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Our presentation about Adjunct in Syntax class.

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  1. 1. Presented by: --Bùi Thị Thanh Tâm - -Hồ Thị Hồ ng -Trầ n Nữ Nhân Ái -Phan Thị Diễ m Phúc Welcome to our presentattion
  2. 2. Adjunct: Definition An adjunct is part of a Sentence and modifies the Verb to show time, manner, place, frequency and degree, it depends on someother from word or phrase especially an element clause structure its adverbial function.   Eg: It is nearly done. ('Nearly' describes the degree to which the action has been done.) Eg: I go there twice a week. ('Twice a week' describes the frequency with which the action is done.)
  3. 3. Example: In the garden, Lona saw a dog on last Sunday—(wrong) On last Sunday, Lona saw a dog in the garden ---(right) Notice that this example is ambiguous between •The adjunct in the garden modifies the verbsaw (in which case it is Lorna who saw the dog while she was in the garden) •The noun phrase the dog (in which case it is the dog, who is in the garden). In conclusion, the purpose of this lesson is to help you know the classification of adjuncts, how to put the adverbials and what benefit to use adjunct in a sentence, which are helpful for your translation subject.
  4. 4. Adjuncts:
  5. 5. redication adjunction: 1.Optional : He ate his meal quickly ~He ate his meal  David gave blood last week ~David gave blood Susan went to school in New York~Susan went to school   From a syntactic point of view, Adjuncts are optional elements, since their omission still leaves a complete sentence: If adjuncts are not existed, these sentences are still meaningful.
  6. 6. Predication adjunction: 2.Obligatory The adverbial is an obligatory component of the sentence Example : • I put a pen in my desk. (optional) • I find a pen in my desk. (obligatory)
  7. 7. Adjunct sentence This is a rather specialized subdivision of ADJUNCT Predicate adjunct :many adjuncts belong to the predication, are sometimes obligatory, and normally come in end position Sentence adjuncts are more marginal, are optional, and can come in initial position; they relate to the sentence as a whole. She lives in Oxford  In Oxford, you can visit the colleges
  8. 8. THE SEMANTIC ROLES of adjuncts
  9. 9. Adjuncts of space Spatial adjuncts realize the roles set out by means of prepositional phrase. ( position, direction, goal, source, distance.) -noun phrase can be used as predication on adjuncts of distance: Ex: I traveled a lo ng wa y
  10. 10. Adjuncts of space -Space adjuncts are elicited by the question “Where”: Ex: +Where are you from? ( source) +Where are you going? ( direction) +Where are you standing? ( position) + How far: Ex: How far do you go from your house to the school? Note: - here and there have “ near” and “far” orientation as with this and that, - The position role with respect to persons is often expressed by a with- phrase: Ex: Where is Marry? She is staying with me
  11. 11. Adjuncts of space Direction adjuncts (goal or source) can be used only with verbs of motion. Ex: He went through the forest. *position and distance adjunct can be free with V in stative or dynamic use: Ex: I live in Vinh city 200 kilometres from here.
  12. 12. Adjuncts of space Space adjuncts - Space adjuncts are normally at E, but where and more adjuncts are clustered at E, they are ordered as follows: Distance- direction( source, goal)- position Ex: I walked a long way toward the mountain in the hot weather. - Besides, adjuncts of position can be moved to M( the middle),I (the beginning).
  13. 13. Adjuncts of time - Realized by prepositional phrases Ex: I surf Internet everynight. - Wider range of structures is available for time. + Noun phrases : I play tennis twice a week. + Finite Verb clauses : Stay in home until the rain stops. + Non- finite clauses: Having a business travel, I miss my husband. + Verbless clause : I read book as often as possible. + Closed- class adverb phrases : I usually wake up before 7 am. + Open- class adverb phrases: I have met him recently.
  14. 14. Time- position adjuncts. - Can be elicited by the question word When and the time specified may be narrowly started and left rather vague: Ex: When did you wake up? At 7am Some hours ago. - The pro-form for time- position reference is then ( in the past) and in contrast to now. Ex: I learnt English then, but now I learnt China. But “then” can refer time in the future. Ex: I will meet you tomorrow and hope that the contract will be designed. - Can be in a hierarchical relation. Ex: I will see you at 3 pm tomorrow.
