ul><ul><li>PACKAGING </li></ul><ul><li>HANDLING </li></ul><ul><li>PALLET CONDITION </li></ul><ul><li>B&D </li></ul><ul><li>CUSTOMER SCHEDULING </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSPORTATION SCHEDULING </li></ul>X’s SHIPMENT ACCURACY/ CONDITION Delivery
    59. 59. PROFITABLE CUSTOMER GROWTH BIG Y KEY ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT MIX ENRICHMENT PRICE /PROGRAM DELIVERY COMMERCIAL EXECUTION LITTLE Y <ul><li>NPI </li></ul><ul><li>CATEGORY MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SKU OFFERING </li></ul><ul><li>SELLING MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>SALES EFFECTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><li>PRICE SIMPLIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>PRICE CYCLE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>SPA EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>CUSTOMER NOTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>REBATES </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRACTS </li></ul>X’s Price
    60. 60. The Focus of Six Sigma <ul><li>Y </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>X1 . . . XN </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Input-Process </li></ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>f (X) Y= 1_02_01_004
    61. 61. Next Step <ul><li>Develop Process Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Identify cell Xs and Ys </li></ul><ul><li>Causes & Effects metrics </li></ul><ul><li>FMEA </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul>