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FOUNDATION
FOUNDATION
A foundation is the lowest and supporting layer of a structure.
Foundations are generally divided into two cate...
SHALLOW FOUNDATION
There are a variety of shallow foundation types used in the construction of
foundations.
 Columns
Comb...
DEEP FOUNDATION
DEEP FOUNDATION
Deep foundation are those foundation in which the depth of the foundation is
very large in comparison to i...
PILE FOUNDATION
TYPES OF PILES
piles may be classified as follows :
classification based on function
classification base...
END BEARING PILES
If the loads is transferred through soft soil
or water to a suitable bearing stratum by
means of end bea...
COMPACTION PILES
Piles are also used for compacting loose granular deposite these piles are
short and are as known as comp...
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATERIAL S AND COMPOSITION
concrete piles
 pre – cast
cast in situ



driven piles (uncased o...
PRE CAST CONCRETE PILES
CAST IN PLACE PILES
These are made by making a hole in the ground and filing it with
concrete
CAS...
TYPES OF PILES
Friction piles

-

MINIMUM PILE SPACING
( centre to centre distance)
3d where d is the diameter of circumsc...
TYPES OF PILE CHOSEN DEPENDS
ON FOLLOWING FACTORS:
What type of pile is readily available
Location & type of structure (ma...
TYPES OF PILE CONSTRUCTION
Displacement Pile
- It cause the soil to be displaced radially as well as vertically as
pile sh...
PIERS
 It’s a vertical bridge support.
 It’s a foundation for carrying a heavy
 structural load which is constructed in...
CONSTRUCTING THE PIERS FRAMINGConstructing

POST FOOTING AND DETAILS
RAMP IS INSTALLED

FLOOR DECKING INSTALLATION

RAMP IS BOLTED

COMPLETE PIERS FRAMES
WELL CASSIONS
It’s a prefabricated hollow box or cylinder.
 It is sunk into the ground to some desired depth and then fi...
TYPES OF WELL FOUNDATION OR CASSION

 Box Caissons
 Excavated Caissons
 Floating Caissons
 Open Caissons
 Pneumatic C...
Caisson As One Of The Elements In This Structure
PILES MATERIALS
Wood Pile
 Steel H-Pile
 Steel Pipe Pile
 Site cased pile
 Precast Concrete Pile
 Composite Piles (W...
WOOD PILING

SHEET –H- PILING

MONOTUBES PILES

STEEL PIPE PILES
METHOD OF INSTALLATION





Dropping Weight or Drop Hammers
commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles
Di...
Diesel Hammer
Rapid controlled explosions can be produced by the diesel hammer.
The explosions raise a ram which is used...
Pile Driving Rig - raise and temporarily
support the pile that being driven and to
support the pile hammer.
Dropping Weight / Drop Hammers



A weight approximately half that of the pile is raised a suitable distance in a
guide ...
Jacking Method Of Insertion
 Jacked Piles are most commonly used in underpinning structures
 By excavating underneath a ...
BIBLOGRAPHY
DR .B.C PUNMIA
BARRY
INTERNET

S N SINHA
THANK YOU
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Deep foundation ppt my final tos work

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Transcript of "Deep foundation ppt my final tos work"

