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IE-026 物料需求規劃
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IE-026 物料需求規劃

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  • 1. 物料需求規劃 Material Requirement Planning (MRP) 覃崇耀 Chung Y. Ching 世新大學傳管系副教授
  • 2. 大綱 有關MRP的參考書籍、期刊、網站 1. 不同觀點看MRP的定義 2. MRP MRP的演進 3. MRP的邏輯 4. MRP的實施 5. MRP的檢討 6.
  • 3. 有關MRP的參考書籍、網站、期 刊 Orlicky, J. A., Material Requirements 1. Planning,New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975 Plossl, G. W., Orlicky’s Material 2. Require-ments Planning,(2nd edition) New York : McGraw-Hill, 1994 Browne, J., J. Harhen, and J. Shivnan, 3. Production Management Systems:An Integrated Perspective, New York : McGraw-Hill, 1994 有關生管的教科書 4.
  • 4. 有關MRP的參考書籍、網站、 期刊 http://www.google.com (browse: erp or mrp) http://www.itbp.com/opsmanagement/iebm/material_requireme nts.htm http://www.vaihome.com/s2000mrp.htm http://www.inventorysolutions.org/def_mrp.htm
  • 5. 有關MRP的參考書籍、網站、 期刊 1. Production and Inventory Management Journal. 2. Journal of Operations Management. 3. International Journal of Production Research. 4. International Journal of Production Economic. 5. International Journal of Production Research. 6. Computer and IE 7. 等等.
  • 6. 不同觀點看  MRP的定義
  • 7. 生產是: What is to be made? 1. How many, and when are they needed? 2. What resources are required to do this? 3. Which are already available? 4. Which others will be available in time? 5. What more will be need? 6.
  • 8. MRP的定義 生產管理系統的觀點  Part of the Production Management Systems  Focus on Manufacturing Planning 
  • 9. Forecasts Production planning Resource requirements planning Master production Rough cut capacity Customer schedule planning orders Material requirements Capacity requirements planning planning Production activity control Purchasing Dispatching Input/output control Figure 1 The hierarchy of PMS
  • 10. Part of the Production Management Systems (I)  Year Concept Tool Originator 科學管理原則 工作、時間研究 1910s F. W. Taylor 工業心理學 動作研究 Frank & Lillian Gilbreth 移動組裝線 動作排程圖 Henry Ford & H. Gantt 經濟批量 E.O.Q F. W. Harris 品質管制 抽樣、統計品管表 W. Shewhart, H. Roming 1930s E. Mayo, L. H. Tippett 作業員工激勵 工作分析之作業抽樣 跨學門團隊解決複 線性規劃之單體法 OR group, George B. 1940s (simplex method) Dantzig 雜系統問題 擴大發展作業研究 模擬、等候線理論、 Many researchers in 1950s- 決策理論、數學規 the United States and 之工具問題 1960s 劃、專案排程技術 Western Europe PERT/CPM 現場排程、存貨管 電腦之廣泛運用 1970s IBM, J. Orlicky, O. 制、預測、專案管 Wight 理、MRP 服務業之量產 服務品質與生產力 McDonald’s restaurants
  • 11. Part of the Production Management Systems (II)  Year Concept Tool Originator 製造策略典範 製造成為競爭武器 1980s Harvard faculty JIT、TQC、工廠 Kanban, Poka-yokes, Ohno, Deming, 自動化 CIM, FMS, CAD/CAM Bottleneck Analysis、 Eliyahu M. OPT、TOC 同步製造 Goldratt 全面品管(TQM) Baldrige品質獎、 1990s NIST, ASQC, IOS, ISO9000 品質功能展開、價值與同 M. Hammer& 步工程、持續改善典範 major consulting 企業再造 徹底改革典範 U.S. Government, Netscape, Internet, World Wide 電子化企業 Microsoft Co. Web 供應鏈管理 SAP/R3, client/server SAP, Oracle (SCM) software 電子商務 2000s Internet, World Wide Amazon, e-bay, Web America Online, Yahoo
  • 12. MRP的定義 管理資訊系統的觀點  Part of the Computerized Integrated  Manufacturing Information Systems Focus on Manufacturing Planning and Control 
  • 13. MRP的定義 生產計畫與管制的觀點  Computerized Planning and Control Systems  Focus on Manufacturing Information Flow 
  • 14. Master Production Schedule Planning MRP System Purchasing Scheduling Scheduling Scheduling Control Scheduling Scheduling Scheduling Scheduling
  • 15. MRP的定義 存貨管理系統的觀點  Reorder point  Economic Ordering Quantity (EOQ)  Exposition and time-phased Inventory System 
  • 16. MRP的定義 產能管理系統的觀點  Infinite capacities  Push system  Equal weighted item priority 
  • 17. Independent Master item demand production schedule Inventory MRP Inventory Product transactions system Status structure records record Inventory order action Priority planning Priority integrity Planned-order schedules To capacity requirements Performance planning system control Exception reports
  • 18. Figure. MPC Classification Schema CPM/PERT Number MRP of subparts Just-in-time Repetitive Flow Seconds Minutes Days Weeks Months Examples: Oil, food, drugs, watches, TV, trucks, planes, houses, ships
  • 19. Production Demand Resource Planning Management Planning Master Production Front end Scheduling Detail Inventory Routing Bills of Material status file material Planning data Timed-phased Detail Requirement Capacity (MRP) records Planning Material and Capacity Engine Plans Manufacturing Planning and Control System Shop- Vendor floor Back end System System
