An alloy of iron and carbon, often with an admixture of other
Other admixtures are manganese, chromium, vanadium and
Carbon content is between 0.2% and 2.1%
Widely used in the construction of roads, railways, other
infrastructure, appliances, and buildings, transport,
Used in a variety of other construction materials, such as
bolts, nails, and screws.
Screwss Nails Bolts
Light in weight, but offers great strength.
It is durable & malleable.
It is ductile, can be moulded easily to form any desired shape.
It starts to corrode, on being exposed to moisture and water.
It is a good conductor of electricity.
•0.3 – 0.6% carbon containing steel is used for sheeting and structural forms because of
its amenability to welding and tooling.
•more than 0.6% carbon containing steel is serviceable for dies and cutting tools
because of its great hardness and brittleness.
•Now most widely used, contain one or more other elements to give them specific
•Aluminium steel is smooth and has a high tensile strength.
• Chromium steel finds wide use in automobile and airplane parts on account of its
hardness, strength, and elasticity.
Fig 1 .carbon steel sheets and dies
Nickel steel is the most widely used of the alloys; it is nonmagnetic and has the tensile
properties of high-carbon steel without the brittleness.
• tungsten, molybdenum, and high-manganese steel are other alloys.
Fig 2.Alloy Steel motor and power generators
Tool steels contain tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt and vanadium in varying
quantities to increase heat resistance and durability, making them ideal for
cutting and drilling equipment.
Fig 3.Tool steel drilling equipment
STEEL STAINLESS STEEL
Very Less resistance to corrosion High corrosion resistance .
Less resistive nature to fire & heat It is resistant to fire and heat
Un hygienic in nature Hygienic, non-porous surface coupled
with the easy cleaning ability
No aesthetic appearance Aesthetic appearance
Its not completely recyclable It is 100% recyclable
High maintenance is required low maintenance and familiar lustre.
Less expensive Highly expensive
Easy to fabricate & weld Difficult to fabricate & weld
Used in railways, roads, subways, bridges,
other huge buildings and modern
skyscrapers, ship building, cars, armoured
vehicles, and bulldozers
Used in facade treatment, surgical
instruments, cutlery, home appliances,
cookware, storage tanks, food processing
Stainless steels are family of ferrous alloys of iron containing a minimum of 10.5%
chromium and usually at least 50% iron.
Upon exposure to air or water, a thin, stable, chromium-rich oxide film forms on
the surface of these metals.
The layer is too thin to be visible, so the metal stays shiny. It is, however,
impervious to water and air, protecting the metal beneath
If it is damaged by abrasion, reforms rapidly
Generally, corrosion resistance increases with the chromium content of stainless
Application: in construction, cookware, household hardware, surgical
instruments, major appliances, sugar refineries , bridges, sculptures , facade
treatment, Storage tanks food processing plants, etc
Chromium: Forms a protective layer
Nickel: content beyond 8-9% further improves both corrosion resistance
(especially in acid environments) and workability
Molybdenum: is added to improve high temperature strength.
Nitrogen: increases strength and enhances resistance to localised corrosion.
Copper: increases general corrosion resistance to acids
Carbon: enhances hardenablity
Silicon: improves resistance to oxidation and is also used in special stainless steels
It is ductile , malleable & durable.
Excellent resistance to corrosion
Excellent fire resistance with critical temperature above
Easy to clean and suitable for hygienic uses.
High tensile strength.
Retention of strength at elevated temperature.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF STAINLESS STEELS
Plate, sheet, strip,
pipe and tube
Bar, rod, wire and
special wire sections.
Fasteners, fixings and
Sheet, strip and plate
are commonly used
for structural and
COIL WIRE BAR
FERRITICMARTENSITIC AUSTENTIC DUPLEX
(typically 12.5% to
17%) and iron.
exhibit s superior
consist of carbon
12%) and iron.
poorer than others
They are magnetic
nickel (8-11%) and
to both ferritic and
at all temperatures.
They are non-
nitrogen and iron.
has generally better
than the standard
between that of
austentic and ferritic
They are magnetic
Metro Springs Conveyor belt Air crafts
ductile and hardens rapidly during mechanical working.
Application: Trains, aircraft, conveyors belts, vehicles, bolt,
Type 304- the most common; the classic 18/8 (18% chromium & 8%nickel)
It has good corrosion resistance, thermal resistance, low temperature
strength and usable temperature range 196 C to 800 C
Application: sink, water tank, interior piping, hot water machine, bathtub,
boiler, automobile parts, building materials, textile industry, dairy industry,
and vessel parts.
Pipes Sink Rods Cladding
Type 316- the second most common
Application: for food and surgical stainless steel uses;
Also known as "marine grade" stainless steel due to its increased ability to resist
SS 316 is often used for building nuclear reprocessing plants.
