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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. The area has historically been a part of the crossroads of the Rawalpindi and the North-West Frontier Province Islamabad is located at 33°40′N, 73°10′E.
  3. 3. NEED OF ISLAMABAD After independence in 1947, Pakistan realized the need of capital city to serve the new state. Than, Islamabad, a new capital of Pakistan was conceived in 1959, planned from 1959 to 1963 by a Greek architect-planner C. A. Doxiadis, and started implementation in 1961. MAP OF ISLAMABAD’
  4. 4. SITE SELECTION 1. 2. 3. 4. Site is directly connected to Grand Truck (GT) Road site for Islamabad. LOCATION MAP Site was selected by its close proximity to the existing urban area of Rawalpind. Rawalpindi helped in the development of Islamabad by providing the access to existing transport network. supplying labour for the development and accommodating early inhabitants and offices for Islamabad (ibid).
  5. 5. ZONING OF SITE The land was acquired from the North-West Frontier Province and Punjab in 1960, for the purpose of establishing Pakistan's new capital. According to the 1960 master plan, the ICT included the city of Rawalpindi, and was to be utilized as following: 1. Rawalpindi; 259 km² 2. Islamabad Proper (including the institutional and industrial areas); 220.15 km² 3. Islamabad (Margalla Hills) Park; 220.15 km² 4. Islamabad Rural Area; 446.20 km²
  6. 6. GRID IRON PATTERN The city was conceived into grid-iron patterns developed into 2 kilometers by 2 kilometers sectors segregated by the hierarchy of wide principal roads (60 ft.) comprising Islamabad and Rawalpindi area. The sectors were used for distinct land uses such as residential, educational, commercial and administrative. Housing is provided in grid-iron pattern sectors on disciplined hierarchy of communities according to their income groups. In the square grid of sectors, four communities clustered around an enlarged shopping centre. To slow down traffic, shopping activities were organized in the centre of a larger square settlement. 
  7. 7. The city is divided into eight basic zone types: • Administrative zone; • Diplomatic Enclave zone; • Residential Areas; • Educational Sectors; • Industrial Sectors; • Commercial Areas; • Rural Areas; • Green Areas. Each sector has its own shopping area, a green belt and public park. The population of the city 66% is urban. It is thus the most advanced region in Pakistan. Islamabad is divided into several different sectors, each identified by a letter of the Roman alphabet and a number, with each sector covering an area of approximately 2 km x 2 km. Each sector is further divided into 4 sub-sectors. The sectors currently in use are lettered from D to I.
  8. 8. DYNAPOLIS The cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi will develop as twin cities serving each other in complementary ways. Islamabad will be the capital of the nation and will serve mainly administrative and cultural functions. Rawalpindi will remain the regional center serving industrial and commercial functions. The master plan for both cities has the flexibility to allow for future expansions of the center. It has been designed on the basis of the ideal city of the future and to form a dyna-metropolis. Each is planned to develop dynamically towards the south-west, their center cores growing simultaneously and together with their residential and other functions.. Overall, Botka (1995) found this concept very useful for long term benefit of the city.
  9. 9. HIERARCHICAL DISTRIBUTION ROADS OF Islamabad is planned according to a hierarchical system of communities of various classes, each class comprising the functions corresponding to its size. These communities are properly served by a major transportation system developed within wide corridors of a grid-iron configuration. Local and collector low speed roads, wide sidewalks, pedestrian roads and bicycles lanes within the lower class “human communities” provide access to the major transportation system. The above hierarchical system of communities and transportation facilities, contributes to the reduction of travel distances/times and accidents, and to the promotion of“green transport” (walking, cycling, public transport).
  10. 10. 120, 60, 30 ft
  11. 11. COMMUNICATION AND TRAFFIC CONTROL Types of street or road system used in islamabad are rectangular or grid iron street system the street have equal width and they cross each other at right angle The advantage of this system is convinient to traffic and so a speedy and free traffic can be maintained. The houses are constructed in rectangular blocks so convinient, economical and most suited for building construction There is no wastage of land since no irregular portion are left out.
  12. 12. • But the disadvantages of this system are they don’t provide short cuts which provide a direct access to trad and shoppng centres. •Since islamabad is situated on the POTOHAR plateue the surface is uneven.where grid iron street pattern become inconvenience, discomfortand moreover it become expensive. • In spite of the undulating Plain of Potwar having deeply eroded water courses, the main roads aligned straight. In fact, Taylor (1967) found that straight roads resulted roller-coaster gradients for some areas. •That’s why diaxodis didn’t follow ths pattern strctly but at certain points follows follows terrain. • Grid iron pattern provided in road system is the greatest enemy of traffic and and road users (CLARENCE STIEN). Bcoz it provided too many junctions and crossing, and there is more chances of road accidents
  13. 13. Local road