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Wind energy harvesting basics,                    resource assessment and                 application for off grid systems...
A bit about me                   Hanan Einav-Levy M.Sc       •   Aeronautical engineer       •   Wind turbine technology a...
Aim of lectureThursday, November 10, 2011
Aim of lecture                   •          Wind turbine systems are complicated systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
Aim of lecture                   •          Wind turbine systems are complicated systems                   •          We h...
Aim of lecture                   • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems                   • We have 4 hours...    ...
Aim of lecture                   • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems                   • We have 4 hours...    ...
Aim of lecture                   • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems                   • We have 4 hours...    ...
OutlineThursday, November 10, 2011
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)Thursday, November 10, 2011
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)Thursday, November 10, ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                   •          Global wind resource (10)                   •   ...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Outline              •      Part 1 (2 hours)                                                                 •   part II (...
Before we start - a bit of extra motivation                       American Economic Review 101 (August 2011): 1649–1675   ...
Before we start - a bit of extra motivation                       American Economic Review 101 (August 2011): 1649–1675   ...
Global wind resourceThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind Resource                                Jacobson et al. 2009Thursday, November 10, 2011
Wind Resource                              Wind energy potential at 100 m                                   Jacobson et al...
Thursday, November 10, 2011
Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
Modern wind turbine historyThursday, November 10, 2011
Modern wind harvesting history                            1888, USA Cleveland Ohio, 17 m diameter,                        ...
Modern wind harvesting history                              1980 - Bonus 30 KwThursday, November 10, 2011
Modern wind                               2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
Source: Garrad Hassan                              Modern wind                               2 Mw machines and moreThursda...
Modern wind                               2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind energy theoryThursday, November 10, 2011
How much can we get out of the wind?Thursday, November 10, 2011
Wind energy exploitation               •      How much energy can we get out of                      the wind?            ...
Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
1 2 1            1            mv = ·ρ Avt·v = ρ Atv                         2        3          2     2          2        ...
1 2          1 2 1            1            mv            mv = ·ρ Avt·v = ρ Atv                         2        3         ...
Thursday, November 10, 2011                              Swept area
Thursday, November 10, 2011                              Swept area
S = Swept AreaThursday, November 10, 2011
1                         P = ρSV Cp[Watt]                                3                            2               ρ =...
1 3 ⎡ Watt ⎤         P = ρV ⎢ 2 ⎥             2     ⎣ m ⎦        1               ⎡ Watt ⎤     P = 1.225·6 = 132 ⎢ 2 ⎥     ...
Power curve                              1     2   3   4Thursday, November 10, 2011
1  P = ρSV Cp[Watt]         3     2                                  Power curve                              1     2   3 ...
Power vs. energyThursday, November 10, 2011
Power vs. energy        •     The power curve of the              turbine is measured in watts              vs. m/sThursda...
Power vs. energy        •     The power curve of the              turbine is measured in watts              vs. m/s       ...
Power vs. energy        •     The power curve of the              turbine is measured in watts              vs. m/s       ...
Power vs. energy        •     The power curve of the            •   this is equal to              turbine is measured in w...
Power vs. energy        •     The power curve of the            •   this is equal to              turbine is measured in w...
Power vs. energy        •     The power curve of the            •   this is equal to              turbine is measured in w...
Power vs. energy        •     The power curve of the            •   this is equal to              turbine is measured in w...
Technology                              VAWT - HAWT, Lift - Drag, Big - SmallThursday, November 10, 2011
What a good WT does                   • Follows the wind                   • Extracts wind energy with high efficiency     ...
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
7I7T                                                                             7hT                               6-10. H...
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
~                              //////                                      ///}//                       Figure 6-4. Darrie...
VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
Tilt up towerThursday, November 10, 2011
Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
Systems -                                                                                     furls "vu~,                 ...
Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
Technology summaryThursday, November 10, 2011
1                              P = ρSV Cp[Watt]                                     3                                 2   ...
Figure      Small wind turbine nomenclature. (1) Spinner or nose cone.                                       1-1.         ...
Environmental considerations                 • Rural areas - Small and medium wind turbines                 • Main concern...
Fig                                                                                                    ure                ...
NoiseThursday, November 10, 2011
NoiseThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind speed VariabilityThursday, November 10, 2011
Short term speed fluctuationsThursday, November 10, 2011
Long term speed distributionThursday, November 10, 2011
Yearly fluctuationsThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind production vs. consumption in Denmark             Mw                                                                 ...
