Human settlemnet of delhi

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Human settlemnet of delhi

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT SUBMITTED BY: GAZZALA PERWEEN
  2. 2. Delhi stands with the oldest cities of the world like Rome and Istanbul. Delhi was even called the ‘Rome of the East’ or ‘Rome of Asia’. Delhi can claim a hoary antiquity as a settlement. The discovery of Harappan pottery at Mandaoli, a site on the eastern side of Yamuna on its old course near Nandnagri, suggests the existence of rural habitation in this area around the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The GT Road that connected central Asia to Dhaka and a feeder road, the Qutab Road connecting GT Road and Mehrauli and passing along the New Delhi railway station have been in use for nearly 1,000 years. The National Highway 8 has existed since the late Harappan age while a village, Mandoli, now an e-waste disposal on the outskirts of Delhi and a settlement, has turned out to be a Harappan archaeological site. Traditionally, however, Delhi’s past is linked with the Mahabharata legend of the foundation of Indraprastha, the site of present Purana Qila. In the Rajput Period, the Tomars ruled the present Haryana region from their capital Dhillika. It is also believed that the Tomars founded Delhi in 736 AD. Then the Chauhans took over from them and they ruled till 1192 AD, when Prithviraj Chauhan, also known as Rai Pithora – the last Chauhan king – was defeated by Muhammad Ghori. He left his representative Qutb-ud-din Aibak to rule this city. For the next almost 600 years, Delhi was ruled by Muslim kings. In 1788, the Marathas took over this city by defeating the Mughliya Sultanat. Nine-Eleven played a very important role in the history of Delhi too; here, referring to the 9/11 of 1803. On 11th September 1803, upon the request of Mughal king Shah Alam, the British defeated Marathas in the battle of Patparganj, present Mayur Vihar, and entered the city for the first time.
  3. 3. The British army camped near Red Fort and later Daryaganj became a cantonment. The cantonment was later shifted to Rajpur Chhawani. When the British turned masters of the city, a large tract of the territory west of river Yamuna, including Delhi, was seized, and the Mughal emperor was assigned a tract of land known as Delhi territory. During the 1857 uprising, the British were challenged and Bahadur Shah Zafar took over the command of the city.The British government took over the rule of Delhi. Delhi became a provincial town of Frontier Province. Later it was transferred to the newly formed Punjab under a lieutenant governor. Calcutta remained the capital of the country. When the capital shifted to Delhi, it was a city of a two and half lakhs; in ten decades it has become an urban conglomerate of more then 200 lakh. During this period, the administrative system of Delhi saw many changes but the city was not well managed, as it should have been. It used to be a city of a few miles but now it is spread over 1486 square kilometers. A municipality was established to provide civil services in an organised manner; now its municipal corporation is decentralised into smaller corporations so it is more manageable. Prior to 1931, that is before the inauguration of New Delhi, the city developed in the northern and western parts of the walled city, but urban growth south of Shahjahanabad started with the foundation of New Delhi.
  4. 4. HISTORY
  5. 5. DELHI        Delhi is a city that bridges two different worlds. Old Delhi, once the capital of Islamic India, is a web of narrow lanes lined with crumbling havelis and mosques. In contrast, the imperial city of New Delhi created by the British Raj is composed of spacious, tree-lined avenues and imposing government buildings. Delhi has been the seat of power for several rulers and many empires for about millennium. Many a times the city was built, destroyed and then rebuilt. A number of Delhi's rulers played a dual role, first as destroyers and then as creators. Delhi has been the political hub of India. Every political activity in the country traces its roots here. The Pandavas of the Mahabharata had their capital at Indraprastha, which is believed to have been geographically located in today's Delhi.
  6. 6.       GEOGRAPHY Delhi is second-largest metropolis city and Capital of India. It is the third largest city. Delhi is main starting point for North India. It is surrounded on three sides by Haryana and to the east, across the riverYamuna by Uttar Pradesh. Delhi has an area of 1483 sq. kms. Its maximum length is 51.90 kms and greatest width is 48.48 kms The Yamuna river and terminal part of the Aravali hills range are the two main geographical features of the city. These area of the city’s lungs and help maintain its environment. The Yamuna River is Delhi’s main source of drinking . Delhi experiences extreme summers and winters.
  7. 7. Evolution of Delhi  Seven principal cities were chiefly created by different rulers-some of them are no more than villages today with splendid ruins while others have absorbed with the hightech skyline.  Seven Cities Of Delhi are : 1. Qila Rai Pithora 2. Mehrauli 3. Siri 4.Tughlakabad 5.Ferozabad 6. Shergarh 7. Shahjahanabad
  8. 8. QILA RAI PITHORA  The capital of Prithviraj Chauhan,Qila Rai Pithora, was the Delhi built-in the 12th century.  It is said that his ancestors had won the city from the Tomar Rajputs, who are credited with forming Delhi.Anangpal, a Tomar ruler, created the first known regular fort here and called it Lal Kot.  Prithviraj Chauhan extended the city beyond the fort. The ruins are still visible around Qutub Minar andMehrauli.
