QM-008-Design for Six Sigma 1

1,670 views
1,487 views

Published on

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,670
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
12
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

QM-008-Design for Six Sigma 1

  1. 1. Design for Six Sigma Department of Mechanical Engineering
  2. 2. DFSS: A systematic methodology of integrating statistical tools into product and process development to achieve predictive design quality and meet VOC requirements.
  3. 3. 2 Major Divisions of Six Sigma <ul><li>Process (DMAIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically used in manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiasts can use anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design (DFSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New, unique or difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking requires time </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. DMAIC or DFSS Project? O ptimize Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Does a Process Exist? Is Incremental Improvement Enough? Is the Improvement a New or Redesigned Product or Process? D esign C oncept No No Yes Yes No Yes DMAIC Process DFSS Process C apability
  5. 5. Problem Definition Conceptual Design Embodiment Design Detail Design Communication of the Design
  6. 6. Design for Six Sigma Overview C apability <ul><li>Minimize Complexity (DFMA / Modular Design) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize Risk (FMEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Process Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize Measurement Systems Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize (DOE / RSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness of Design (Operations and customer noise) </li></ul>Critical Design Parameters O ptimize D esign Commercialization <ul><li>Understand Customer Value </li></ul><ul><li>Gather Voice of Business (VOB) </li></ul><ul><li>Gather VOC </li></ul><ul><li>Translate VOC into PDS </li></ul><ul><li>Create / Select Concepts (QFD, Pugh) </li></ul>DMAIC <ul><li>Robustness Verification (Multi-Vari) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Tolerancing </li></ul><ul><li>Product Launch (Control Plans) </li></ul>Y = f (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ,,. . x n ) N-U-D New-Unique-Difficult
  7. 7. Critical Parameter Management Houses of Quality Usage Voice of the Customer Needs Mfg. Process CTF Specs Cp System Level Requirements Subsystem Level Requirements Subassembly Level Requirements Component ‘ Critical to Function’ (CTF) Req’ts. Mfg. Process Requirements Component CTF Specs…. Cp Subassembly Critical Function Response (CFR) Cp Subsystem Level CFRs….. Cp System Level CFR’s Cp
  8. 8. <ul><li>Market Perceived Value Profile </li></ul><ul><li>RACI Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Selection Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Discussion Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Image KJ </li></ul><ul><li>Translation Worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements KJ </li></ul><ul><li>Importance Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>QFD HOQ #1 </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Pugh Screening Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>QFD HOQ #2 </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Parameter Tree </li></ul><ul><li>CPM Scorecard </li></ul><ul><li>Process Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness KJ </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Stats </li></ul><ul><li>Probability Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Control Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Capability Analysis (variables data) </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute Capability Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement System Analysis </li></ul>DFSS Tools <ul><li>Dimensional Variation Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Monte Carlo Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>DFMEA </li></ul><ul><li>DFA Analysis Worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effects Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence Intervals </li></ul><ul><li>T-Test For Means Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>F-Test For Variances Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Anova </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Regression (Simple Or Multiple) </li></ul><ul><li>Design Of Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>DOE with Centerpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Response Surface Experimental Design </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Response Optimization </li></ul><ul><li>P-Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Robust Design </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Tolerancing </li></ul><ul><li>Life Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Size Planning </li></ul><ul><li>2 Proportions Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Regression Applied To Life Data </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) </li></ul>Where should we spend our time in ME470?