Wind production vs. consumption in Denmark             Mw                                                                 ...
T+1 hour    T+12 hour                              Source: Garrad Hassan                Dealing with variability in a grid...
Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
Diverts the electricity according to battery status                          Dealing with variability for off grid systems...
Stores the excess energy (wind is blowing but                                                   nobody is using the electr...
when the battery is full (and the wind is blowing)                          Dealing with variability for off grid systemsT...
Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
A word about loads           •      The “Dump load” is a load used when the                  battery is full           •  ...
Estimating the resourceThursday, November 10, 2011
Looking at the long term distribution againThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind atlas           •      Several resources:                 •      SWERA                 •      NREL                 • ...
Wind atlas           •      Several resources:                 •      SWERA                 •      NREL                 • ...
Wind atlas           •      Several resources:                 •      SWERA                 •      NREL                 • ...
How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily productionThursday, November 10, 2011
How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production                              Using the wind                       ...
How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production                                         Using the wind            ...
How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production                               Using the wind                      ...
A more simplistic way to estimate the AEP         • Starting from the Weibull distribution.         • For k = 2, we get th...
Simple AEP estimates              8760 π D                   2        AEP =      E·   Cp[Kwh / year]              1000    ...
Simple AEP estimatesThursday, November 10, 2011
Capacity Factor (CF)                   •          Alternative way to describe the wind resource                           ...
On land wind capacity factorThursday, November 10, 2011
Measurement                campaign           •      Minimal equipment                 •      10 meter tilt up tower      ...
Measurement                campaign           •      Minimal equipment                 •      10 meter tilt up tower      ...
Measurement                campaign           •      Minimal equipment                 •      10 meter tilt up tower      ...
Wind shear           •      Wind speed increases with                  height           •      Putting a small turbine on ...
Economic considerationsThursday, November 10, 2011
Wind development                   costs           •      Pre-feasibility study                 •      Big wind - major ef...
Example costs - Battery-less wind                               turbine system (Installed cost)Thursday, November 10, 2011
Example costs - Battery-less wind                               turbine system (Installed cost)                           ...
Balance of system           •      Charge                  controller           •      Dump load           •      Battery ...
Balance of system                              Included in previous assessment           •      Charge                  co...
Crash course on                    BatteriesThursday, November 10, 2011
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric systemThursday, November 1...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Crash course on                    Batteries           •      The heart of an off-grid electric system           •      Ty...
Example battery costsThursday, November 10, 2011
Example battery costs          •       Israel battery costs (Lead Acid): (source: Comet-ME)                •     Gel type ...
Example inverter costsThursday, November 10, 2011
Dealing with battery costs                   •          Batteries are used frequently in rural areas                   •  ...
Example meter costs                   • Using a meter to measure the electricity                              used is cruc...
Next up -                              Examples and case studies                                       part 2Thursday, Nov...
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Small wind power for rural locations - part 1

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Transcript of "Small wind power for rural locations - part 1"

  1. 1. Wind energy harvesting basics, resource assessment and application for off grid systems. Hanan Einav-Levy M.Sc.Thursday, November 10, 2011
  2. 2. A bit about me Hanan Einav-Levy M.Sc • Aeronautical engineer • Wind turbine technology advocate • Experience in installing and building small wind turbines in Israel and abroad for rural electrification • Consultant to several wind energy NGO’s • Conducting PhD research in wind turbine resource assessmentThursday, November 10, 2011
  3. 3. Aim of lectureThursday, November 10, 2011
  4. 4. Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
  5. 5. Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours...Thursday, November 10, 2011
