RAYNAUD’S DISEASE
WHAT IS RAYNAUD’S DISEASE?? Raynauds is a rare disorder that affects the  arteries. Raynauds is also called a  disease, ...
RAYNAUD’S DISEASE
RAYNAUD’S DISEASE
CLASSIFICATION   Primary Raynaud’s / Raynaud’s disease the    causes is not known.(idiopathic)   Secondary Raynaud’s / R...
ETIOLOGY OF PRIMARY RAYNAUD’S Cold temperature Stress Blood vessels in spasm
ETIOLOGY OF SECONDARY RAYNAUD’S  Scleroderma  Lupus.  Rheumatoid arthritis  Sjogrens syndrome  Diseases of the arteri...
 Repetitive actions Hand and foot injuries Exposure to certain chemicals Medicines Smoking
RISK FACTORS….   PRIMARY RAYNAUD’S       Gender       Age       Family history       Living area climate
   SECONDARY RAYNAUDS’S      Age      Certain disease and condition      Work place      Injury of hand and leg     ...
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY                                            Become                    Small arteries atExpose to cold /    ...
CLINICAL MANIFESTATION$ During the Raynaud’s attack, arteries become narrow and no blood supply to the area, this will cau...
INVESTIGATION Cold Stimulation Test Nailfold Capillaroscopy Antinuclear antibody (ANA) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate ...
TREATMENT   Medical treatment     @ Calcium channel blockers -- Norvasc     @ Alpha blockers -- Prazosin     @ Vasodilato...
   Surgical treatment      @ Nerve surgery--- sympathectomy      @ Chemical injection      @ Amputation.
COMPLICATIONComplete lost of blood to the digits will cause:        deformities of fingers and toes        gangrene     ...
HEALTH EDUCATION Stop smoking Exercise Control stress Avoid caffeine Take care of feet and hand Dress warmly outdoors
NURSING CARE PLAN
NURSING CARE PLAN 1NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Ineffective peripheral                     tissue perfusion related to              ...
NURSING                                              RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAssess the patient for the blood            For ...
EVALUATION : Patients extremities are warm to            touch, improve in colour and no              complain of numbness .
NURSING CARE PLAN 2NURSING DIAGNOSIS : Anxiety related to disease                   process.GOAL : To reduce the anxiety l...
NURSING                                             RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAsses the patient’s anxiety level by     For furt...
EVALUATION : Patient’s anxiety level decrease                 and client is more clear about the          disease.
NURSING CARE PLAN 3NURSING DIAGNOSIS : Deficient knowledge                     regarding self-care                        ...
NURSING                                                RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAssess client knowledge level                F...
EVALUATION : Client is able to carry out the daily          activities by implementing the                  health educati...
CONCLUSION Raynauds sometimes is called a disease,  syndrome, or phenomenon. Is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasos...
 Has two type of raynaud that is primary and  secondary raynaud disease In both types of Raynauds, even mild or brief  c...
REFERRENCES http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/raynauds-  disease/DS00433/DSECTION http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency...
   http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/ray    naud/ray_diagnosis.html   http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/article...
   Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical –    surgical nursing, 12th edition.   Pearson International edition medical...
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Raynaud’s

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Raynaud’s

  1. 1. RAYNAUD’S DISEASE
  2. 2. WHAT IS RAYNAUD’S DISEASE?? Raynauds is a rare disorder that affects the arteries. Raynauds is also called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. Vasospasm, which is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. Also may occur at the tip of ears and nose.
  3. 3. RAYNAUD’S DISEASE
  4. 4. RAYNAUD’S DISEASE
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION Primary Raynaud’s / Raynaud’s disease the causes is not known.(idiopathic) Secondary Raynaud’s / Raynaud’s phenomenon where the causes are known.
  6. 6. ETIOLOGY OF PRIMARY RAYNAUD’S Cold temperature Stress Blood vessels in spasm
  7. 7. ETIOLOGY OF SECONDARY RAYNAUD’S  Scleroderma  Lupus.  Rheumatoid arthritis  Sjogrens syndrome  Diseases of the arteries.  Carpal tunnel syndrome
  8. 8.  Repetitive actions Hand and foot injuries Exposure to certain chemicals Medicines Smoking
  9. 9. RISK FACTORS…. PRIMARY RAYNAUD’S  Gender  Age  Family history  Living area climate
  10. 10.  SECONDARY RAYNAUDS’S  Age  Certain disease and condition  Work place  Injury of hand and leg  Repetitive action  Living climate  Smoking  Medicines
  11. 11. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Become Small arteries atExpose to cold / pale, less blood fingers and toestriggering factor flow and low O2 vasospasm supply Blood flow Warm up increase, high O2(arteries dilate) supply Affected area isColor change to warm and bright red throbbing pain
  12. 12. CLINICAL MANIFESTATION$ During the Raynaud’s attack, arteries become narrow and no blood supply to the area, this will cause : # Turn pale or white and then blue # Feel numb, cold, or painful # Turn red, throb, tingle, burn, or feel numb as blood flows back to the affected area
  13. 13. INVESTIGATION Cold Stimulation Test Nailfold Capillaroscopy Antinuclear antibody (ANA) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or "sed rate") C-reactive protein (CRP) tests
  14. 14. TREATMENT Medical treatment @ Calcium channel blockers -- Norvasc @ Alpha blockers -- Prazosin @ Vasodilators -- Losartan (Cozaar)
  15. 15.  Surgical treatment @ Nerve surgery--- sympathectomy @ Chemical injection @ Amputation.
