1. Presented by:
--Bùi Thị Thanh
- -Hồ Thị Hồ ng
-Trầ n Nữ Nhân
-Phan Thị Diễ m
Welcome to our
2. Adjunct: Definition
An adjunct is part of a Sentence and
modifies the Verb to show time, manner,
place, frequency and degree, it depends on
someother from word or phrase especially an
element clause structure its adverbial
Eg: It is nearly done. ('Nearly' describes the
degree to which the action has been done.)
Eg: I go there twice a week. ('Twice a week'
describes the frequency with which the action is
In the garden, Lona saw a dog on last Sunday—(wrong)
On last Sunday, Lona saw a dog in the garden ---(right)
Notice that this example is ambiguous between
•The adjunct in the garden modifies the verbsaw (in
which case it is Lorna who saw the dog while she was
in the garden)
•The noun phrase the dog (in which case it is the dog,
who is in the garden).
In conclusion, the purpose of this lesson is to help you
know the classification of adjuncts, how to put the
adverbials and what benefit to use adjunct in a
sentence, which are helpful for your translation subject.
5. redication adjunction:
He ate his meal quickly ~He ate his meal
David gave blood last week ~David gave blood
Susan went to school in New York~Susan went to school
From a syntactic point of view, Adjuncts are optional
elements, since their omission still leaves a complete
If adjuncts are not existed, these sentences are still
6. Predication adjunction:
The adverbial is an obligatory component of the sentence
• I put a pen in my desk. (optional)
• I find a pen in my desk. (obligatory)
7. Adjunct sentence
This is a rather specialized
subdivision of ADJUNCT
Predicate adjunct :many
adjuncts belong to the
predication, are sometimes
obligatory, and normally come in
Sentence adjuncts are more
marginal, are optional, and can
come in initial position; they relate
to the sentence as a whole.
She lives in Oxford
In Oxford, you can visit the
8. THE SEMANTIC ROLES of
9. Adjuncts of space
Spatial adjuncts realize the
roles set out by means of
prepositional phrase. ( position,
direction, goal, source, distance.)
-noun phrase can be used as
predication on adjuncts of distance:
Ex: I traveled a lo ng wa y
10. Adjuncts of space
-Space adjuncts are elicited by the question “Where”:
Ex: +Where are you from? ( source)
+Where are you going? ( direction)
+Where are you standing? ( position)
+ How far:
Ex: How far do you go from your house to the school?
Note: - here and there have “ near” and “far” orientation as
with this and that,
- The position role with respect to persons is often
expressed by a with- phrase:
Ex: Where is Marry? She is staying with me
11. Adjuncts of space
Direction adjuncts (goal or source)
can be used only with verbs of motion.
Ex: He went through the forest.
*position and distance adjunct can be free
with V in stative or dynamic use:
Ex: I live in Vinh city 200 kilometres
12. Adjuncts of space
- Space adjuncts are normally at E, but
where and more adjuncts are clustered at
E, they are ordered as follows:
Distance- direction( source, goal)- position
Ex: I walked a long way toward the
mountain in the hot weather.
- Besides, adjuncts of position can be moved
to M( the middle),I (the beginning).
13. Adjuncts of time
- Realized by prepositional phrases
Ex: I surf Internet everynight.
- Wider range of structures is available for time.
+ Noun phrases : I play tennis twice a week.
+ Finite Verb clauses : Stay in home until the
+ Non- finite clauses: Having a business travel,
I miss my husband.
+ Verbless clause : I read book as often as
+ Closed- class adverb phrases : I usually wake
up before 7 am.
+ Open- class adverb phrases: I have met him
14. Time- position adjuncts.
- Can be elicited by the question word When and the time specified
may be narrowly started and left rather vague:
Ex: When did you wake up?
Some hours ago.
- The pro-form for time- position reference is then ( in the past)
and in contrast to now.
Ex: I learnt English then, but now I learnt China.
But “then” can refer time in the future.
Ex: I will meet you tomorrow and hope that the contract will be
- Can be in a hierarchical relation.
Ex: I will see you at 3 pm tomorrow.
15. Time- position adjuncts.
Note: * When-clause may be ambiguous:
Ex: Tell me when you are ready.
This may be a noun clause as object ( Let me
know the time) or a time- position adjunct (When
you are ready, let me know).
- Optional or secondary element in a
construction: an adjunct may be removed without
the structural identity of the rest of the
construction being affected. The clearest
examples at sentence level are adverbials
16. Adjunction of duration and
-Adjunction may express duration of specific or indefinite
length, the duration in question being in the past, the
present, or the future:
17. Adjunction of duration and
-She worked in China for several year
-At present his granchildren are staying with
him for a few days
-I intend to go skiing for three weeks
These above examples we know the precise
duration, and we can relate the beginning or
end of the periods mentioned to speaker’s
18. Adjunction of duration and span:
Span: forward and backward
By contrast duration , forward and backward span relate to such a
“now” , the events aren’t definited about the length of the duration itself.
