人工智慧實驗室


    容差設計概論 ITD-01
    Introduction to tolerance design


            簡介 General

    臺灣科技大學機械系
      NTUST ME
  ...
人工智慧實驗室

                 參考資料
A
• Title       CAD/CAM Theory and Practice
• Authors     Ibrahim Zeid
• Publisher   McGraw...
人工智慧實驗室

               參考資料
 B
• Title   A Comprehensive Review of
          Tolerancing Research
• Authors Hong, Y. S. a...
人工智慧實驗室

         Basic Concepts
  • Tolerance
    – 公差, 允差, 容差, 容許度,寬容值
  • Tolerancing , Tolerance design
    – 容差設計
  •...
人工智慧實驗室

            Basic Concepts
 • Characteristics of Products
    – Material, geometry, function
 • Dimensioning of P...
人工智慧實驗室

             Basic Concepts
• Product life cycle
  –   Demand               –   Transportation
  –   Design      ...
人工智慧實驗室

       Basic Concepts
 機器要運轉則必有鬆隙和振動。
 製品裝上夾具,不一定能放在理想的同一位置。
 刀具必有磨損。
 材料有堅硬、軟脆。       Manufacturing
 製品因殘留內應力而產生...
人工智慧實驗室

      Basic Concepts
          Functional Requirements




                     ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   8
人工智慧實驗室

                  Scope
   Tolerance design
     A.   Tolerancing schemes
     B.   Tolerance modeling and repres...
人工智慧實驗室

     A. Tolerancing schemes
 • Parametric
    – Conventional tolerances (plus/minus)
    – Vectorial tolerancing ...
人工智慧實驗室

B. Modeling and representation

  • Tolerance system
    –   Variational Graph
    –   Boundary Representation
  ...
人工智慧實驗室

B. Modeling and representation
 Boundary Representation




                    ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   12
人工智慧實驗室

B. Modeling and representation
 Boundary Representation




                    ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   13
人工智慧實驗室

  C. Tolerance specification
  • Standards
    –   ISO 1101
    –   ANSI Y14.5
    –   DIN, JIS
    –   CNS B1001...
人工智慧實驗室

   D. Tolerance analysis
    • Worst Case (Absolute)
      method
    • Statistical method
    • Variance method
...
人工智慧實驗室

E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation)

      •   Equal tolerance
      •   Equal precision
      •   Minimum cost
 ...
人工智慧實驗室

E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation)
• Cost function




                  ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   17
人工智慧實驗室

E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation)
• Cost function




                  ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   18
人工智慧實驗室

E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation)
• Cost function




                  ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   19
人工智慧實驗室

      F. Tolerance transfer
 Systematic methodologies are needed for
 modeling processes to evaluate processing
 ...
人工智慧實驗室

    F. Tolerance transfer

 Process Layout




              ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   21
人工智慧實驗室

    F. Tolerance transfer

 Process Layout




              ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   22
人工智慧實驗室

                                             F. Tolerance transfer
                                              ...
人工智慧實驗室

   G. Tolerance evaluation
     • Gaging
       – Yes or No
     • Measuring
       – Statistical data


     • 精...
人工智慧實驗室

   H. Quality engineering
     •   Quality System
     •   Quality Control
     •   Quality Indices
     •   Loss...
人工智慧實驗室

     H. Quality engineering
 • Overall quality system covers whole
   product’s life cycle.
 • Deviation in a pro...
人工智慧實驗室

    H. Quality engineering
   Example : Design a system which converts
         220V AC input into 115V AC output...
人工智慧實驗室

     H. Quality engineering
  Example : Design a system which converts
        220V AC input into 115V AC output
...
人工智慧實驗室

  I. Computer aided design
   Tolerance modeling and
      representation
   Tolerance analysis
   Tolerance tran...
人工智慧實驗室

          Simulation




             ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   30
人工智慧實驗室

          Simulation




             ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   31
人工智慧實驗室

     J. Other applications
 • Optical system
 • Fault tolerance
   – 保護資料免於遭受各式意外造成損失
     的能力即稱作失誤容忍
 • Social T...
人工智慧實驗室

          Course




           ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   33
人工智慧實驗室



            End

      ITD-01 General

          NTUST ME

            ITD-01 容差設計概論   ME NTUST   34
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Ds 001 Introduction To Tolerance Design Itd 01