  6. 6. Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours... • You will gain a basic and comprehensive understandingThursday, November 10, 2011
  7. 7. Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours... • You will gain a basic and comprehensive understanding • Many valuable references will be mentioned for your future useThursday, November 10, 2011
  8. 8. Aim of lecture • Wind turbine systems are complicated systems • We have 4 hours... • You will gain a basic and comprehensive understanding • Many valuable references will be mentioned for your future use • You will receive a starting point for developing wind in rural communities in your countriesThursday, November 10, 2011
  9. 9. OutlineThursday, November 10, 2011
  10. 10. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  11. 11. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  12. 12. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  13. 13. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  14. 14. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  15. 15. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  16. 16. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  17. 17. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  18. 18. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  19. 19. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  20. 20. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  21. 21. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Wind energy theory (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  22. 22. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  23. 23. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  24. 24. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  25. 25. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • AWP - Zimbabwe (10) • Wind speed variability (15) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  26. 26. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • AWP - Zimbabwe (10) • Wind speed variability (15) • WindAid - Peru (10) • Estimating the resource (15) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  27. 27. Outline • Part 1 (2 hours) • part II (2 hours) • Global wind resource (10) • Example project (50) • Modern wind turbine history (10) • Small wind turbine product • Wind energy theory (10) comparison (10) • Technology - • Case studies HAWT,VAWT, Lift, Drag, BIG, small (15) • Practical action - Peru (10) • Environmental considerations (5) • AWP - Zimbabwe (10) • Wind speed variability (15) • WindAid - Peru (10) • Estimating the resource (15) • CometME - Israel/PAU (10) • Off grid wind system components (5) • Economic considerations(10)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  28. 28. Before we start - a bit of extra motivation American Economic Review 101 (August 2011): 1649–1675 http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.101.5.1649 Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy † By N Z. M ,R M , W N * This study presents a framework to include environmental externali- ties into a system of national accounts. The paper estimates the air pollution damages for each industry in the United States. An inte- grated-assessment model quanti es the marginal damages of air pol- lution emissions for the US which are multiplied times the quantity of emissions by industry to compute gross damages. Solid waste com- bustion, sewage treatment, stone quarrying, marinas, and oil and coal- red power plants have air pollution damages larger than their value added. The largest industrial contributor to external costs is coal- red electric generation, whose damages range from 0.8 to 5.6 times value added. (JEL E01, L94, Q53, Q56) An important and enduring issue in environmental economics has been to develop both appropriate accounting systems and reliable estimates of environmental dam- ages (Wassily Leontief 1970; Yusuf J. Ahmad, Salah El Serafay, and Ernst LutzThursday, November 10, 2011 1989; Nordhaus and Edward Charles Kokkelenberg 1999; Kimio Uno and Peter
  29. 29. Before we start - a bit of extra motivation American Economic Review 101 (August 2011): 1649–1675 http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.101.5.1649 Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy † coal-fired power plants have air pollution damages larger than their By N Z. M ,R M , W N * value added. The largest industrial contributor to external costs is coal-fired electric generation,awhose damages environmental externali- 5.6 This study presents framework to include range from 0.8 to times value added into a system of national accounts. The paper estimates the air ties pollution damages for each industry in the United States. An inte- grated-assessment model quanti es the marginal damages of air pol- lution emissions for the US which are multiplied times the quantity of emissions by industry to compute gross damages. Solid waste com- bustion, sewage treatment, stone quarrying, marinas, and oil and coal- red power plants have air pollution damages larger than their value added. The largest industrial contributor to external costs is coal- red electric generation, whose damages range from 0.8 to 5.6 times value added. (JEL E01, L94, Q53, Q56) An important and enduring issue in environmental economics has been to develop both appropriate accounting systems and reliable estimates of environmental dam- ages (Wassily Leontief 1970; Yusuf J. Ahmad, Salah El Serafay, and Ernst LutzThursday, November 10, 2011 1989; Nordhaus and Edward Charles Kokkelenberg 1999; Kimio Uno and Peter