•Forward span is particularly associated with “till” and “untill”:
+ I shall be in my office until 5 o’clock
+ I didn’t sleep till 9 ‘clock.
•Backward span is particularly asscociated with “since” and the perfect
+ I have been in my office since 9 o’clock
Adjunction with since must specify a definite starting point, if the span
is more general, for can be used or a noun phrase without for.
-I have been in my office (for) several hours
19. Adjunction of duration and
**[A]Span may be specified also by from, up to, over, by, before,
and by noun phrases like this past(month), these last(few days),
this next year:
-We’ll be here up to midday.
-She has worked here only this last week
The beginning and end of s span can be indicated by the
correlatives from… to, from…through, between…and:
-The office is closed between one and 2 o’clock
[B]Especialy informally,backward span can be expressed without
-Things are much worse since you left
-I never saw you here before
[C]Adjunction of duration and span usually answer questions of the
form: How long…? Or more specifically Till when…..? Since
20. Time- frequency adjunction
-Veronica came to see me twice
-Veronica came to see me daily
-Veronica came to see me twice daily
-Each year, I have to make a presidential address three
Indentifite frequency :
21. Time- frequency adjunction
*[a] Denoting usual occurrence( normally, generally, ordinarily, ect..
- Tenny usually goes to bed before midnight.
*[b] Denoting universal frequency (always, continually, permanently,
-He has been asking for you incessantly.
*[c] Denoting high frequency (often, time anf again, repeatedly, etc..
-She has had plays broadcast frequently
*[d] Denoting low frequency ( occasionally, rarely, seldom, never,
-I very seldom play golf these days
-Iems form (a) and other subsets as sentence adjuncts can readily
cooccur with predication adjuncts from (b), (c), or (d)
-Generally(A), they are continually(b) complaining
-He( almost) never(d) goes out at night, normally(a)
-Sometimes(d), the dog barks repeatedly ( c)
22. Time- relationship adjuncts
The time adjuncts which express a relationship
between 2 time positions are of three types
(a) Denoting a temporal sequence, as in
-When did you previously go to the dentist?
(b) Implying a cocessive relation
-I don’t understand( even) now
(c )Contrasting one time with another
-Maureen should complain about it again
23. Positions of time adjuncts:
-In 1982, the company start to recover
-For many years, no one seemd interested in buying
-Normally, late nights have a bad effect on me
-She has recently completed a new play
24. PROCESS ADJUNCTS
*Process adjuncts define in some way the process denoted by the
verb. They can be divided into several semantic subclasses:
Means, instrument, and agency
 Adverb phrases
Prepositional or noun phrases
They danced (in) Gangnam style funnily.
She replied to questions with great courtesy.
He spoke in a way that reminded me of his father
(He spoke like his father/ He spoke as his father did).
25. PROCESS ADJUNCTS
•Adjuncts of means, instrument and agency
Three kinds have similar semantics and are overlapped in usage.
+ Both the means and agent are often expressed with by-phrases.
+ The instrument adjuncts can be realizes by with-phrases.
Examples of Agent:
•Her windows were broken by Jack. ( Jack broke her windows)
=> Correlating with the passive.
Examples of Means:
He decided to treat the patient surgically
I go to school by car
He try to persuade me by a lot of money.
=> A means adjunct can occur in a transitive clause.
Examples of Instruments:
-You can cut the bread with that knife
=> Being realized by “with”- phrases
Note: Means and instrument adjuncts can be elicited by how-questions:
“How can you read an ebook?”. “By computer/ by smart phone/ by
26. ADJUNCTS OF CONTIGENCY:
Adjuncts are used for reason (why...? => because...), purpose (what..
for? => to... ), cause, concessive...
Ex: I choose this job
because I love it. (reason)
to earn more money. (purpose)
She danced just for funny
The sale decreased from recent economic crises
27. ADJUNCTS OF CONTINGENCY
Realized by nonfinite clauses
+ in order to
+ so as to
Ex: I try to study
(so as )
to pass my next exam.
In formal style, finite clauses can occur with “so that, in order that”, especially when
the subject of the main clause is different from one in clause of purpose.
Ex: + He gave me his address so that I would visit him.
+ You should walk slowly in order that your sister can follow you.
Concessive relation is expressed by an adjunct, this takes form of a prepositional phrase.
Ex: The plane took off despite the bad weather.