Architecture

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Architecture

  1. 1. M. Ryan Academic Decathlon 2005-06 Architecture
  2. 2. • The art and science of designing and constructing buildings Architecture
  3. 3. Architects: specialists in designing structures Architecture
  4. 4. Architecture One of the early architectural developments was the use of the “post-and-lintel” method A beam is placed horizontally across upright posts.
  5. 5. Architecture Ancient Greek “Orders” (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base. (click me) http://www.bozzle.com/perClassicOrders.html
  6. 6. Architecture Entablature: the top of an order; includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/architecture/entablature.html
  7. 7. Architecture Other key developments include the arch, http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm
  8. 8. Architecture the vault, http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm
  9. 9. Architecture and the dome (my personal favorite). http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm
  10. 10. Architecture The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone.
  11. 11. Architecture A series of columns is called a colonnade. A series of arches is called an arcade.
  12. 12. Architecture The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building.
  13. 13. Architecture The Romans were great engineers. They developed concrete as a building material, which was used in building aqueducts, baths, and other public works projects.
  14. 14. Architecture http://www.m-w.com/mw/art/flyingbu.htm Flying Buttress: external arch that counter-balanced the outward thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings.
  15. 15. Architecture During the Industrial Revolution, many new materials were developed: glass-- Crystal Palace (1851) http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1158.htm
  16. 16. Architecture and wrought iron: The Eiffel Tower
  17. 17. Modern Architecture Antonio Gaudi: Spanish architect– no flat surface or straight lines (organic) http://www.lexised.com/architecture/gaudi/casam.html
  18. 18. Antonio Gaudi’s most famous building: “La Sagrada Familia” Modern Architecture
  19. 19. Modern Architecture The 1st skyscraper was made in St. Louis, MO by Louis Sullivan who coined the expression “form follows function”.
  20. 20. Modern Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright: American architect; carefully considered the environment where the building was to be constructed. “Falling Water” More Wright
  21. 21. Modern Architecture Steel and concrete are the favored materials for commercial type construction. Wood and brick are the favored materials for residential construction.

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