WHAT IS RAYNAUD’S DISEASE?? Raynauds is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Raynauds is also called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. Vasospasm, which is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. Also may occur at the tip of ears and nose.
CLASSIFICATION Primary Raynaud’s / Raynaud’s disease the causes is not known.(idiopathic) Secondary Raynaud’s / Raynaud’s phenomenon where the causes are known.
ETIOLOGY OF PRIMARY RAYNAUD’S Cold temperature Stress Blood vessels in spasm
ETIOLOGY OF SECONDARY RAYNAUD’S Scleroderma Lupus. Rheumatoid arthritis Sjogrens syndrome Diseases of the arteries. Carpal tunnel syndrome
Repetitive actions Hand and foot injuries Exposure to certain chemicals Medicines Smoking
RISK FACTORS…. PRIMARY RAYNAUD’S Gender Age Family history Living area climate
SECONDARY RAYNAUDS’S Age Certain disease and condition Work place Injury of hand and leg Repetitive action Living climate Smoking Medicines
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Become Small arteries atExpose to cold / pale, less blood fingers and toestriggering factor flow and low O2 vasospasm supply Blood flow Warm up increase, high O2(arteries dilate) supply Affected area isColor change to warm and bright red throbbing pain
CLINICAL MANIFESTATION$ During the Raynaud’s attack, arteries become narrow and no blood supply to the area, this will cause : # Turn pale or white and then blue # Feel numb, cold, or painful # Turn red, throb, tingle, burn, or feel numb as blood flows back to the affected area
NURSING CARE PLAN 1NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion related to lack of blood supply to extremities.GOAL: Increased arterial blood supply to extremities.
NURSING RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAssess the patient for the blood For further investigation and treatment.circulation,colour and sensation at theextremities.Apply warm compress at the affected To promote good blood circulationareaAdminister the medication as prescribed To vasodilate the blood vessel andby doctor such as vasodilator, calcium increase blood supply to the extremitieschannel blockers and alpha blockersMonitor the blood circulation to the To observe for any further complicationextremities every two hourly (circulationchart)Encourage patient to perform extremities Muscular exercises promotes blood flowexercises while sitting or during work and the development of collateral circulation
EVALUATION : Patients extremities are warm to touch, improve in colour and no complain of numbness .
NURSING CARE PLAN 2NURSING DIAGNOSIS : Anxiety related to disease process.GOAL : To reduce the anxiety level of patient
NURSING RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAsses the patient’s anxiety level by For further investigationobserving clients behavior e.g cryingfacial expression and anxious.Reinforce doctor’s explainations to To increase the understanding of patientpatient by using the non medical term about the disease.Provide moral and emotional support to To provide patient psychological comfortpatientEncourage diversional theraphy e.g To deviate client’s mind away from thewatching tv, listening songs disease and to avoid patient get mentally stress
EVALUATION : Patient’s anxiety level decrease and client is more clear about the disease.
NURSING CARE PLAN 3NURSING DIAGNOSIS : Deficient knowledge regarding self-care activities.GOAL : The patient will able to carry out daily activity by understanding the health education given by nurse based on the disease.
NURSING RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAssess client knowledge level For the nurses to give adequate health education to the clientEncourage patient to perform extremities To promote the blood flow to the affectedexercises. areaAdvise patient to place the fingers or toe The warm water will vasodilate andunder the warm water during the attack. encourage the blood flow.Advise patient to stop smoking Reducing the risk factor may reduce symptoms or slow the disease progressionAdvise patient not to wear tight wrist Constrictive clothing and accessoriesband or watch and clothings impede circulation.
EVALUATION : Client is able to carry out the daily activities by implementing the health education given.
CONCLUSION Raynauds sometimes is called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. Is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. In people who have Raynauds, the disorder usually affects the fingers. In about 40 percent of people who have Raynauds, it affects the toes. Rarely, the disorder affects the nose, ears, nipples, and lips.
Has two type of raynaud that is primary and secondary raynaud disease In both types of Raynauds, even mild or brief changes in temperature can cause Raynauds attacks. People with severe Raynauds can develop skin sores or gangrene from prolonged or repeated Raynauds attacks. It can be treated e.g. by placing the hand under warm water to vasodilate