  30. 30. Global wind resourceThursday, November 10, 2011
  31. 31. Wind Resource Jacobson et al. 2009Thursday, November 10, 2011
  32. 32. Wind Resource Wind energy potential at 100 m Jacobson et al. 2010Thursday, November 10, 2011
  33. 33. Thursday, November 10, 2011
  34. 34. Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
  35. 35. Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
  36. 36. Wind ResourceThursday, November 10, 2011
  37. 37. Modern wind turbine historyThursday, November 10, 2011
  38. 38. Modern wind harvesting history 1888, USA Cleveland Ohio, 17 m diameter, 12 Kw rated power, 20 year life time, charged lead acid batteries (stand alone system)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  39. 39. Modern wind harvesting history 1980 - Bonus 30 KwThursday, November 10, 2011
  40. 40. Modern wind 2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
  41. 41. Source: Garrad Hassan Modern wind 2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
  42. 42. Modern wind 2 Mw machines and moreThursday, November 10, 2011
  43. 43. Wind energy theoryThursday, November 10, 2011
  44. 44. How much can we get out of the wind?Thursday, November 10, 2011
  45. 45. Wind energy exploitation • How much energy can we get out of the wind? • Wind turbine production profileThursday, November 10, 2011
  46. 46. Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
  47. 47. Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
  48. 48. Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
  49. 49. 1 2 1 1 mv = ·ρ Avt·v = ρ Atv 2 3 2 2 2 Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
  50. 50. 1 2 1 2 1 1 mv mv = ·ρ Avt·v = ρ Atv 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 = ρ Av 3 t 2 Energy vs. wind speedThursday, November 10, 2011
  51. 51. Thursday, November 10, 2011 Swept area
  52. 52. Thursday, November 10, 2011 Swept area
  53. 53. S = Swept AreaThursday, November 10, 2011
  54. 54. 1 P = ρSV Cp[Watt] 3 2 ρ = wind density [Kg / m ] 3 S = swept area [m ] 2 V = wind speed [m / s] Cp = power coefficient < 0.593Thursday, November 10, 2011
  55. 55. 1 3 ⎡ Watt ⎤ P = ρV ⎢ 2 ⎥ 2 ⎣ m ⎦ 1 ⎡ Watt ⎤ P = 1.225·6 = 132 ⎢ 2 ⎥ 3 2 ⎣ m ⎦ Energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
  56. 56. Power curve 1 2 3 4Thursday, November 10, 2011
  57. 57. 1 P = ρSV Cp[Watt] 3 2 Power curve 1 2 3 4Thursday, November 10, 2011
  58. 58. Power vs. energyThursday, November 10, 2011
  59. 59. Power vs. energy • The power curve of the turbine is measured in watts vs. m/sThursday, November 10, 2011
  60. 60. Power vs. energy • The power curve of the turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hourThursday, November 10, 2011
  61. 61. Power vs. energy • The power curve of the turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
  62. 62. Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
  63. 63. Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • one thousand watt operating for a hour • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
  64. 64. Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • one thousand watt operating for a hour • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the • a 100 watt operating for 10 hours average wind speed during this hour • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
  65. 65. Power vs. energy • The power curve of the • this is equal to turbine is measured in watts vs. m/s • one thousand watt operating for a hour • To calculate the energy the turbine will produce in a given time - say 1 hour, we need the • a 100 watt operating for 10 hours average wind speed during this hour • kWh = Watt X hour / 1000 • The energy is measured in kWh - kilo-Watt-hourThursday, November 10, 2011
  66. 66. Technology VAWT - HAWT, Lift - Drag, Big - SmallThursday, November 10, 2011
  67. 67. What a good WT does • Follows the wind • Extracts wind energy with high efficiency • Low cost of energy • Low maintenance costs • Long lifeThursday, November 10, 2011
  68. 68. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  69. 69. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  70. 70. 7I7T 7hT 6-10. Horizontal-axis configurations. Upwind, downwind, one blade or two-its all been tried at one time or another. led from j. W. Twidell and A. D. Weir, Renewable Energy Resources. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  71. 71. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  72. 72. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  73. 73. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  74. 74. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  75. 75. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  76. 76. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  77. 77. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  78. 78. HAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  79. 79. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  80. 80. ~ ////// ///}// Figure 6-4. Darrieusconfigurations. There are several other Darrieus configurations besidesthe common eggbeater desil!n. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  81. 81. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  82. 82. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  83. 83. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  84. 84. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  85. 85. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  86. 86. VAWTThursday, November 10, 2011