  9. 9. MEHRAULI      In 1192, Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan . In 1206, when Ghori was assassinated, Aibak declared himself the ruler of Delhi and the Slave Dynasty was started. This was also the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate.Mehrauli came into being and Qutub-uddin made Delhi into an architectural wonder. One of these was the tower of victory -the 72.5 m tall Qutab Minar The Slave Dynasty ruled until 1290.One of the prominent rulers was Razia Sultan, the first woman Emperor of India.
  10. 10. SIRI  The Khilji (or Khalji) rulers followed the Slave Dynasty.  The most prominent among the six rulers was Alauddin Khilji, who extended his kingdom to the south of Narmada and also established the city of Siri.  Among some of the remaining ruins is part of the Siri Fort in the greater Hauz Khas area.  The madrasa at Hauz Khas was constructed during Alauddin'sreign and bears the stamp of West Asian architecture.
  11. 11. TUGHLAKABAD  In 1330, Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq established the Tughlaq dynasty and set out to rebuild a Delhi of his own.  His dream was to build an invincible fort to keep away the Mongols.  Thus he founded the city of Tughlakabad, the ruins of which still remain.  His descendant Muhammad bin Tughlaq later formed Jahanpanah. Lying in the area between Siri and Qila Rai Pithora, this was the fourth medieval city of Delhi built in AD 1326-27.
  12. 12. FEROZABAD  Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388     AD)created the next city of Firozabad, or FerozShah Kotla. It was a well-planned city with palaces, mosques, pillared halls, and multi-floored water tanks. Feroz Shah also transplanted the Ashokan Pillar,, from Meerut to the top of his palace. The Sayyid and Lodi dynasties that followed the Tughlaq dynasty were far more concerned with restoring stability than patronization of arts or architecture. Tombs erected in the honour of the rulers are the tombs at the Lodi Garden
  13. 13. SHERGARH  The Purana Qila today, was the creation of Sher Shah when he wrested Delhi from Humayunin 1540,the second Mughal king.  It was originally being built by Humayun as his capital Dinpanah.  Sher Shah razed Dinpanah to the ground and started building his own capital introducing ornate elements in architecture.  Delhi was won back by Humayun in1555 and he completed parts of the Purana Qila left unfinished by Sher Shah.
  14. 14. Shahjahanabad/OldDelhi  (Seventh planned city of Delhi)  The Mughal emperors shifted their base from Delhi to Agra.  Shahjahanabad was the city with the colossal Red Fort and its14 gates.  The fort still stands along with the historic architecture of the Jama Masjid and Chandni Chowk
  15. 15.  The old city was surrounded by a wall         enclosing approximately 1500acres, with several gates, comprising: Nigambodh Gate- North/East, leading to historic Nigambodh ghat onYamua River. Kashmiri Gate-North Mori Gate- North Kabuli gate-West Lahori gate-West Ajmeri Gate-South East, leading to Ghaziuddin Khan`s Madrassa and Connaught Place ; a concentring point in New Delhi. Turkman Gate-South East, nearby some pre-Shah jahan remains, which got enclosed within the walls, incorporating the tomb of Hazrat ShahTurkman Delhi Gate-South; leading to Feroz Shah Kotla cricket ground and what was then older habitation of Delhi
  16. 16. KEY CONSTITUENTS  The key       constituents of Shahjahanabad are : A centrally located Friday mosque. A bazaar around it with very distinct socio-economic differentiations from centre to the periphery. CHANDNI A fortified city wall. CHOWK An imposing fort Intra-urban divisions of living quarters Blind alleys RED FORT JAMA MASJID
  17. 17. The city originated,when  The fort at Agra faced the agonizing heat, coupled within sufficient accommodation and space for Shahjahan’s slavish lifestyle and his grand ceremonial processions.  The Fort and its buildings cost nearly 6 million. On the auspicious day of 8th April 1648, Shahjahan finally entered Shahjahanabad.  From 1803 to 1857 the East India Company virtually controlled Delhi.
  18. 18.     The Red Fort and Jama Masjid were the straight point for two straight thoroughfares that framed the city. From Lahore Gate ran a broad avenue with a covered arcadedesigned and paid for by Jahan Ara-that housed over 1500 shops. Today known as Chatta Bazaar The remains of Shahjahanabad took shape within the city walls with its havelis, mansions, mosques, temples , Sikh shrines and the gardens of the nobility. The walled and guarded establishments of these noble man included private living quarters for the nobles and their harem.