  9. 9. Roadmap: Where are we going? Voice of the Customer Needs Benchmarking House of Quality System Level Product Design Specification Functional Analysis Systems Engineering Interviewing the Customer
  10. 10. How Customers Select Among Competing Suppliers <ul><li>Customers buy on Value Proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Value Proposition = Value Package relative to Price </li></ul><ul><li>Value Package includes all non-price attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Enjoyed a Good Coke Lately? <ul><li>Unhappy customers tell 9-10 people about the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show video with Rollo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Happy customers tell 4-5 about the good service or product. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Food for Thought <ul><li>The Japanese (Automakers)…excel in the quality of fit and finishes, moldings that match, doors that don’t sag, materials that look good and wear well, flawless paint jobs. Most important of all, Japanese cars have earned a reputation for reliability, borne out by the generally lower rate of warranty claims they experience. Technically, most Japanese cars are fairly ordinary. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stages of Developing System Product Design Specifications <ul><li>Gain the “feel” of the customer, experience their world. </li></ul><ul><li>Transform our understanding into customer requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the importance of each requirement and criteria for concepts. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stage 1: Experience their world Problem Definition Determine Which Customers to Visit Develop Discussion Guide Visit Customers Develop Image of Customer’s Environment and Needs
  15. 15. Problem Definition <ul><li>Why are we going? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a common image of the farm customer in order to create a shared language for the new program team to describe, in customer terms, what is important to the customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do we want to learn? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understand our farm customers’ workflow as we improve efficiency in field preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain first hand customer observation and input relative to understanding various elements impacting field preparation such as soil conditions (clay, sand, rocks, etc.), obstructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore appropriate Cummins responses so as to protect and enhance our position in this market by differentiation from John Deere such as consistent plowing speed, and overall time to complete filed preparation. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Determine Which Customers to Visit <ul><li>Create a “what do we want to learn” statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To explore_______ in order to______ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To discover______ in order to______ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To learn_________ in order to_____ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributors and dealers, end users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead/visionary customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost customers, Unhappy customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers using competitive products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External/Internal customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers with non-US headquarters or focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good current customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers who buy multiple products, or from multiple divisions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Case Study: You work for a company that manufactures and sells flashlights. Sales are dropping. Your goal is to increase both sales and profits.
  18. 18. What would you want in a new flashlight? What bugs you about current flashlights?
  19. 19. There must be a better way…. <ul><li>Assume you are charged with improving a flashlight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are your customers? (List at least 5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would you go and visit these customers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would you hope to learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talk to a neighbor for 2 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Flashlight: A Case for Holding Dead Batteries </li></ul>
  20. 20. Creating an Interview Guide <ul><li>Tell the customer why you are there </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We are here to discuss the design of an improved flashlight. Thank you for agreeing to work with us.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6-10 Key Topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on what we want to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtopics as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a guide, not a script or questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evoke images of experiences and needs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Guidelines for Creating Discussion Questions <ul><li>Scenes or images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer’s use environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of weaknesses/problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future enhancements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Delighters” </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Question Formats to Avoid <ul><li>“ Would you like a system that could….?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Wouldn’t you agree that if we could produce a system that could…” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Question Formats to Encourage <ul><li>What- tend to focus conversation on events. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What problems have you experienced?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How- tend to focus discussion on the process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How do you use..?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why – require an explanation which my be helpful, but may elicit a defensive reaction!! </li></ul><ul><li>Could – are usually perceived as “gentle” and very open. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Could you give an example?” </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Clarity <ul><li>Keep questions short </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break complex issues into a series of short questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid technical jargon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sensitive that jargon is more pervasive than we first think (EE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value of silence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncomfortable, but helpful </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Customer Visit <ul><li>Assign Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviewer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks most of the question and follows up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages the discussion, covering all key topics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scribe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes detailed notes – verbatim when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backstop for interviewer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soaks up impressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listens “between the lines” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backstop for the interviewer </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Representing RHIT <ul><li>Do No Harm! </li></ul><ul><li>You are a representative of Rose. Say “we”, not “they.” </li></ul><ul><li>Assume that anything you say may be quoted, “According to Rose students….” </li></ul><ul><li>Do not make a commitment on a solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t bad mouth the school (even if that is how you feel). Make an appointment and talk to Dr. Purdy or Dr. Western. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Group Homework #1 <ul><li>Form a group of 3-4 students. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of 5 potential “customer groups” for a flashlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an interview guide for one of your customer groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct the interview using the format outlined and record the answers in Word. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover page with list of group members and section numbers. Include CM for one member. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of 5 potential customer groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview guide with responses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due one week from today. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Stage 2: Transform our Understanding into Customer Requirements Collect Voices from Interviews Identify Key Voices Link Voice with Image to Give Context Develop Image of Customer’s Environment and Needs Collect Potent Images of Product Use Extract Key Ideas or Essences Translate Requirements to Our Language
  29. 29. Interview Transcription You will get two kinds of information. Images Voiced Requirements or Needs Of the context/ environment of use Needs Ideas Complaints Questions Suggestions Solutions Easy to spot!