  87. 87. BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
  88. 88. BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
  89. 89. BIG - smallThursday, November 10, 2011
  90. 90. Tilt up towerThursday, November 10, 2011
  91. 91. Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
  92. 92. Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
  93. 93. Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
  94. 94. Systems - furls "vu~, its HR3 running position. This design includes a winch and cable for manually furling the turbine, Aerodynamic control in high winds rip Iohlriin np Ins RecursosEnergeticosin Punta Arenas, Chile.Thursday, November 10, 2011
  95. 95. Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
  96. 96. Aerodynamic control in high windsThursday, November 10, 2011
  97. 97. Technology summaryThursday, November 10, 2011
  98. 98. 1 P = ρSV Cp[Watt] 3 2 -Marlec910F _A;,.", - RWr.on Technology summaryThursday, November 10, 2011
  99. 99. Figure Small wind turbine nomenclature. (1) Spinner or nose cone. 1-1. (2) Rotor blades. (3) Direct-drive alternator. (4) Mainframe. (5) Yaw assembly. (6) Slip rings and brushes. (7) Tail vane. (8) Nacelle cover. (9) Winch for furling the rotor out of the wind. (Bergey Windpower) Technology summaryThursday, November 10, 2011
  100. 100. Environmental considerations • Rural areas - Small and medium wind turbines • Main concern - noise • Non issues - • Birds • EM radiation • Shadow flickr • View obstructionThursday, November 10, 2011
  101. 101. Fig ure Sound Power level dBA 120 19 -19805 -19905 110 L=22log D + 72 . 1999 . Small . Micro tha 100 .. spe po 90 dat L=22 log 0 + 65 de 80 19 from 70 bin Pu 60 bin 10 100 20 sio Diameter (meters) Te Noise inc ~Thursday, November 10, 2011
  102. 102. NoiseThursday, November 10, 2011
  103. 103. NoiseThursday, November 10, 2011
  104. 104. Wind speed VariabilityThursday, November 10, 2011
  105. 105. Short term speed fluctuationsThursday, November 10, 2011
  106. 106. Long term speed distributionThursday, November 10, 2011
  107. 107. Yearly fluctuationsThursday, November 10, 2011
  108. 108. Wind production vs. consumption in Denmark Mw hours Source: www.energinet.dk Dealing with variability in a grid connected systemThursday, November 10, 2011
  109. 109. Wind production vs. consumption in Denmark Mw hours Storm front Source: www.energinet.dk Dealing with variability in a grid connected systemThursday, November 10, 2011
  110. 110. T+1 hour T+12 hour Source: Garrad Hassan Dealing with variability in a grid connected systemThursday, November 10, 2011
  111. 111. Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
  112. 112. Diverts the electricity according to battery status Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
  113. 113. Stores the excess energy (wind is blowing but nobody is using the electricity) Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
  114. 114. when the battery is full (and the wind is blowing) Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
  115. 115. Dealing with variability for off grid systemsThursday, November 10, 2011
  116. 116. A word about loads • The “Dump load” is a load used when the battery is full • A “load” is any electrical appliance connected to the battery • Such as • light bulbs • TV/radio • computer • cell phone charger • Sewing machines ...Thursday, November 10, 2011
  117. 117. Estimating the resourceThursday, November 10, 2011
  118. 118. Looking at the long term distribution againThursday, November 10, 2011
  119. 119. Wind atlas • Several resources: • SWERA • NREL • RISOE • Include average yearly wind speed at several heights, and energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
  120. 120. Wind atlas • Several resources: • SWERA • NREL • RISOE • Include average yearly wind speed at several heights, and energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
  121. 121. Wind atlas • Several resources: • SWERA • NREL • RISOE • Include average yearly wind speed at several heights, and energy densityThursday, November 10, 2011
  122. 122. How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily productionThursday, November 10, 2011
  123. 123. How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production Using the wind speed distributionThursday, November 10, 2011
  124. 124. How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production Using the wind speed distribution multiplying by the power curveThursday, November 10, 2011
  125. 125. How to Estimate average yearly/monthly/daily production Using the wind speed distribution summing up to receive the AEPng byer curve Thursday, November 10, 2011
  126. 126. A more simplistic way to estimate the AEP • Starting from the Weibull distribution. • For k = 2, we get the Rayleigh distribution: 2 1⎛ u ⎞ u − ⎜ ⎟ 2⎝ V ⎠ f (u) = 2 e V • For the Rayleigh distribution the energy density can be calculated in a simpler way: 1 E = ρV ·1.91[W / m ] 3 2 2 • where 1.91 comes from the form of the Rayleigh distribution.Thursday, November 10, 2011
  127. 127. Simple AEP estimates 8760 π D 2 AEP = E· Cp[Kwh / year] 1000 4 E: power density from wind atlas, or measurement Cp: power coefficient 0.2-0.25 for small wind D: diameterThursday, November 10, 2011
