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Small wind power for rural locations - part 1
 

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    Small wind power for rural locations - part 1 Small wind power for rural locations - part 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Wind energy harvesting basics, resource assessment and application for off grid systems. Hanan Einav-Levy M.Sc.Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • A bit about me Hanan Einav-Levy M.Sc • Aeronautical engineer • Wind turbine technology advocate • Experience in installing and building small wind turbines in Israel and abroad for rural electrification • Consultant to several wind energy NGO’s • Conducting PhD research in wind turbine resource assessmentThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aim of lectureThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours...Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours... • You will gain a basic and comprehensive understandingThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours... • You will gain a basic and comprehensive understanding • Many valuable references will be mentioned for your future useThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours... • You will gain a basic and comprehensive understanding • Many valuable references will be mentioned for your future use • You will receive a starting point for developing wind in rural communities in your countriesThursday, November 10, 2011
    • OutlineThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • AWP - Zimbabwe (10) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • AWP - Zimbabwe (10) • Wind speed variability (15) • WindAid - Peru (10) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • AWP - Zimbabwe (10) • Wind speed variability (15) • WindAid - Peru (10) • Estimating the resource (15) • CometME - Israel/PAU (10) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Before we start - a bit of extra motivation American Economic Review 101 (August 2011): 1649–1675 http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.101.5.1649 Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy † By N Z. M ,R M , W N * This study presents a framework to include environmental externali- ties into a system of national accounts. The paper estimates the air pollution damages for each industry in the United States. An inte- grated-assessment model quanti es the marginal damages of air pol- lution emissions for the US which are multiplied times the quantity of emissions by industry to compute gross damages. Solid waste com- bustion, sewage treatment, stone quarrying, marinas, and oil and coal- red power plants have air pollution damages larger than their value added. The largest industrial contributor to external costs is coal- red electric generation, whose damages range from 0.8 to 5.6 times value added. (JEL E01, L94, Q53, Q56) An important and enduring issue in environmental economics has been to develop both appropriate accounting systems and reliable estimates of environmental dam- ages (Wassily Leontief 1970; Yusuf J. Ahmad, Salah El Serafay, and Ernst LutzThursday, November 10, 2011 1989; Nordhaus and Edward Charles Kokkelenberg 1999; Kimio Uno and Peter
    • Before we start - a bit of extra motivation American Economic Review 101 (August 2011): 1649–1675 http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.101.5.1649 Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy † coal-fired power plants have air pollution damages larger than their By N Z. M ,R M , W N * value added. The largest industrial contributor to external costs is coal-fired electric generation,awhose damages environmental externali- 5.6 This study presents framework to include range from 0.8 to times value added into a system of national accounts. The paper estimates the air ties pollution damages for each industry in the United States. An inte- grated-assessment model quanti es the marginal damages of air pol- lution emissions for the US which are multiplied times the quantity of emissions by industry to compute gross damages. Solid waste com- bustion, sewage treatment, stone quarrying, marinas, and oil and coal- red power plants have air pollution damages larger than their value added. The largest industrial contributor to external costs is coal- red electric generation, whose damages range from 0.8 to 5.6 times value added. (JEL E01, L94, Q53, Q56) An important and enduring issue in environmental economics has been to develop both appropriate accounting systems and reliable estimates of environmental dam- ages (Wassily Leontief 1970; Yusuf J. Ahmad, Salah El Serafay, and Ernst LutzThursday, November 10, 2011 1989; Nordhaus and Edward Charles Kokkelenberg 1999; Kimio Uno and Peter
    • Global wind resourceThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind Resource Jacobson et al. 2009Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind Resource Wind energy potential at 100 m Jacobson et al. 2010Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Modern wind turbine historyThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Modern wind harvesting history 1888, USA Cleveland Ohio, 17 m diameter, 12 Kw rated power, 20 year life time, charged lead acid batteries (stand alone system)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Modern wind harvesting history 1980 - Bonus 30 KwThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Modern wind 2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Source: Garrad Hassan Modern wind 2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Modern wind 2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind energy theoryThursday, November 10, 2011
    • How much can we get out of the wind?Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind energy exploitation • How much energy can we get out of the wind? • Wind turbine production profileThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
    • 1 2 1 1 mv = ·ρ Avt·v = ρ Atv 2 3 2 2 2 Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