  16. 16. COMPLICATIONComplete lost of blood to the digits will cause:  deformities of fingers and toes  gangrene  ulcer
  17. 17. HEALTH EDUCATION Stop smoking Exercise Control stress Avoid caffeine Take care of feet and hand Dress warmly outdoors
  18. 18. NURSING CARE PLAN
  19. 19. NURSING CARE PLAN 1NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion related to lack of blood supply to extremities.GOAL: Increased arterial blood supply to extremities.
  20. 20. NURSING RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAssess the patient for the blood For further investigation and treatment.circulation,colour and sensation at theextremities.Apply warm compress at the affected To promote good blood circulationareaAdminister the medication as prescribed To vasodilate the blood vessel andby doctor such as vasodilator, calcium increase blood supply to the extremitieschannel blockers and alpha blockersMonitor the blood circulation to the To observe for any further complicationextremities every two hourly (circulationchart)Encourage patient to perform extremities Muscular exercises promotes blood flowexercises while sitting or during work and the development of collateral circulation
  21. 21. EVALUATION : Patients extremities are warm to touch, improve in colour and no complain of numbness .
  22. 22. NURSING CARE PLAN 2NURSING DIAGNOSIS : Anxiety related to disease process.GOAL : To reduce the anxiety level of patient
  23. 23. NURSING RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAsses the patient’s anxiety level by For further investigationobserving clients behavior e.g cryingfacial expression and anxious.Reinforce doctor’s explainations to To increase the understanding of patientpatient by using the non medical term about the disease.Provide moral and emotional support to To provide patient psychological comfortpatientEncourage diversional theraphy e.g To deviate client’s mind away from thewatching tv, listening songs disease and to avoid patient get mentally stress
  24. 24. EVALUATION : Patient’s anxiety level decrease and client is more clear about the disease.
  25. 25. NURSING CARE PLAN 3NURSING DIAGNOSIS : Deficient knowledge regarding self-care activities.GOAL : The patient will able to carry out daily activity by understanding the health education given by nurse based on the disease.
  26. 26. NURSING RATIONALEINTERVENTIONAssess client knowledge level For the nurses to give adequate health education to the clientEncourage patient to perform extremities To promote the blood flow to the affectedexercises. areaAdvise patient to place the fingers or toe The warm water will vasodilate andunder the warm water during the attack. encourage the blood flow.Advise patient to stop smoking Reducing the risk factor may reduce symptoms or slow the disease progressionAdvise patient not to wear tight wrist Constrictive clothing and accessoriesband or watch and clothings impede circulation.
  27. 27. EVALUATION : Client is able to carry out the daily activities by implementing the health education given.
  28. 28. CONCLUSION Raynauds sometimes is called a disease, syndrome, or phenomenon. Is a narrowing of the blood vessels. Vasospasm of the arteries reduces blood flow to the fingers and toes. In people who have Raynauds, the disorder usually affects the fingers. In about 40 percent of people who have Raynauds, it affects the toes. Rarely, the disorder affects the nose, ears, nipples, and lips.
  29. 29.  Has two type of raynaud that is primary and secondary raynaud disease In both types of Raynauds, even mild or brief changes in temperature can cause Raynauds attacks. People with severe Raynauds can develop skin sores or gangrene from prolonged or repeated Raynauds attacks. It can be treated e.g. by placing the hand under warm water to vasodilate
  30. 30. REFERRENCES http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/raynauds- disease/DS00433/DSECTION http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/arti cle/000412.htm http://www.faqs.org/health/topics/77/Raynaud -s-disease.html http://www.medic8.com/healthguide/articles/r aynauds.html
  31. 31.  http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/ray naud/ray_diagnosis.html http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/1767 13.php -raynaud disease http://agedcareact.wordpress.com/2007/11/13/w hat-is-raynauds-disease/ - raynaud disease http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_cond ition_info_details.asp?disease_id=110&channel _id=2022&relation_id=16665 –raynaud disease http://edition.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/raynauds- disease/DS00433.html -raynaud disease
  32. 32.  Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical – surgical nursing, 12th edition. Pearson International edition medical – surgical nursing, 4th edition. Joyce.M & Jane Hokanson Hawks medical – surgical nursing, 8th edition.
  33. 33. THANK YOU
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