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Iron deficiency anemia
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Iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia

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Iron deficiency anemia Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Hamza J. AlGhamdi
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Anemia of Disordered Iron Metabolism and Heme Synthesis
    • The body needs iron to make hemoglobin. If there isn't enough iron available, hemoglobin production is limited, which in turns affects the production of red blood cells (RBCs). A decreased amount of hemoglobin and RBCs in the bloodstream is known as anemia. Because RBCs are needed to carry oxygen throughout the body, anemia results in less oxygen reaching the cells and tissues, affecting their function .
    • Iron-deficiency anemia world map
  • 5.
    • Absorption
      • Primarily in mucosa of proximal small intestine
    • Distribution
      • Iron-containing compounds :
        • Functional compounds – metabolic (hemoglobin) or enzymatic functions .
        • Transport (transferrin) or storage (ferritin) .
  • 6.
    • Transport
      • Major iron transport protein is transferrin .
    • Storage
      • Major storage depot is liver .
      • Stored as ferritin and hemosiderin .
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Blood loss (including from heavy menstrual bleeding)
    • Poor absorption of iron by the body
    • Too little iron in the diet
    • It can also be related to lead poisoning in children.
    • gastrointestinal blood loss
  • 10.
    • Infants, children, and adolescents who are growing quickly
    • People who do not get enough iron in their diet
    • People who use aspirin, ibuprofen, or other arthritis medicines long-term
    • Pregnant or breastfeeding women who need extra iron
    • Seniors
    • Women of child-bearing age who have lost blood through heavy menstrual periods
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • Pallor
    • fatigue and weakness
    • Constipation
    • Sleepiness
    • Tinnitus
    • Palpitations
    • Hair loses
    • Fainting or feeling faint
    • Breathlessness on exertion.
    • Twitching muscles
    • Tingling, numbness
    • Missed menstrual cycle
    • Slow social development
    • Glossitis
  • 17.
    • Koilonychia
    • Poor appetite
    • Pruritus
    • Dysphagia due to formation of esophageal webs (Plummer-vinson syndrome).
    • Angular stomatitis
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • In countries where little meat is in the diet, iron deficiency anemia is more prevalent than in North America and Europe.
    • In certain geographic areas, intestinal parasites, particularly hookworm, worsen the iron deficiency because of blood loss from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • 22.
    • Anemia is more profound among children and premenopausal women in these environs.
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.
    • April 2000
    • Haemoglobin was measured in a sample of 800 students selected at random from both genders and different age groups
    • Anaemia was reported among 20.5% of school students.
    • anaemia was more marked among governmental school attendees and those born to low-educated mothers
    • Menstruating girls were at around double the risk of being anaemic than non-menstruating girls
    • Anaemia was associated with negative impact on school performance and was more marked among those who failed their exams as compared to students with excellent results.
    • Only 34.1% of anaemic school students were aware of being anaemic
  • 27.
    • The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia was investigated among 1,210 school girls in Riyadh, 1999
    • A total of 8.5% of children showed Hb level below 10 g/dL while 55.4% showed Hb level below 12 g/dL
  • 28.
    • study between January and
    • April, 2005 at Al-Hada area.
    • From 5 schools, 513 students were recruited.
    • The mean hemoglobin concentration was 13.4+/-0.9 g/dL, while the prevalence of anemia was 11.6% an
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • Possible causes include: Poor intake of iron in diet
    • a pregnant woman may become anemic because pregnancy alters the digestive process.
    • the unborn child consumes some of the iron or folic acid normally available to the mother's body.
    • Risk increases with Twin or multiple pregnancy
  • 31.
    • there is substantial evidence that maternal iron deficiency anemia increases the risk of preterm delivery and subsequent low birth weight
    • accumulating information suggests an association between maternal iron status in pregnancy and the iron status of infants postpartum.
    Lindsay H Allen, Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 5, 1280S-1284s, May 2000
  • 32.
    • Severely anaemic pregnant women may require blood transfusion
    • Oral iron in pregnancy showed a reduction in the incidence of anaemia relative risk.
    • Food-Based Approaches are not enough
    • Reveiz L, Gyte GML, Cuervo LG. Treatments for iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003094. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003094.pub2.
  • 33.  
  • 34. 684 PW 219 have the disease = 32% anaemics Considered as moderate public health problem in KSA
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • Sample :6,539 PW
    • 2,088 are anaemics = 31.9%
    • 75% IDA
  • 37.  
  • 38.
    • In conclusion, there are various factors contributing to the high prevalence of anaemia in Asir region .
    • Like:
    • The high multiparity
    • The illiteracy
    • The short inter-pregnancy spacing
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41.
    • Dietary approach
    • Iron supplementation
  • 42.
    • Treatment of an underlying cause
    • iron supplementation both to correct anaemia and replenish body stores.
    • ferrous sulphate 200mg twice daily
    • Ascorbic acid 250-500mg twice daily with iron preparation may enhance iron absorption.
    • Parenteral iron may be used
    oral iron is continued until 3 months after The iron deficiency has been corrected so that stores are replenished
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.
    • You can enhance your body's absorption of iron by drinking citrus juice when you eat an iron-containing food. Vitamin C in citrus juices, like orange juice, helps your body better absorb dietary iron.
    • Vitamin C is also found in:
    • Melon, Strawberries, Kiwi
    • Mangos, Broccoli, Tomatoes.
  • 46.
    • Breastfeeding
    • or iron-fortified formula for the first year.
    • Cow's milk isn't a good source of iron for babies
    • Iron from breast milk is more easily absorbed than the iron found in formula.
  • 47.  
  • 48.
    • IDA is
    • Disordered of Iron Metabolism and Heme Synthesis
    • Its causes are:
    • Blood loss
    • Poor absorption
    • little iron in the diet
    • gastrointestinal blood loss
    • Investigations by :
    • hemoglobin level in the body
    • Clinical presentation of IDA
    • Major symptoms are
    • Pallor
    • fatigue
    • Constipation
    • Sleepiness
    • Palpitations
    • Hair loses
    • Breathlessness on exertion.
    • Koilonychia
  • 49.
    • IDA epidemiology worldwide:
    • Ida prevalence more in Africa – America – south east Asia
    • IDA in ksa :
    • A total of 8.5% of children in Riyadh cite showed Hb level below 10 g/dL while 55.4% showed Hb level below 12 g/dL
    • IDA in pregnancy :
    • there is substantial evidence that maternal iron deficiency anemia increases the risk of preterm delivery and subsequent low birth weight
    • Management of IDA :
    • Treatment of an underlying cause
    • iron supplementation both to correct anaemia and replenish body stores
    • Prevention of IDA :
    • Foods rich in iron
  • 50.