    • 1 2 1 2 1 1 mv mv = ·ρ Avt·v = ρ Atv 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 = ρ Av 3 t 2 Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Thursday, November 10, 2011 Swept area
    • Thursday, November 10, 2011 Swept area
    • S = Swept AreaThursday, November 10, 2011
    • 1 P = ρSV Cp[Watt] 3 2 ρ = wind density [Kg / m ] 3 S = swept area [m ] 2 V = wind speed [m / s] Cp = power coefficient < 0.593Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • 1 3 ⎡ Watt ⎤ P = ρV ⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 ⎣ m ⎦ 1 ⎡ Watt ⎤ P = 1.225·6 = 132 ⎢ 2 ⎥ 3 2 ⎣ m ⎦ Energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power curve 1 2 3 4Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • 1 P = ρSV Cp[Watt] 3 2 Power curve 1 2 3 4Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energyThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energy • The power curve of the turbine is measured in watts vs. m/sThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energy • The power curve of the turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hourThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energy • The power curve of the turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • one thousand watt operating for a hour • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • one thousand watt operating for a hour • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the • a 100 watt operating for 10 hours average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • one thousand watt operating for a hour • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the • a 100 watt operating for 10 hours average wind speed during this hour • kWh = Watt X hour / 1000 • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Technology VAWT - HAWT, Lift - Drag, Big - SmallThursday, November 10, 2011
    • What a good WT does • Follows the wind • Extracts wind energy with high efficiency • Low cost of energy • Low maintenance costs • Long lifeThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • 7I7T 7hT 6-10. Horizontal-axis configurations. Upwind, downwind, one blade or two-its all been tried at one time or another. led from j. W. Twidell and A. D. Weir, Renewable Energy Resources. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • ~ ////// ///}// Figure 6-4. Darrieusconfigurations. There are several other Darrieus configurations besidesthe common eggbeater desil!n. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
    • BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
    • BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
    • BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Tilt up towerThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Systems - furls "vu~, its HR3 running position. This design includes a winch and cable for manually furling the turbine, Aerodynamic control in high winds rip Iohlriin np Ins RecursosEnergeticosin Punta Arenas, Chile.Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Technology summaryThursday, November 10, 2011
    • 1 P = ρSV Cp[Watt] 3 2 -Marlec910F _A;,.", - RWr.on Technology summaryThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Figure Small wind turbine nomenclature. (1) Spinner or nose cone. 1-1. (2) Rotor blades. (3) Direct-drive alternator. (4) Mainframe. (5) Yaw assembly. (6) Slip rings and brushes. (7) Tail vane. (8) Nacelle cover. (9) Winch for furling the rotor out of the wind. (Bergey Windpower) Technology summaryThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Environmental considerations • Rural areas - Small and medium wind turbines • Main concern - noise • Non issues - • Birds • EM radiation • Shadow flickr • View obstructionThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Fig ure Sound Power level dBA 120 19 -19805 -19905 110 L=22log D + 72 . 1999 . Small . Micro tha 100 .. spe po 90 dat L=22 log 0 + 65 de 80 19 from 70 bin Pu 60 bin 10 100 20 sio Diameter (meters) Te Noise inc ~Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • NoiseThursday, November 10, 2011
    • NoiseThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind speed VariabilityThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Short term speed fluctuationsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Long term speed distributionThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Yearly fluctuationsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind production vs. consumption in Denmark Mw hours Source: www.energinet.dk Dealing with variability in a grid connected systemThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind production vs. consumption in Denmark Mw hours Storm front Source: www.energinet.dk Dealing with variability in a grid connected systemThursday, November 10, 2011
    • T+1 hour T+12 hour Source: Garrad Hassan Dealing with variability in a grid connected systemThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Diverts the electricity according to battery status Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Stores the excess energy (wind is blowing but nobody is using the electricity) Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • when the battery is full (and the wind is blowing) Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • A word about loads • The “Dump load” is a load used when the battery is full • A “load” is any electrical appliance connected to the battery • Such as • light bulbs • TV/radio • computer • cell phone charger • Sewing machines ...Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Estimating the resourceThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Looking at the long term distribution againThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind atlas • Several resources: • SWERA • NREL • RISOE • Include average yearly wind speed at several heights, and energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind atlas • Several resources: • SWERA • NREL • RISOE • Include average yearly wind speed at several heights, and energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind atlas • Several resources: • SWERA • NREL • RISOE • Include average yearly wind speed at several heights, and energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
