Adrenal cortex
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Adrenal cortex

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adrenal cortex

adrenal cortex

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Adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex Presentation Transcript

  •  Adrenal glands are triangle-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. Each gland consists of a medulla (the center of the gland) which is surrounded by the cortex. The medulla is responsible for producing epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline).
  •  The adrenal cortex produces other hormones necessary for fluid and electrolyte (salt) balance in the body such as cortisone and aldosterone. The adrenal cortex is composed of three areas: @zona glomerulosa @zona fasciculata @zona reticularis
  • layer Name Primary productMost superficial Zona glumerulosa Mineralcorticoids cortical (e.g aldosterone) layer Middle corticol Zona fasciculata Glucocorticoids layer (e.g cartisol)Deepest cortical Zona reticularis Weak androgens layer (e.g adrenosterone)
  • Adrenal CortexGlucocorticod Mineralcorticoids Androgens
  •  Produced in the zona fasciculata. The primary glucocorticoid released by the adrenal gland in the human is cortisol and corticosterone in many other animals. Its secretion is regulated by the hormone ACTH from the anterior pituitary. Main: Cortisol (hydrocortisone)
  •  Essential for life and metabolism Stress and circadian rhytm influences release of these hormone.
  •  It stimulates the release of amino acids from the body It stimulates lipolysis, the breakdown of fat It stimulates gluconeogenesis, the production of glucose from newly- released amino acids and lipids
  •  It increases blood glucose levels in response to stress, by inhibiting glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells It strengthens cardiac muscle contractions It increases water retention It has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects
  •  They are produced in the zona glomerulosa. The primary mineralocorticoid is aldosterone. Aldosterone is secreted in response - to high extracellular potassium levels - low extracellular sodium levels - low fluid levels and blood volume.
  • Aldosterone effect metabolism in 3 ways: 1)It increases urinary excretion of potassium ions 2)It increases interstitial levels of sodium ions 3)It increases water retention and blood volume
  • Renin Angiotensin System
  •  The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance. When blood volume is low, juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys secrete renin Renin stimulates the production of angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II that causes blood vessels to constrict, resulting in increased blood pressure.
  •  Angiotensin II also stimulates the secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone causes the tubules of the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and water into the blood. This increases the volume of fluid in the body, which also increases blood pressure.
  •  They are produced in the zona reticularis. Androgens or androgenic steroids are produced by the zona reticularis layer of the adrenal cortex. Androgens, including testosterone are male sex hormones. It’s assist the development of male characteristics, and proper development of male sex organs during embryonic development.
  •  There are usually three arteries that supply each adrenal gland: -The superior suprarenal artery is provided by the inferior phrenic artery -The middle suprarenal artery is provided by the abdominal aorta -The inferior suprarenal artery is provided by the renal artery
  •  Venous drainage of the adrenal glands is achieved via the suprarenal veins: -The right suprarenal vein drains into the inferior vena cava -The left suprarenal vein drains into the left renal vein or the left inferior phrenic vein.