Type 408- (11% chromium, 8% nickel) heat-resistant; poor corrosion
Type 409-cheapest type; used for automobile exhausts
Type 420- "Cutlery Grade"
Type 430- decorative
Type 440- a higher grade of cutlery steel, with more carbon in it
500 Series-heat resisting chromium alloys
cutlery Car Exhaust
The first major architectural application of stainless steel was
probably the cladding on the top of the Chrysler building in New York
Grade used 316
• Grade : 304
• Good visual appearance
• Can be used over longer length &
• minimal maintenance cost and virtually
• Form: profiled sheeting, panels, or
• minimise the weight with subsequent
beneficial effect on structural steelwork
and foundation costs
Reflection of surrounding give
good visual appearance
UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ,LILLE
• Stainless steel cladding panels 900x500mm.
• thickness 1.5mm
• Fixed to galvanised steel channel sections
HORST CORBER SPORTS COMPLEX ,BERLIN ,GERMANY.
1.5 mm electrolytically coloured
stainless steel sheets.
Colour tone changes according to
the incidence of light
Museum of technology ,saint dennis france
Stainless steel convex sheeting on the facade
LA GEODE, PARIS, FRANCE
The cladding is a mosaic of 6433 doubly-curved triangular plates in
grade 1.4401 (316) stainless steel. The plates are 1.5 mm thick and
1.2 m along their edges.
Cross-section through roof
Triangles created by the
primary tubular steel frame
View showing aluminium frame
Erection of stainless steel
Grade: 316 (1.4401)
•Resistance to harsh weather
Can be used in parking garage
An art deco sculpture
on the Niagara
building in Syracuse,
STAINLESS STEEL USED IN ROOFING
• Grade : 304
• Surface finish : 2B
• Maximum life expectation
• Minimum Maintenance
• Low weight
• Lower cost of the supporting
• Excellent heat reflecting
• Electric Conductivity
- can eliminate the need for
- electromagnetic shielding to
house sensitive electronic
• Fire resistance
The melting point of stainless
steel is around 1500°C, which
is much higher than for
most other roofing materials,
e.g. Al 660° C,
Zn 419° C, Cu 1083° C.
•Do not contaminate rain water, hence can be used for flowering
•chromium -nickel –molybdenum stainless steel is used
FLOORPLATE AND OPEN GRID FLOORING
• Used where
slip resistance are essential.
• This flooring is suitable for a wide
variety of industries:
including chemical, marine engineering,
catering and pharmaceutical.
TUNNEL CLADDING ANCHOR
Grade : 316L (1.4404)
Maintain support function
for 2 hr at 1000degree
STAINLESS STEEL USED IN STRUCTURE
Tension System :
available in carbon and stainless steel.
The latter is recommended
for applications demanding corrosion
resistance, a maintenance-free life and where
a highly polished finish is required.
Stainless steel structure can be
erected safely and in less time
Stainless steel hanger
and struts supporting
STAINLESS STEEL FASTENERS
Only stain less steel fasteners must be
used on stainless steel panels to avoid
• Water tank
• Grade : 304
• stainless steel as a strong,
durable and hygienic
• very long lasting material
and the tank has an
expected service life of
about 60 years
• Stainless Steel tanks do not
bulge or stretch when full
APPLICATION OF STAINLESS STEEL
CARBON STEEL STAINLESS STEEL
-Corrode when chloride ion -Do not corrode
penetrates the concrete.
- Corrosion products are expansionary -No expansion &crack
and cause the concrete to crack
repair then becomes necessary
-Tolerate chloride levels of 0 – 0.4%. - Tolerate chloride levels up
to 7 %
STAINLESS STEEL IN REINFORCEMENT
-Improves the durability of
the structure, and reduces
ongoing maintenance and
-A reduction in depth of
concrete cover to 30 mm.
-Carbon steel can be used for the nil
corrosion risk elements.
-Elimination of concrete
sealants such as Silane.
WHEN TO USE STAINLESS STEEL
• When structures are exposed to high chloride environments
and/or corrosive industrial environments
• In roads and bridges where de-icing salts are applied
• When non-magnetic reinforcement is necessary or desirable
STAINLESS STEEL IN CONSTRUCTION
coastal structureshistoric buildings underpasses
highway bridgesroadways Bridges piers
•High energy-absorption at impact
•A greater level of fire-resistance
•Less likely than carbon steel to be weakened
•To create railcars increases the sustainability
lightweight yet durable profile of the rail
BENEFITS: IN METRO
Fig 4 .Delhi Metro
railcars of stainless steel
Fig 6. inside railcarFig 5. inside metro station