  • 20. Contributors to MRP Joseph Orlicky (mrp)   George Plossl (mrp)  Oliver Wight (mrp II)  American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS)
  • 21. What is MRP? 不同觀點看MRP  Computerized Inventory Control  Production Planning System  Management Information System  Manufacturing Control System
  • 22. When to use MRP Job Shop Production   Complex Products  Assemble-to-Order Environments  Discrete and Dependent Demand Items
  • 23. What can MRP do? Reduce Inventory Reduce Purchasing   Levels Cost Reduce Component Improve Production   Shortages Schedules Improve Shipping Reduce Manufacturing   Performance Cost Improve Customer Reduce Lead Times   Service Less Scrap and  Improve Productivity Rework  Simplified and Higher Production   Accurate Scheduling Quality
  • 24. What can MRP do? Improve Reduce Overtime   Communication Improve Supply  Improve Plant Schedules  Efficiency Improve Calculation  Reduce Freight Cost of Material  Requirements Reduction in Excess  Inventory Improve Competitive  Position
  • 25. Three Basic Steps of MRP  IdentifyingRequirements  Running MRP – Creating the Suggestions  Firming the Suggestions
  • 26. Step 1: Identifying the Requirements Quantity on Hand   Quantity on Open Purchase Order  Quantity in/or Planned for Manufacturing  Quantity Committed to Existing Orders  Quantity Forecasted
  • 27. Step 1: Important Information MRP is….. Company Sensitive   Location Sensitive  Date Sensitive
  • 28. Step 2: Running MRP – Creating the Suggestions Critical Items   Expedite Items  Delay Items
  • 29. Step 3: Firming the Suggestions  Manufacturing Orders  Purchasing Orders  Various Reports
  • 30. Overview of the MRP System Product Master Inventory Structure Production Master File File Schedule Material Requirements Planning Purchase Manufacturing Various Orders Orders Reports
  • 31. MRP Inputs  Product Structure File  Master Production Schedule  Inventory Master File
  • 32. Product Structure File  Bill of Materials
  • 33. Master Production Schedule Schedule of Finished Products   Represents Production, not Demand  Combination of Customer Orders and Demand Forecasts  What Needs to be Produced
  • 34. Inventory Master File  On-Hand Quantities  On-Order Quantities  Lot Sizes  Safety Stock  Lead Time  Past-Usage Figures
  • 35. MRP Process Schedules the Production of all items  using an MRP Matrix MRP Matrix Item: Low-Level Code: PD 1 2345 Lot Size: Lead Time: Gross Requirements Scheduled Receipts Projected on Hand Net Requirements Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases
  • 36. Terms Defined Item – name or number for the item being  scheduled Low-Level Code – the lowest level of the  item on the product structure file Lot Size – order multiples of quantity  Lead Time – the time from when an order is  placed to when it is received PD – Past Due Time Bucket, orders behind  schedule
  • 37. Terms Defined Gross Requirements – demand for an item  by time period Scheduled Receipts – material already  ordered Projected on Hand – expected ending  inventory Net Requirements – number of items to be  provided and when Planned Order Receipts – net requirements  adjusted for lot size Planned Order Releases – planned order  receipts offset for lead times
  • 38. Example of the MRP Process Item: A Low-Level Code: 1 PD 1 2 3 4 5 Lot Size: 25 Lead Time: 1 Gross Requirements 10 15 25 25 30 Scheduled Receipts 25 Projected on Hand 20 Net Requirements Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Releases
  • 39. Example of the MRP Process Item: A Low-Level Code: 1 PD 1 2 3 4 5 Lot Size: 25 min Lead Time: 1 Gross Requirements 10 15 25 25 30 Scheduled Receipts 25 Projected on Hand 20 10 20 20 20 15 Net Requirements 5 5 10 Planned Order Receipts 25 25 25 Planned Order Releases 25 25 25 30 25
  • 40. MRP Outputs  Manufacturing Orders  Purchasing Orders  Various Reports
  • 41. Hubbell Lighting Case Manufactures Industrial Lighting  Products Good-Quality Products  Poor at Meeting Due Dates  Work is Specialized for Each Customer  Job Shop Environment  Complex Products 
  • 42. Hubbell Lighting Case After MRP Implementation Before MRP Implementation 97% of orders completed  Less than 75% of orders time on  completed on time  2% of orders completed with 1 to 2 days after due date
  • 43. Summary of MRP MRP is a…..  Computerized Inventory Control  Production Planning System that…..  Schedules Component Items as Needed which will…..  Track Inventory and…..  Help you in many other aspects of business

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