  128. 128. Simple AEP estimatesThursday, November 10, 2011
  129. 129. Capacity Factor (CF) • Alternative way to describe the wind resource at a site • Used wildly in the energy sector - not just in wind energy • AEP = 8760 × P × CF[kwh / year] • The capacity factor is a function of the wind distribution and the power curve • But can be estimated for a generic power curveThursday, November 10, 2011
  130. 130. On land wind capacity factorThursday, November 10, 2011
  131. 131. Measurement campaign • Minimal equipment • 10 meter tilt up tower • Single Anemometer • Best practice • 15 meter tilt up tower • 2 Anemometers • 1 wind vane • 1 temperature probe • Alternatives • Install small wind turbine immediatelyThursday, November 10, 2011
  132. 132. Measurement campaign • Minimal equipment • 10 meter tilt up tower • Single Anemometer • Best practice • 15 meter tilt up tower • 2 Anemometers • 1 wind vane • 1 temperature probe • Alternatives • Install small wind turbine immediatelyThursday, November 10, 2011
  133. 133. Measurement campaign • Minimal equipment • 10 meter tilt up tower • Single Anemometer • Best practice • 15 meter tilt up tower • 2 Anemometers • 1 wind vane • 1 temperature probe • Alternatives • Install small wind turbine immediatelyThursday, November 10, 2011
  134. 134. Wind shear • Wind speed increases with height • Putting a small turbine on a tall tower is aways a good economic move • Insures steady winds - longer life for the bladesThursday, November 10, 2011
  135. 135. Economic considerationsThursday, November 10, 2011
  136. 136. Wind development costs • Pre-feasibility study • Big wind - major effort, 200,000$ / Mw • Off grid small wind - basic measurement campaign, trial and error. 200-1000$ for measurement system. • Wind turbine system • Battery bank, Inverter • BOS (cables, breakers ...)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  137. 137. Example costs - Battery-less wind turbine system (Installed cost)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  138. 138. Example costs - Battery-less wind turbine system (Installed cost) Avg. Simplistic cost Diameter Swept area Energy cost [$] wind of energy (15 [m] [m^2] production speed year life time) 120 kwh/m^2/ 2000 $/m^2 X year X 3.14 2 3.14 3.14 m^2 = 4 m/s 1.1 $/kwh m^2 = 376.8 6280$ kwh/year 260 kwh/m^2/ year X 3.14 2 3.14 $6280 5 m/s 0.51 $/kwh m^2 = 816.4 kwh/yearThursday, November 10, 2011
  139. 139. Balance of system • Charge controller • Dump load • Battery • System meter • InverterThursday, November 10, 2011
  140. 140. Balance of system Included in previous assessment • Charge controller • Dump load • Battery • System meter • InverterThursday, November 10, 2011
  141. 141. Crash course on BatteriesThursday, November 10, 2011
  142. 142. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric systemThursday, November 10, 2011
  143. 143. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acidThursday, November 10, 2011
  144. 144. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technologyThursday, November 10, 2011
  145. 145. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different modelsThursday, November 10, 2011
  146. 146. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 yearsThursday, November 10, 2011
  147. 147. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longerThursday, November 10, 2011
  148. 148. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longer • Typical voltage is 12 voltsThursday, November 10, 2011
  149. 149. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longer • Typical voltage is 12 volts • Capacity measured in AhThursday, November 10, 2011
  150. 150. Crash course on Batteries • The heart of an off-grid electric system • Typically Lead-acid • 150 year old technology • Many different models • A car battery is cheap - and lasts 1-3 years • A deep-discharge battery is more expansive, but lasts longer • Typical voltage is 12 volts • Capacity measured in Ah • Energy is AhXVolt/1000 in kWhThursday, November 10, 2011
  151. 151. Example battery costsThursday, November 10, 2011
  152. 152. Example battery costs • Israel battery costs (Lead Acid): (source: Comet-ME) • Gel type - 1000 shekel/90Ah 12V (Israel manufacturer) ~ 250$/kWh, ~50$/kWh/year • 3000Ah 48V OPZF (2V units) OPK (15 year life) 85,000 euro (German manufacturer) ~820$/kWh, ~55$/kwH/yearThursday, November 10, 2011
  153. 153. Example inverter costsThursday, November 10, 2011
  154. 154. Dealing with battery costs • Batteries are used frequently in rural areas • Charged occasionally by transporting to the closest grid connected town for a considerable cost • If batteries are bought specifically for the wind project they can become a major cost of the system • If the batteries exist already, they can be charged more cheaply by the wind turbineThursday, November 10, 2011
  155. 155. Example meter costs • Using a meter to measure the electricity used is crucial to success of wind-project • simple meter 100$-150$ • Pay by use meter - costs are the same, but software is expensive - one time licensing fee 10,000Euro • There is a standard in the world for these type of systems (the encoding method)Thursday, November 10, 2011
  156. 156. Next up - Examples and case studies part 2Thursday, November 10, 2011
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