  19. 19. DIVISION OF CITY SECTOR  At the neighbourhood level the city of Shahjahanabad       was defined by the following elements: Thanas/wards/Mahallahs Streets/bazaars and chowks Individual havellisThanas and Mahallas: The city was divided into 12 thanas (wards) each under the control of a thanadar. Each thana was again subdivided into several Mahallas (neighbourhoods). The spatial system of the city was based on an extensive hierarchical organization which allowed a heterogeneous population to live together
  20. 20.  The local representatives of the different social and ethnic groups aligned their buildings and the adjoining streets in a functional manner.  The Mahallahs were sealed, homogeneous units within the city. They could only be reached by means of several gates.  The alleys in the Mahallah were therefore semi-private space, while the courtyard houses were private space separated once again from the outside world by a gate
  21. 21. STREET,BAZAR,CHOWKS  the city was separated from the surrounding land by a wall and a moat.  Passing through the city gates marked the passage from one dominion .  The main thoroughfares, the secondary roads and the bazaars were public space. Havellis:  The members of the imperial household who lived outside the fort/palace built large havellis on the model of the imperial design of the Red Fort .
  22. 22.  As a rule these city palaces accommodated not only the owner and his family, but also their numerous followers, servants and craftsmen with their workshops.  The internal organization of the space within the havellis was therefore also based on the strict distinction between the public, semi-private and private space Interior courtyard of a havelli in the Walled City.  Day to day activities in the courtyard-thus the typology was not only suited climatically but also enhanced the living experience
  23. 23.  Streetscapes:  There emerges a hierarchy of streets in the layout of the city.  The primary streets were the main axes of the city -the Chandni Chowk and Faiz bazaar.  The secondary streets were the ones which entered the south of the city from Chandni Chowk.  The secondary street structure also includes the streets that are parallel to the city walls -forming a concentric ring so to say, in the southern part of the city.  They then intermingle at chowks with the third layering of streets, which derive their character from the fact that they are perpendicular to the main mosque, Jama Masjid.
  24. 24. The City Form –Morphological Elements  The urban infrastructure was laid out in a geometric pattern .  Shows traces of both Persian and Hindu traditions of town planning and architecture with the Persian influence largely accounting for the formalism and symmetry of the palaces, gardens and boulevards. The designed infrastructure of Shahjahanabad comprised  The fort  The Friday mosque  The other major mosques, including the corresponding waqf properties
  25. 25.  The two main boulevards  The bazaars around the Friday mosque  The elaborate system of water channels  The major gardens and the surrounding city wall.  The arrangement of these planned elements was influenced by certain site features, which precluded absolute geometry
  26. 26. The RED FORT / PALACE : The Fort just as Shahjahanabad was divided into imperial (fort/palace) and ordinary space (city) .  Its axes were precisely aligned with the cardinal points of the compass.  The Fort throughout is based on an extensive grid of squares.
  27. 27. LUTYEN DELHI  Largely designed by Lutyens over twenty or so years (1912 to 1930), New Delhi, situated within the metropolis of Delhi, was chosen to replace Calcutta as the seat of the British Indian government in 1912; the project was completed in 1929 and officially inaugurated in 1931.  various features from the local and traditional Indian architecture—something most clearly seen in the great drummounted Buddhist dome of theViceroy's House, now Rashtrapati Bhavan
  28. 28.  The new city contains both the Parliament buildings and government offices (many designed by Herbert Baker) and was built distinctively of the local red sandstone using the traditional Mughal style.  When composing the plans for New Delhi, Lutyens planned for the new city to lie southwest of the walled city of Shahjahanbad. His plans for the city also laid out the street plan for New Delhi consisting of wide tree-lined avenues.  Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city. At the heart of the city was the impressive Rashtrapati Bhawan, formerly known as Viceroy's House, located on the top of Raisina Hill.
  29. 29.  The Rajpath, also known as King's Way, connects India Gate to Rashtrapati Bhawan, while Janpath, which crosses it at a right angle, connects South end road (renamed as Rajesh Pilot marg) withConnaught Place.  The Secretariat Building, which house various ministries of the Government of India including Prime Minister of India office (PMO), are beside the Rashtrapati Bhawan and were designed by Herbert Baker.  Also designed by Baker was the Parliament House, located on the Sansad Marg, running parallel with the Rajpath.
  30. 30. PRESENT DELHI  After partition Delhi's growth remained unchecked for nearly a decade. Developed land was in short supply and people did not have the means to afford the exorbitant rates quoted by the private developers. This led to the establishment of unauthorized colonies.  The expansion of Delhi has resulted in its boundaries extending beyond the Yamuna river. People tend to live further and further away from the city centre because of the lower rents prevalent in these areas.  This has resulted in increased travelling distance from work to residence. More time is spent in commuting. To overcome this problem the city is now working in full swing to construct number of flyovers and to start off the metro service
  31. 31.  In order to decongest these districts a number of attempts such as shifting of wholesale business, creation of new business districts, restriction on material movement, restriction on redevelopment have been made in the past, but without success.  The intrusion of commercial area into the residential ones has disturbed the tranquility of the latter.  Instead of curbing the growth of trade it is better to plan counter development in other locations with increased level of facilities  The basic concept of the Master plan 1962 made in the mould of modernist urban planning, was that, the traffic movement within the city should be kept minimum and a work-to-home relationship was conceived and the city started growing radially.  In the master plan 2001 there are some attempts at providing mixed uses, and increasing densities in residential areas in prime locations, proposals are made for Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) to connect the ring to the periphery and also to improve city intra-city network along the ring.

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