  30. 30. Case Study <ul><li>Koch Paving Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Project Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate separation of aggregate from asphalt after mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive up to 6000 grams of mix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desired that mix can be at up to 170 C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Room temperature mix is acceptable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for different aggregate sizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for different mix stiffness and stickiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device must not fracture aggregate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype production must cost less that $5000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete project by October 1, 2004 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. WHAT SCENES AND IMAGES DESCRIBE KOCH’S PROCESS FOR BREAKING UP MIX? RUBBING BETWEEN TOWELS DOESN’T SEPARATE MIX LEAF BLOWERS DON’T SEPARATE MIX THERE ARE PROCESSES THAT ARE NOT SUCCESSFUL FOR SEPARATING THE MIX . THEY RUB THEIR HANDS BACK AND FORTH WITH MIX BETWEEN THEIR HANDS TO MAKE IT COME APART. THEY USE A SPATULA TO SPREAD THE MIX OUT ON A TABLE WHEN IT IS TOO HOT TO HANDLE THERE ARE CURRENT PROCESSES THAT THEY USE TO SEPARATE THE MIX. MANY PROCESSES HAVE BEEN TRIED TO SEPARATE THE AGGREGATE THE EMPLOYEES ARE EXCITED ABOUT WORK THE COMPANY IS INNOVATIVE EMPLOYEES ARE WILLING AND EXCITED TO EXPERIMENT THE CUSTOMER HAS A CAN DO ATTITUDE THERE IS AN ASSEMBLY LINE OF MIX WAITING TO BE BROKEN APART BREAKING APART THE MIX IS TIME CONSUMING THEY USE A LOT OF TABLE ROOM TO SPREAD OUT THE HOT MIX TO KEEP IT FROM STICKING THEY PUT TAPE ON THEIR FINGERS BECAUSE THE MIX IS SO ROUGH IT IS HARD TO BREAK APART THE MIX AND IT HURTS YOUR HANDS PROCESS IS SPACE AND LABOR INTENSIVE WITH HIGH VOLUME THE PROCESS IS PAINFUL PROCESS HAS CHALLENGES THAT NEED TO BE OVERCOME MIX IS LIKE A FLUID WHEN HOT THE MIX STARTS OUT HOT BUT COOLS QUICKLY PROCESS INVOLVES RAPID HEAT TRANSFER THAT CAUSES MATERIAL PROPERTIES TO CHANGE THE COOLED AGGREGATE IS ALL STUCK TOGETHER THE CONSISTENCY IS LIKE RICE KRISPIE TREATS WHEN YOU POUR IT OUT MIX IS STICKY SOME COOLED MIXES ARE BONDED TOGETHER THE SMALLEST OPENING IS ABOUT 4.75 MM ON A SIDE THE SEPARATED MIX MUST BE SMALLER THAN THE LARGEST ROCK IN THE MIX PROCESS HAS SIZE CONSTRAINTS THE CURRENT PROCESS HAS CERTAIN PROPERTIES   
  32. 32. Merging of Voices and Images <ul><li>Take Key Voices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(trivial many to Vital Few ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit voices to top 40 (wow) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link Voice with Image to Give Context </li></ul><ul><li>Extract Key Ideas or Essences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover the requirement(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write clear and non-restrictive customer requirement statement(s). </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Translation Guidelines <ul><li>Solution-free statements </li></ul><ul><li>Use factual language </li></ul><ul><li>Use multi-valued language </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Active Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Place emphatic words at end </li></ul><ul><li>Put statements in positive form </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear </li></ul><ul><li>What, not HOW! </li></ul>
  34. 34. 1. “Give me one whole thought from your interview…” 2. “Now pick out any image from your visit that relates to that voice..” 5. “Does that voice connect differently with another image?” etc. 3. “What thoughts come to mind when you link those two? Any others?—Note all of them.” 4. “Take a stab at figuring out what their requirement is. Does your first line sound like a solution, if so what are you solving? Is the statement as concrete as you can make it?” Several iterations are normal and desirable!! Translation Worksheet Number Name Any Images: Key Items: Customer Requirement(s)/Needs(s): Customer Voice:
  35. 35. Every time my wife and I talk about home theater systems, she complains that we have a beautiful decorated house that wasn’t designed to include a home theater system. The bulky mass module – I didn’t want to see it first thing when we walked into the room – so we moved it to the other side. Disappointed with the way it looks after installation. 1 st try: Homeowner has to do minimal alterations in the room to accommodate systems in desired locations. 2 nd try: Homeowner has minimal awareness of the system. 3 rd try: System components are well matched and unobtrusive. Home Entertainment System Translation Worksheet Number Name Any Images: Key Items: Customer Requirement(s)/Needs(s): Customer Voice:
  36. 36. Cars can’t go to court… so we use photos to show if the vehicles hit each other or not… the photo has to have clear detail to show paint transfer from one car to another after collision. If there was no collision, then no accident. Detailed picture proved that cars didn’t hit each other. Need detail in photos, details used as evidence, need to see paint transfer. 1 st try: Photo shows details of car collision. 2 nd try: Details in photo evidence transfer of paint from one car to another after collision. 3 rd try: Photos show to the naked eye paint transfer between cars. Translation Worksheet Number Name Any Images: Key Items: Customer Requirement(s)/Needs(s): Customer Voice:
  37. 37. It should be able to handle different sizes. 1 st try: Device should accept mixes with different size of aggregate. 2 nd try: Device should accept mixes that contain aggregate from 4.75 mm to 1.5”. Size varies They use both English and metric units. Translation Worksheet Number Name Any Images: Key Items: Customer Requirement(s)/Needs(s): Customer Voice:
  38. 39. Customer Comments <ul><li>“ See how the leather on the bottom of the bag is all scratched; it’s ugly” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When I’m standing in line at the cashier trying to find my checkbook while balancing my bag on my knee, I feel like a stork.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ This bag is my life; if I lose it I’m in big trouble.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There’s nothing worse than a banana that’s been squished by the edge of a textbook.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I never use both straps on my knapsack; I just sling it over one shoulder.” </li></ul>
  39. 40. 3. “What thoughts come to mind when you link those two? Any others?—Note all of them.” “ When I’m standing in line at the cashier trying to find my checkbook while balancing my bag on my knee, I feel like a stork.” Translation Worksheet Quiz#3 CM Name Any Images: Key Items: Customer Requirement(s)/Needs(s): Customer Voice:
  40. 41. Use Translated Requirements <ul><li>Translation is “Clarification on Steroids!!” </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze Customer Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are a customer advocate! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the most important requirements? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form a hierarchy of customer requirements. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. WHAT ARE THE KEY CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAX GRAVITY BREAKER? DEVICE SHOULD BE OPTIMIZED FOR 1500 GRAMS. DEVICE SHOULD HANDLE 500 – 600 GRAMS DEVICE HAS VOLUME REQUIREMENTS THE SMALLEST AGGREGATE SIZE IS A 4.75 MM SIEVE. THE LARGEST SIZE IS 1.5” SEPARATED PARTICLES MUST BE SMALLER THAN THE LARGEST PIECE OF AGGREGATE THERE ARE SIZE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MIX THE DEVICE HAS PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS DEVICE IS COMPLETELY AUTOMATED DEVICE MUST SEPARATE MIX IN ONE HOUR DEVICE SHOULD SEPARATE MIX IN 15 MINUTES THERE ARE TIME REQUIRE-MENTS FOR THE PROCESS MINIMIZE COST KEEP COST UNDER $5000 THERE ARE COST LIMITS THE DEVICE HAS ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS DEVICE SHOULD OUTPUT COOL, SEPARATED MIX AFTER EXITING THE DEVICE, ASPHALT MUST ADHERE TO AGGREGATE AGGREGATE IS INTACT AFTER PROCESSING THERE ARE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE OUTPUTS FROM THE DEVICE THE DEVICE HAS SPECIFIC INPUT/OUTPUT REQUIREMENTS DEVICE HAS REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCEPTING THE MIX ALL MIX MUST ENTER THE DEVICE DEVICE SHOULD ACCEPT MIXES WITH DIFFERENT SIZES OF AGGREGATE DEVICE SHOULD ACCEPT MIX AT 170 C  
  42. 43. Group Homework #2 <ul><li>Develop at least 3 requirements for a flashlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Work in groups of 3-4. (Hopefully the group that you were in for the interview.) </li></ul><ul><li>Read your interview transcript and identify at least one image and three voices. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a translation worksheet to develop customer requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation worksheets will be posted on the web. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover page with list of group members and section numbers. Include CM for one member. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview guide with responses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of one image and three voices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of three voices into customer requirements on the translation worksheet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due one week from today. </li></ul></ul>

×