  1. 1. 人工智慧實驗室 容差設計概論 ITD-01 Introduction to tolerance design 簡介 General 臺灣科技大學機械系 NTUST ME ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 1
  2. 2. 人工智慧實驗室 參考資料 A • Title CAD/CAM Theory and Practice • Authors Ibrahim Zeid • Publisher McGraw-Hill , New York • Date 1991 • Pages pp. 757-835 Ch. 7 Mechanical Tolerancing ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 2
  3. 3. 人工智慧實驗室 參考資料 B • Title A Comprehensive Review of Tolerancing Research • Authors Hong, Y. S. and T. C. Chang • Journal International Journal of Product Research 40(11) • Date 2002 • Pages pp. 2425-2459 ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 3
  4. 4. 人工智慧實驗室 Basic Concepts • Tolerance – 公差, 允差, 容差, 容許度,寬容值 • Tolerancing , Tolerance design – 容差設計 • Tolerance Control – 容差控制 ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 4
  5. 5. 人工智慧實驗室 Basic Concepts • Characteristics of Products – Material, geometry, function • Dimensioning of Products – Nominal size and Tolerance Size is replaced by specification in many applications ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 5
  6. 6. 人工智慧實驗室 Basic Concepts • Product life cycle – Demand – Transportation – Design – Storage – Manufacturing – Sale – Inspection – Operation – Assembly – Maintenance – Testing – Failure ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 6
  7. 7. 人工智慧實驗室 Basic Concepts 機器要運轉則必有鬆隙和振動。 製品裝上夾具,不一定能放在理想的同一位置。 刀具必有磨損。 材料有堅硬、軟脆。 Manufacturing 製品因殘留內應力而產生撓曲。 光線強弱及其射入方向常左右視覺。 切削表面粗度,總是帶有刀痕山谷及起伏波浪。 切削或量測製品時,其溫度常不同。 操作者有熟練生疏與慎密或粗心。 工場中也沒有簡便的精密量具來證實其為絕對準確。 ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 7
  8. 8. 人工智慧實驗室 Basic Concepts Functional Requirements ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 8
  9. 9. 人工智慧實驗室 Scope Tolerance design A. Tolerancing schemes B. Tolerance modeling and representation C. Tolerance specification D. Tolerance analysis E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation) F. Tolerance transfer G. Tolerance evaluation H. Quality engineering I. Computer aided design J. Other applications ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 9
  10. 10. 人工智慧實驗室 A. Tolerancing schemes • Parametric – Conventional tolerances (plus/minus) – Vectorial tolerancing WCS + 6 DOF • Geometric – Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) – Attributes of features: forms, orientations, locations, runouts, profiles. • Statistical – Distribution – Standard deviation ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 10
  11. 11. 人工智慧實驗室 B. Modeling and representation • Tolerance system – Variational Graph – Boundary Representation – Constructive Solid Geometry – Feasible Space ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 11
  12. 12. 人工智慧實驗室 B. Modeling and representation Boundary Representation ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 12
  13. 13. 人工智慧實驗室 B. Modeling and representation Boundary Representation ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 13
  14. 14. 人工智慧實驗室 C. Tolerance specification • Standards – ISO 1101 – ANSI Y14.5 – DIN, JIS – CNS B1001-4,12-16, B1002-1 • Functional tolerance • Assembly tolerance ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 14
  15. 15. 人工智慧實驗室 D. Tolerance analysis • Worst Case (Absolute) method • Statistical method • Variance method • Bender’s method • Gilson’s method • Liggett’s method • Bjorke’s method • Monte Carlo Simulation ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 15
  16. 16. 人工智慧實驗室 E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation) • Equal tolerance • Equal precision • Minimum cost • Optimization • Reliability Index ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 16
  17. 17. 人工智慧實驗室 E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation) • Cost function ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 17
  18. 18. 人工智慧實驗室 E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation) • Cost function ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 18
  19. 19. 人工智慧實驗室 E. Tolerance synthesis (allocation) • Cost function ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 19
  20. 20. 人工智慧實驗室 F. Tolerance transfer Systematic methodologies are needed for modeling processes to evaluate processing alternatives for a given tolerance – Process Layout – Tolerance Charts ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 20
