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QM-037-Using DFSS tool
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QM-037-Using DFSS tool QM-037-Using DFSS tool Presentation Transcript

  • Paresh Naik December 3, 2004 STC India’s 6 th Annual Conference Using DFSS Tools for Better Technical Writing Processes and Deliverables www.vmoksha.com
  • Agenda
    • What we will do today?
      • Explain DFSS tools: TPM, PM,SIPOC, FMEA, C&E, QFD, Pugh Chart, Balanced scorecard
      • Identify their usage in Technical Writing projects
    • What we will NOT do today?
      • Get into jargon
      • Try to form a universal definition of quality of information products
      • Discuss what metrics are relevant
  • Background
    • Why bother?
    • Various quality frameworks
    • Six sigma: Origin and relevance to technical writing
  • Thought Process Map
    • Visual representation of interconnected thoughts/ideas
    • Presents structure of information
    • Related tools: Fishbone diagrams/Affinity Diagrams, RCA
  • Thought Process Map - Examples ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 Example Mind map Affinity Diagram
    • Additional information layers with colours, shapes
    • Can evolve into Kuno Analysis, Profit Matrix
  • Thought Process Map - Usage
    • Thinking through complex problems
    • Note taking, summarizing information: Brainstorming sessions, Interviewing SMEs, Information gathering
    • For consolidating information in distributed teams
    • Record all the considerations behind introduction of new processes, projects, initiatives or any major decision
    • Document design – Audience Analysis, Task Analysis
  • Process Map
    • Visualizing process steps
    • Basis for continuous improvement
    • Developing common understanding between all stakeholders on all aspects of process steps like entry and exit points, roles and responsibilities, and so on
  • Process Map - Usage As you see it The hidden factory
    • Improving your documentation process
      • Examine your current documentation process
  • Process Map - Usage
    • Question each step for
      • SIPOC
      • Process step owner, entry and exit criteria, controls, deliverables, metrics
    • Identify
      • Factors causing variation and defects
      • Sources of scrap, rework, and waste
    • Optimize by constant reviews
      • Defect prevention – injection and removal efficiencies of different steps, Pareto and Orthogonal Defect Classification
      • Identify mistake proofing points – Checklists etc.
    • Process organizes work – PEOPLE do it
    Step 1 Step 2 Step n Inputs Output
  • Process Map - Usage
    • In information products to provide context, overview
    Receiving Site = Processing Site? Product Returned Book Product as Un-notified Return Book Product into Receipt Plant Book Product into Return Plant Redirect to Return Plant Yes No No Yes Create Notification CSR Activity ? Notified Return? Details acceptable? Start End Print Goods Receipt Note ? ? Exception Process Contact Customer Yes No Process step outside the software Manual decision Process step covered in this guide Process step not covered in this course Key Process H&S Documents SCR Activities System decision
  • SIPOC Requirements Requirements Measures Measures Suppliers Inputs Outputs Customers Input Boundary Output Boundary Process Measures S I P O C
  • SIPOC - How?
    • Steps:
      • Identify customers and stakeholders.
      • Identify customer/stakeholders requirements.
      • Identify gaps in requirements and the process outputs.
      • Identify process inputs and suppliers.
      • Identify gaps between process input requirements and the suppliers’ inputs.
      • Identify data collection needs.
      • Identify resource requirements, corrective actions to meet the gaps.
  • SIPOC - Usage
    • Document the links between suppliers and customers
    • Identify “gaps” and improvement areas
    • Example:
  • FMEA
    • Failure mode effect analysis
    • A tool used in:
      • Product design to prioritize focus areas for robust design
      • Project tracking to control key risks
      • Software Development to develop test cases
    3. Build Contingency and Corrective Action Plans 2. Assess Risks 1. Identify Failure Modes, Effects, Causes, and Controls
  • FMEA – How?
    • Identify potential failure modes, effects, and causes
    • Identify the existing controls
    • Select the rating scales for
      • Severity of effects (SEV)
      • Frequency of cause (OCC)
      • Detection capability (DET)
    • Calculate RPN by multiplying SEV, OCC, DET values
    • Prioritize risks using the RPN
    • Plan for action items with responsibilities assigned
    • Reassign the appropriate SEV, OCC, DET values and compare RPNs
  • FMEA - Usage
    • Identify and mitigate risks in any major process change, new initiative
    • Track risks in your documentation projects:
      • Recognize and evaluate potential failures and their effects
      • Continuous risk monitoring
      • Plan and track the risk mitigation actions
      • Not one time – update at milestones, on major developments
    • Identify failure risks of any new design
  • Relationship Matrices
    • Quality Function Deployment/House of Quality
    • Cause and Effect Matrix
    • Pugh Chart/Matrix
  • QFD
    • A tool for product/process design focused on meeting customer needs
  • QFD - Interpreting Need with No Feature Unnecessary Feature Some relations Overlooked ? Strong Moderate Weak Customer need Product feature Relation:
  • Cause and Effect Matrix
    • A matrix relating the key process steps and inputs to the key customer requirements to identify vital process steps
  • Pugh Matrix
    • A tool from product design to evaluate alternative design concepts
  • Relationship Matrices - Usage
    • Use as is or extend and adopt the concept of relationship matrix
    • QFD for process improvement:
      • Ensure customer requirements flow down to all the phases of development,
      • Evaluate documentation process to identify wasteful steps
    • Design information products, define set of user documents, find opportunities for information reuse
    • Pugh Matrix: Quantify decision making process
    • C&E Matrix: Prioritize based on all influencing factors
  • Relationship Matrices - Examples
  • Scorecard
    • Balanced scorecards for tracking
      • Quality, Productivity, Predictability, Customer Satisfaction
      • Schedule, Scope, Budget, Quality
    • No one-for-all approach
    • Measurement as means and not the end
    External Internal Subjective Objective Metrics
  • Summary
    • Thought Process Maps - Correlations
    • Process Maps - Basis for improvement
    • SIPOC - Critically examine process steps
    • FMEA - Risk monitoring and mitigation
    • Relationship Matrices - Decision making, prioritizing
      • QFD
      • Pugh Matrix
      • C&E Matrix
    • Balanced Scorecard - See the bigger picture
  • Key takeaways
    • DFSS tools help you to
      • Quantify
      • Reduce subjectivity
      • Consider all correlations
      • And hence, achieve better Technical Writing processes and deliverables
  • References
    • www.isixsigma.com
    • DocQment, Quarterly Newsletter of the STC Quality Special Interest Group
    • Lori Beard, Jennifer Fleming, and Erin Beal Welch, Applying Six Sigma Principles to Everyday Projects , STC’s 50 th Annual Conference, Dallas, TX, May 2003
  • Thank You! Thank You!