    • How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily productionThursday, November 10, 2011
    • How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production Using the wind speed distributionThursday, November 10, 2011
    • How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production Using the wind speed distribution multiplying by the power curveThursday, November 10, 2011
    • How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production Using the wind speed distribution summing up to receive the AEPng byer curve Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • A more simplistic way to estimate the AEP • Starting from the Weibull distribution. • For k = 2, we get the Rayleigh distribution: 2 1⎛ u ⎞ u − ⎜ ⎟ 2⎝ V ⎠ f (u) = 2 e V • For the Rayleigh distribution the energy density can be calculated in a simpler way: 1 E = ρV ·1.91[W / m ] 3 2 2 • where 1.91 comes from the form of the Rayleigh distribution.Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Simple AEP estimates 8760 π D 2 AEP = E· Cp[Kwh / year] 1000 4 E: power density from wind atlas, or measurement Cp: power coefficient 0.2-0.25 for small wind D: diameterThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Simple AEP estimatesThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Capacity Factor (CF) • Alternative way to describe the wind resource at a site • Used wildly in the energy sector - not just in wind energy • AEP = 8760 × P × CF[kwh / year] • The capacity factor is a function of the wind distribution and the power curve • But can be estimated for a generic power curveThursday, November 10, 2011
    • On land wind capacity factorThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Measurement campaign • Minimal equipment • 10 meter tilt up tower • Single Anemometer • Best practice • 15 meter tilt up tower • 2 Anemometers • 1 wind vane • 1 temperature probe • Alternatives • Install small wind turbine immediatelyThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Measurement campaign • Minimal equipment • 10 meter tilt up tower • Single Anemometer • Best practice • 15 meter tilt up tower • 2 Anemometers • 1 wind vane • 1 temperature probe • Alternatives • Install small wind turbine immediatelyThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Measurement campaign • Minimal equipment • 10 meter tilt up tower • Single Anemometer • Best practice • 15 meter tilt up tower • 2 Anemometers • 1 wind vane • 1 temperature probe • Alternatives • Install small wind turbine immediatelyThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind shear • Wind speed increases with height • Putting a small turbine on a tall tower is aways a good economic move • Insures steady winds - longer life for the bladesThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Economic considerationsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Wind development costs • Pre-feasibility study • Big wind - major effort, 200,000$ / Mw • Off grid small wind - basic measurement campaign, trial and error. 200-1000$ for measurement system. • Wind turbine system • Battery bank, Inverter • BOS (cables, breakers ...)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Example costs - Battery-less wind turbine system (Installed cost)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Example costs - Battery-less wind turbine system (Installed cost) Avg. Simplistic cost Diameter Swept area Energy cost [$] wind of energy (15 [m] [m^2] production speed year life time) 120 kwh/m^2/ 2000 $/m^2 X year X 3.14 2 3.14 3.14 m^2 = 4 m/s 1.1 $/kwh m^2 = 376.8 6280$ kwh/year 260 kwh/m^2/ year X 3.14 2 3.14 $6280 5 m/s 0.51 $/kwh m^2 = 816.4 kwh/yearThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Balance of system • Charge controller • Dump load • Battery • System meter • InverterThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Balance of system Included in previous assessment • Charge controller • Dump load • Battery • System meter • InverterThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on BatteriesThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric systemThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acidThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technologyThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different modelsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 yearsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longerThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longer • Typical voltage is 12 voltsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longer • Typical voltage is 12 volts • Capacity measured in AhThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longer • Typical voltage is 12 volts • Capacity measured in Ah • Energy is AhXVolt/1000 in kWhThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Example battery costsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Example battery costs • Israel battery costs (Lead Acid): (source: Comet-ME) • Gel type - 1000 shekel/90Ah 12V (Israel manufacturer) ~ 250$/kWh, ~50$/kWh/year • 3000Ah 48V OPZF (2V units) OPK (15 year life) 85,000 euro (German manufacturer) ~820$/kWh, ~55$/kwH/yearThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Example inverter costsThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Dealing with battery costs • Batteries are used frequently in rural areas • Charged occasionally by transporting to the closest grid connected town for a considerable cost • If batteries are bought specifically for the wind project they can become a major cost of the system • If the batteries exist already, they can be charged more cheaply by the wind turbineThursday, November 10, 2011
    • Example meter costs • Using a meter to measure the electricity used is crucial to success of wind-project • simple meter 100$-150$ • Pay by use meter - costs are the same, but software is expensive - one time licensing fee 10,000Euro • There is a standard in the world for these type of systems (the encoding method)Thursday, November 10, 2011
    • Next up - Examples and case studies part 2Thursday, November 10, 2011