WHEN?• The best time, but not the only time, to collect a sputum specimen is upon awakening in the morning. When more than one specimen is required they will be collected on different days. Any specimens collected in one day will count as one specimen.
PRECAUTIONPrecautions to keep the specimen out ofsunlight at all times will be taken becauseultraviolet light kills the TB bacteria andexposure to sunlight could alter the testresult. After specimen collection the containershould be shielded from sunlight duringtransport into the facility.
PREPARATION:1.Bottle for sputum collection2. Blue colour form3.Gloves *Label innermost tube with patient name and date of birth before obtaining specimens and before giving container to patient.
IMPLEMENTATION1.Wash hand.2.Greet client and explain procedure.3.Provide privacy.4.Identify client by checking ID band.5.Give bottle for sputum collection.
HOW?• .. The client will take several deep breaths in a row and after the last deep breath the client should cough as hard as possible into the container. The specimen should not contain saliva or nasal secretions.
PROCEDUREInstruct patient to:1.Specimen collection should be done without the client rinsing the mouth or brushing teeth.2.The client should be instructed to sit or stand and open the specimen container3.Inhale deeply 2-3 times, breathe out hard each time.4.Cough deeply from the chest.
CON’T…• Place the open container close to the mouth to collect the specimen.• Avoid contaminating the inside of the container and lid.• If the patient is unable to raise early morning sputum, suggest that he/she stand or sit in a steamy environment for 15 minutes first by running hot water in the shower. If that still fails, obtain a physician’s order for sputum induction.
EVALUATION• 1.Trace lab results ( AFB within 24hours) -to implement appropriate follow up nursing intervention.• 2.Analyse the result. -to report any abnormalities to the doctor.