  15. 15. Time- position adjuncts. Note: * When-clause may be ambiguous: Ex: Tell me when you are ready. This may be a noun clause as object ( Let me know the time) or a time- position adjunct (When you are ready, let me know). - Optional or secondary element in a construction: an adjunct may be removed without the structural identity of the rest of the construction being affected. The clearest examples at sentence level are adverbials
  16. 16. Adjunction of duration and span: -Adjunction may express duration of specific or indefinite length, the duration in question being in the past, the present, or the future:
  17. 17. Adjunction of duration and span: 1.Duration : -She worked in China for several year -At present his granchildren are staying with him for a few days -I intend to go skiing for three weeks These above examples we know the precise duration, and we can relate the beginning or end of the periods mentioned to speaker’s “now”
  18. 18. Adjunction of duration and span: 2. Span: forward and backward By contrast duration , forward and backward span relate to such a “now” , the events aren’t definited about the length of the duration itself. •Forward span is particularly associated with “till” and “untill”: + I shall be in my office until 5 o’clock + I didn’t sleep till 9 ‘clock. •Backward span is particularly asscociated with “since” and the perfect aspect: + I have been in my office since 9 o’clock Adjunction with since must specify a definite starting point, if the span is more general, for can be used or a noun phrase without for. -I have been in my office (for) several hours
  19. 19. Adjunction of duration and span: **[A]Span may be specified also by from, up to, over, by, before, and by noun phrases like this past(month), these last(few days), this next year: -We’ll be here up to midday. -She has worked here only this last week The beginning and end of s span can be indicated by the correlatives from… to, from…through, between…and: -The office is closed between one and 2 o’clock [B]Especialy informally,backward span can be expressed without the perfect -Things are much worse since you left -I never saw you here before [C]Adjunction of duration and span usually answer questions of the form: How long…? Or more specifically Till when…..? Since when….?
  20. 20. Time- frequency adjunction Definite frequency: Frequency occasion(O) Frequency period(p) -Veronica came to see me twice -Veronica came to see me daily -Veronica came to see me twice daily -Each year, I have to make a presidential address three times Indentifite frequency :
  21. 21. Time- frequency adjunction *[a] Denoting usual occurrence( normally, generally, ordinarily, ect.. - Tenny usually goes to bed before midnight. *[b] Denoting universal frequency (always, continually, permanently, etc.. -He has been asking for you incessantly. *[c] Denoting high frequency (often, time anf again, repeatedly, etc.. -She has had plays broadcast frequently *[d] Denoting low frequency ( occasionally, rarely, seldom, never, etc.. -I very seldom play golf these days -Iems form (a) and other subsets as sentence adjuncts can readily cooccur with predication adjuncts from (b), (c), or (d) -Generally(A), they are continually(b) complaining -He( almost) never(d) goes out at night, normally(a) -Sometimes(d), the dog barks repeatedly ( c)
  22. 22. Time- relationship adjuncts The time adjuncts which express a relationship between 2 time positions are of three types (a) Denoting a temporal sequence, as in -When did you previously go to the dentist? (b) Implying a cocessive relation -I don’t understand( even) now (c )Contrasting one time with another -Maureen should complain about it again
  23. 23. Positions of time adjuncts: Ex: -In 1982, the company start to recover -For many years, no one seemd interested in buying the house -Normally, late nights have a bad effect on me -She has recently completed a new play
  24. 24. PROCESS ADJUNCTS *Process adjuncts define in some way the process denoted by the verb. They can be divided into several semantic subclasses: Manner Means, instrument, and agency Manner adjunct: Realized by:  Adverb phrases Like-phrases As-clauses Prepositional or noun phrases Examples: They danced (in) Gangnam style funnily. She replied to questions with great courtesy. He spoke in a way that reminded me of his father (He spoke like his father/ He spoke as his father did).
  25. 25. PROCESS ADJUNCTS •Adjuncts of means, instrument and agency Three kinds have similar semantics and are overlapped in usage. + Both the means and agent are often expressed with by-phrases. + The instrument adjuncts can be realizes by with-phrases. Examples of Agent: •Her windows were broken by Jack. ( Jack broke her windows) => Correlating with the passive. Examples of Means: He decided to treat the patient surgically I go to school by car He try to persuade me by a lot of money. => A means adjunct can occur in a transitive clause. Examples of Instruments: -You can cut the bread with that knife => Being realized by “with”- phrases Note: Means and instrument adjuncts can be elicited by how-questions: “How can you read an ebook?”. “By computer/ by smart phone/ by notepad...”
  26. 26. ADJUNCTS OF CONTIGENCY: Adjuncts are used for reason (why...? => because...), purpose (what.. for? => to... ), cause, concessive... Ex: I choose this job because I love it. (reason) to earn more money. (purpose) •Reason adjuncts: Realized by: Finite clauses Prepositional phrases Nonfinite clauses Example: She danced just for funny The sale decreased from recent economic crises
  27. 27. ADJUNCTS OF CONTINGENCY •Purpose adjuncts: Realized by nonfinite clauses + to-infinitive + in order to + so as to Ex: I try to study (in order) (so as ) + V(bare-inf) to pass my next exam. In formal style, finite clauses can occur with “so that, in order that”, especially when the subject of the main clause is different from one in clause of purpose. Ex: + He gave me his address so that I would visit him. + You should walk slowly in order that your sister can follow you. •Concession: Concessive relation is expressed by an adjunct, this takes form of a prepositional phrase. Ex: The plane took off despite the bad weather.
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