  21. 21. 人工智慧實驗室 F. Tolerance transfer Process Layout ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 21
  22. 22. 人工智慧實驗室 F. Tolerance transfer Process Layout ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 22
  23. 23. 人工智慧實驗室 F. Tolerance transfer 零件號碼 零件名稱 修改代號 國立台灣工業技術學院 設計者 設計日期 校對者 校對日期 容 差 表 0.0910 0.1200 0.1000 0.0990 0.0910 0.2030 0.1870 1 4 Tolerance 2 3 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5090 0.5010 5 6 Charts OP NO & T OPE. DIM. BEF. DIM. ST. REM. ± 1 PFORM 2 PFORM 0.750 0.300 0.010 ± 0.010 • 1、零件略圖繪製區 3 PFORM 0.300 ± 0.010 4 PFORM 0.100 ± 0.010 • 2、施工程序號碼及使用機具 5 PFORM 0.150 ± 0.010 6 LATHE-R 0.605 ± 0.010 0.750 ± 0.010 0.145 ± 0.020 欄 7 LATHE-R 0.115 ± 0.010 0.005 ± 0.030 0.110 ± 0.040 8 LATHE-R 0.341 ± 0.010 0.390 ± 0.030 0.049 ± 0.040 9 LATHE-F 0.116 ± 0.003 0.149 ± 0.030 0.033 ± 0.033 • 3、施工尺寸及容差標示欄 10 LATHE-F 0.328 ± 0.003 0.341 ± 0.010 0.013 ± 0.013 11 GRIND 0.120 ± 0.001 0.116 ± 0.003 0.004 ± 0.004 • 4、各施工程序基準面及加工 12 GRIND 0.547 ± 0.002 0.572 ± 0.023 0.025 ± 0.025 13 GRIND 0.215 ± 0.001 0.297 ± 0.034 0.082 ± 0.035 面符號標示欄 14 LATHE-F 0.420 ± 0.004 0.427 ± 0.003 0.007 ± 0.007 15 LATHE-F 0.219 ± 0.002 0.327 ± 0.033 0.108 ± 0.035 16 LATHE-F 17 GRIND 0.434 0.315 ± 0.004 ± 0.002 0.444 0.324 ± ± 0.006 0.007 0.010 0.009 ± ± 0.010 0.009 7 • 5、施工前尺寸及容差標示欄 18 GRIND 0.410 ± 0.002 0.425 ± 0.013 0.015 ± 0.015 • 6、材料切削量及容差標示欄 19 GRIND 0.505 ± 0.002 0.515 ± 0.008 0.010 ± 0.010 8 9 • 7、藍圖尺寸及容差標示欄 ENGINEER DIMENSION RESULTING DIMENSION • 8、藍圖尺寸符號標示欄 20 B/P 0.505 ± 0.004 0.505 ± 0.002 21 B/P 0.195 ± 0.008 0.195 ± 0.007 • 9、結果尺寸及容差標示欄 22 B/P 0.110 ± 0.010 0.110 ± 0.010 23 B/P 0.095 ± 0.004 0.095 ± 0.004 24 B/P 0.095 ± 0.004 0.095 ± 0.004 ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 23
  24. 24. 人工智慧實驗室 G. Tolerance evaluation • Gaging – Yes or No • Measuring – Statistical data • 精密量測(實習) ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 24
  25. 25. 人工智慧實驗室 H. Quality engineering • Quality System • Quality Control • Quality Indices • Loss Function • Loss and Inspection • Loss and Types of Tolerance • Quality Evaluation • Tolerance Design ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 25
  26. 26. 人工智慧實驗室 H. Quality engineering • Overall quality system covers whole product’s life cycle. • Deviation in a product’s functional characteristics from their nominal values causes losses. • Undesired and uncontrollable factors can cause deviation from targets. • Robust design may deal with all noise factors. ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 26
  27. 27. 人工智慧實驗室 H. Quality engineering Example : Design a system which converts 220V AC input into 115V AC output PRODUCT DESIGN • System design – System variable:feed-forward or feed-back – Control variable:adjustable resistance or PID controller. • Parameter design – Best working range of the transistor gain. • Tolerance design – Specify tolerance of the transistor gain. ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 27
  28. 28. 人工智慧實驗室 H. Quality engineering Example : Design a system which converts 220V AC input into 115V AC output PROCESS DESIGN • System design – Selection manufacturing method and machine tools • Parameter design – Determine the best working range for each process variable • Tolerance design – Specify tolerance for each process variable. ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 28
  29. 29. 人工智慧實驗室 I. Computer aided design Tolerance modeling and representation Tolerance analysis Tolerance transfer Software Packages ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 29
  30. 30. 人工智慧實驗室 Simulation ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 30
  31. 31. 人工智慧實驗室 Simulation ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 31
  32. 32. 人工智慧實驗室 J. Other applications • Optical system • Fault tolerance – 保護資料免於遭受各式意外造成損失 的能力即稱作失誤容忍 • Social Tolerance • International Day for Tolerance11月16日 ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 32
  33. 33. 人工智慧實驗室 Course ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 33
  34. 34. 人工智慧實驗室 End ITD-01 General NTUST ME ITD-01 容差設計概論 ME NTUST 34

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