تاريخ الحاسب عام 2011

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المنهج التاريخى
تاريخ الحاسب الآلى أثناء الدبلوم الخاص ولقد تعلمت الكثير والكثير من خلال الاستاذ الدكتور/ مدحت النمر
تحية وتقدير الى جميع الأساتذة والدكاترة لى فى جامعة الاسكندرية
هناء أحمد محمد إبراهيم - معلم حاسب آلى باحثة ماجيستر مناهج وطرق تدريس حاسب آلى

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تاريخ الحاسب عام 2011

  1. 1. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1١‫اﻻﺣﺪاث‬ ‫واھﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﯿﻞ‬‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اھﻢ‬‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻰ‬ ‫اﺗﺨﺬ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻄﺮة‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﯿﻮط‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺒﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺎز‬ ‫اول‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫اﻟﺒﺪﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬٥٠٠‫ﻋﺎم‬‫اﻟﻤﯿﻼد‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬١٠‫اﻟﯿﺪوي‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪاد‬:‫ﺑﺪأ‬‫اﻟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪاد‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺮع‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫وي‬١٥٠٠‫اﻷﺑﯿﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻀﺎرات‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬‫اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ‬.‫اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺎز‬‫ﺑﺪاﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬١٦(Pascaline)‫ﺑﺎﺳﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﻼﯾﺰ‬Blaise Pascal١٦٤٢‫اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻵﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫وﯾﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮل‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬"‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬‫اﻵﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬" .‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬‫ﻟﯿﺒﻨﺘﺰ‬ ‫اﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬١٧٣٢‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬١٧‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺴﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫آﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬،‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻵﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬(JosephMarie Jacquard)١٨٠٤‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬١٨Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  2. 2. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٢‫اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫وﯾﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮل‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬"‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬‫ﺑﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﺎج‬ ‫ﺷﺎرﻟﺰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎم‬‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫إﺟﺮاء‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫آﻟﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫وﻃﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷرﻗﺎم‬ ‫وﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬‫ﻣﯿﻜﺎﻧﯿﻜﻲ‬ ‫وﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻵﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫أوراق‬‫ﺑﺎﺑﺎج‬ ‫ﺷﺎرﻟﺰ‬(Charles Babbage١٨٢٢‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬١٨Charles Babbage١٨٣٢‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫وھﺬه‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺨﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺪات‬‫ﻜ‬‫ذاﻛﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬١٨٣٣‫اﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬‫واﻻﺧﺮاج‬ ‫اﻻدﺧﺎل‬ ‫وﺣﺪاﺗﻰ‬ ‫ذاﻛﺮة‬ ‫رﻗﺎم‬‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫واﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت‬‫واﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬١٨٤٢‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫واﻗﺘﺼﺮت‬ ‫ﺑﻮوت‬ ‫ﺟﻮل‬ ‫ﻇﮭﺮ‬)AND- Not - OR(‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮع‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺮاع‬‫أو‬ ‫أﺣﺮف‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أرﻗﺎم‬ ‫ﺳﻮاء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬‫ﻛﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ف‬‫اﺛﻨﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬:‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫إﻣﺎ‬،‫ﻻ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬،‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮح‬‫ﻣﻐﻠﻖ‬ ‫أو‬،‫أﺻﻔﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﺣﺪات‬،‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮة‬ ‫وﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻔﯿﻦ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬"‫اﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻔﺮة‬"‫إﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻀﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ ‫وھﺬه‬‫إﻣﺎ‬‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻞ‬‫ﻣﻨﻄﻔﺊ‬.George Boole‫ﺟﻮرج‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﯾﻄﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬‫ﺑﻮول‬Boole١٨٥٤‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﻮ‬ ‫وﺳﻤﯿﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫واﻋﺘﻤﺪت‬ ‫ﻧﻄﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺔ‬ ‫اول‬ ‫اﻧﺸﺎ‬William Javors١٨٦٩Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  3. 3. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٣(Punched Cards)(InternationalBusiness Machines)(IBM)‫ھﻮﻟﯿﺮﯾﺚ‬Hollerith١٨٧٩Herman HollerithHerman Hollerith١٨٨٠‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻹدﺧﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻘﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬,‫ﻓﺼﻤﻢ‬‫ﺷﺮﻃﺔ‬ ‫أﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫وﺑﻨﺎھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫آﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮﻟﯿﺮﯾﺚ‬‫وﺑﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬‫اﻵﻻت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬‫ﺑﯿﻠﯿﻨﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﯾﺮه‬١٨٩٠Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  4. 4. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٤‫اﻟﻤﻠﯿﻮﻧ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫واﻃﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺪاد‬ ‫ﻟﻀﺮب‬ ‫اوﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺔ‬ ‫اول‬‫ﯿﺮ‬Otto stogies١٨٩٣‫اﻟﺮدادﯾﻮ‬ ‫اﺷﺎرات‬ ‫وﺗﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮغ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬ ‫اول‬Lee Deforest١٩٠٧١٩IBMComputing –Tabulating – RecordingC-T-RIBM ( International BusinessMachineIBM١٩١١‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﻰء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﮭﺮﺑﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة‬ ‫اول‬Flip‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫وھﻮ‬))٠،١) ((ON - Off(‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺪاد‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬Ecdes & Jordan١٩١٩‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اول‬ ‫ﻇﮭﻮر‬Analog‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺮض‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺬى‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫وﺳﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻻت‬‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﺿﻠﻰ‬١٩٢٤‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وان‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫اول‬Eckerd١٩٣٣‫ﻧﻄﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺮﻋﺖ‬Machinelogic‫اﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﺘﺪاد‬Turing‫و‬‫ﺷﺮح‬‫اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻻرﻗﺎم‬ ‫ض‬١٩٣٦John Vincent AtanasoffJohn Vincent AtanasofABCJohn Vincent AtanasoffJohn Vincent Atanasof١٩٣٧Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  5. 5. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٥‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬‫ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ووﻟﺪت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪواﺋﺮ‬ ‫وﻣﻔﺎﺗﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻟﯿﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﺒﺮ‬Shannon١٩٣٧‫ﻇﮭﺮت‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬Shannon١٩٣٨‫ﻇﮭﺮ‬‫اول‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬digital‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬‫اﻟﻤﻔﺮﻏﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺎﻣﺎت‬(Anta scoff , Berry & corny)ABC١٩٣٩‫ﻇﮭﻮر‬‫ﻟﻼﻏﺮاض‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اول‬Z- 3‫اﻟﻤﺜﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻼم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻤﺖ‬Konrad Zuse١٩٤١‫ﻇﮭﺮت‬‫اول‬‫ﺟﮭﺎز‬‫اﻧﺠﻠﯿﺰى‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬)‫اﻟﺠﻨﺴﯿﺔ‬(١٩٤٣‫ﻇﮭﺮ‬‫اول‬‫ﺣ‬‫اﻣﺮﯾﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺎﺳﺐ‬Mark١٩٤٤Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  6. 6. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٦‫ﺗﻌﺪﯾﻞ‬Mark1- Mark11‫اﻟﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻨﺔ‬Mark١٩٤٥ENIACENIACMauchlyABCENIACENIACJohn MauchlyJ. PresperEckert١٩٤٦William ShockleyWalter BrattonJohn BardeenrCore memoryWhirlGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  7. 7. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٧windcomputer‫ﯾﻮﻧﯿﻔﺎك‬UNIVAC :‫آﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫أﺷﮭﺮ‬‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫وﺷﺮﯾﻂ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺔ‬‫ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﯿﺴﻲ‬‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ذو‬‫اﻟﺤﺮب‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮر‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫وإﯾﻜﺮت‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻛﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻹدﺧﺎل‬‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻷﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫دھﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺮغ‬‫اﺳﺘﻄﺎع‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﺋﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﺒﺆ‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎت‬1952‫ﯾﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﺎز‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎس‬ ‫وﻇﻦ‬ ‫م‬‫اﻟﺘﻔ‬‫وﻟﻜﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﻜﯿﺮ‬‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻔﺮات‬ ‫إﻟﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬UNIVAC‫اﺳﺎس‬‫اﻟﻤﺼﻐﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮة‬Microprogramming‫دﻟﯿﻞ‬ ‫وھﻰ‬‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻦ‬ًWilkes‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وﺳﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻏﺮاض‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر‬TropicGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  8. 8. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٨‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬‫ﻇﮭﺮ‬‫اول‬IBMIBMRAMACIBMMANIC IJack KilbyRobert NoyceICTexas InstrumentchipJackKilbyRobertNoyceICTexasInstrumentchipBell TelephoneBell LabsPDP-1BellLabsGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  9. 9. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1٩Digital EquipmentPDP-1CompilerPDP-1Digital EquipmentPDP-1HopperCobolLaserSketch padDouglas EnglbartASCIIASCIIDigital EquipmentPCsIntelGordon MoorRobert NoyceIntelGordon MoorRobertNoyceGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  10. 10. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1١٠H316ARPAnetHoney WellHoneyWellIntelBell LabsBowmarNiklaus WirthHearsayCTraf-O-DateRay TomlinsonBell LabsCHP-35Hamilton WatchPulsarLEDPaul AllenBill GatesTraf-O-DateRayTomlinsonCP/MGary KendallCP/MGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  11. 11. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1١١AltairMicrosoftAltairCPMCPMGary KildallIBMApple IIApple IIAppleApple IIVisiCalcDan BricklinBob FrankstonVisiCalcSpreadsheetsHyperTim Berners-LeeEnquire WithinUpon EverythingIBM PCIBMIBM PCPC-DosIntel 8088Osborne ComputerOsborne1LisaIBMAndrew FlugelmanPC-TalkSharewareAndrewFlugelGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  12. 12. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1١٢manWordMS-Dos2PC-XTDos 1.0MS Dos 2IBM PC ATCompact Discs , CDsJohn ScullyMac OSDXDesk Pro 386 CompaqWindows / 386World WideDX486Tim Berners-LeeWorld WideHTMLhttpWWWGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  13. 13. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1١٣CERNCERNLinus ZimmermanLinuxUnixWindows 3.1MosaicNCSAMosaic 1.0Office95Windows95Pentium ProDVDPentium ProDVDIIDVDApple Bonding Blue iMacWindows 98Generated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
  14. 14. ‫اﻵﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﯾﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎھﺞ‬/‫اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺎذ‬ ‫اﺷﺮاف‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺑﺮاھﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎء‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬Page1١٤iMacPIIIIomegaZip DriveDVDWindows2000P4P4CD-RWDVDNanotechnologyGenerated by Foxit PDF Creator © Foxit Softwarehttp://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

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