  1. 1. FOUNDATION
  2. 2. FOUNDATION A foundation is the lowest and supporting layer of a structure. Foundations are generally divided into two categories:  shallow foundation According to terzaghi , a Deep foundation foundation is shallow if its depth is equal to or less than its width. In case of deep foundation the depth is equal to or greater than its width
  3. 3. SHALLOW FOUNDATION There are a variety of shallow foundation types used in the construction of foundations.  Columns Combined or Cantilevered Mat Floating Wall (strip) Spread Footings Slab on grade Basement crawl space
  4. 4. DEEP FOUNDATION
  5. 5. DEEP FOUNDATION Deep foundation are those foundation in which the depth of the foundation is very large in comparison to its width. Types of deep foundation Deep strip,rectangular and square footing. Pile foundation. Pier foundation or drilled caissan foundation. Well foundation or caissan. Cassion or well foundation Piles foundation Pier foundatuon
  6. 6. PILE FOUNDATION TYPES OF PILES piles may be classified as follows : classification based on function classification based on material and composition. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FUNCTION : based on the function or the use piles may be classified: end bearing pile ( they are used transfer load through water or soft soil to suitable bearing stratum.) friction piles compaction piles tension or uplift piles anchor piles  fender piles  sheet piles
  7. 7. END BEARING PILES If the loads is transferred through soft soil or water to a suitable bearing stratum by means of end bearing piles it is known as end bearing piles and point piles END BEARING PILES FRICTION PILES If the loads is transferred to a depth of the relatively weak soil by meansof friction along the length of the piles it is known as friction piles. FRICATION PILES
  8. 8. COMPACTION PILES Piles are also used for compacting loose granular deposite these piles are short and are as known as compaction piles TENSION PILES Sometimes piles are used to resist upward forces these piles are subjected to tension are known as tension piles BATTER PILESist In case of large lateral loads or inclined forces,piles driven at an angle resist forces effectively these are called batter piles
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATERIAL S AND COMPOSITION concrete piles  pre – cast cast in situ   driven piles (uncased or cased ) bored piles (pressure piles,underReamed piles. timber piles steel piles  h pile pipe pile sheet pile compositie piles concrete and timber concrete and steel Cased piles Pre-casst piles uncased piles
  10. 10. PRE CAST CONCRETE PILES CAST IN PLACE PILES These are made by making a hole in the ground and filing it with concrete CASED PILES UNCASED PILES CASED PILES In cased piles , a thin metal shell or casing is first driven in the ground which is then filled with concrete . UNCASED PILES In uncased piles , a metal casing is first driven in the ground ,which is gradually withdrawn as the concreting is done UNDER-REAMED PILES These piles are most commonly used where excessive shrinkage andd swelling of clays out the use of shallow spread footing. The usual size of under –reamed piles is 150-250mm dia and 3000-4000mm long. The dia of the under –reamed portion is 2 to3 times the dia of the shaft.
  11. 11. TYPES OF PILES Friction piles - MINIMUM PILE SPACING ( centre to centre distance) 3d where d is the diameter of circumscr - bing circle for non –circular section or 900mm which ever is more  end –bearing piles passing though relatively compressible Strata 2.5d or 750mm whichever is more End bearing piles passing through compressible strata and resting in stiff -3.5d or 1050mm which ever is more Clay  end bearing piles on rock - 2d or 1.75x diagonal dim of pile of noncircular sect ion or 600mm whichever is more Compaction piles - 2d or 600 mm whichever is more
  12. 12. TYPES OF PILE CHOSEN DEPENDS ON FOLLOWING FACTORS: What type of pile is readily available Location & type of structure (magnitude of loading) Ground Condition (soil type) Cost Durability
  13. 13. TYPES OF PILE CONSTRUCTION Displacement Pile - It cause the soil to be displaced radially as well as vertically as pile shaft is driven or jacked into the ground. Non Displacement Piles - It cause the soil to be removed and the resulting hole filled with concrete or a pre cast concrete pile is dropped into the hole and grouted in. DISPLACEMENT PILE METHOD NON -DISPLACEMENT PILE METHOD
  14. 14. PIERS  It’s a vertical bridge support.  It’s a foundation for carrying a heavy  structural load which is constructed in site in a deep excavation.
  15. 15. CONSTRUCTING THE PIERS FRAMINGConstructing POST FOOTING AND DETAILS
  16. 16. RAMP IS INSTALLED FLOOR DECKING INSTALLATION RAMP IS BOLTED COMPLETE PIERS FRAMES
  17. 17. WELL CASSIONS It’s a prefabricated hollow box or cylinder.  It is sunk into the ground to some desired depth and then filled with concrete thus forming a foundation.  Most often used in the construction of bridge piers & other structures that require foundation beneath rivers & other bodies of water.
  18. 18. TYPES OF WELL FOUNDATION OR CASSION  Box Caissons  Excavated Caissons  Floating Caissons  Open Caissons  Pneumatic Caissons  Sheeted Caissons
  19. 19. Caisson As One Of The Elements In This Structure
  20. 20. PILES MATERIALS Wood Pile  Steel H-Pile  Steel Pipe Pile  Site cased pile  Precast Concrete Pile  Composite Piles (Wood & Steel)
  21. 21. WOOD PILING SHEET –H- PILING MONOTUBES PILES STEEL PIPE PILES
  22. 22. METHOD OF INSTALLATION     Dropping Weight or Drop Hammers commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles Diesel Hammers Most suitable to drive pile in non cohesive granular soil Vibratory Hammers or vibratory method of pile driving very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soil Jacking Method Of Insertion
  23. 23. Diesel Hammer Rapid controlled explosions can be produced by the diesel hammer. The explosions raise a ram which is used to drive the pile into the ground. Although the ram is smaller than the weight used in the drop hammer the increased frequency of the blows can make up for this inefficiency.  This type of hammer is most suitable for driving piles through non-cohesive granular soils where the majority of the resistance is from end bearing. Vibratory Method of Pile Driving Vibratory methods can prove to be very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soils. The vibration of the pile excites the soil grains adjacent to the pile making the soil almost free flowing thus significantly reducing friction along the pile shaft. However the large energy resulting from the vibrations can damage equipment, noise and vibration propagation can also result in the settlement of nearby buildings.
  24. 24. Pile Driving Rig - raise and temporarily support the pile that being driven and to support the pile hammer.
  25. 25. Dropping Weight / Drop Hammers   A weight approximately half that of the pile is raised a suitable distance in a guide and released to strike the pile head. When driving a hollow pile tube the weight usually acts on a plug at the bottom of the pile thus reducing any excess stresses along the length of the tube during insertion.
  26. 26. Jacking Method Of Insertion  Jacked Piles are most commonly used in underpinning structures  By excavating underneath a structure short lengths of pile can be inserted and jacked into the ground using the underside of the existing structure as a reaction.
  27. 27. BIBLOGRAPHY DR .B.C PUNMIA BARRY INTERNET S N SINHA
  28. 28. THANK YOU
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