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  1. 1. IRON AS A BUILDING MATERIAL (TYPES, USES,etc.) Presented by- • Aiman • Sundus • M.Raghib • Bilal • Hamzah
  2. 2. • Iron(Fe) is the second most common metal on Earth, and the most widely-used metal. • It is element26, a transition metal in Group 8. • Its symbol is Fe, from the Latin word for iron, ferrum. • Atomic number: 26 • Mass number:55.85 • It is used a lot because it is very strong and cheap. • Iron is the main ingredient used to make steel. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. •Iron is a lustrous, ductile, malleable, silver-gray metal. •It is known to exist in four distinct crystalline forms. •Iron rusts in damp air, but not in dry air and dissolves readily in dilute acids. •It has a very high tensile strength. •Boiling point : 3000 °C(5,400 °F) •Melting point : 1,536 °C (2,797 °F) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF IRON
  4. 4. • Iron is the most widely used of all the metals, accounting for 95%of worldwide metal production. • Its low cost and high strength make it indispensable in Engineering applications such as - • The construction of machinery and machine tools, automobiles, the hulls of large ships, and structural components for buildings. • Since pure iron is quite soft, it is most commonly Combined with alloying elements to make steel. • Iron is also used for protection from ionizing radiation Cast iron has been used for centuries and was used in architecture in the pre-modern period. APPLICATION AND USES OF IRON
  5. 5. • The main disadvantage of iron is that pure iron, and most of its alloys, suffer badly from rust if not protected in some way. • Painting, galvanization, passivation, plastic coating and bluing are all used to protect iron from rust by Excluding water and oxygen or By cathodic protection. DISADVANTAGES
  7. 7. 01 CAST IRON
  8. 8. 8 Iron Ore Blast Furnace Pig Iron Smelted, Hammered, Re- heated, Rolled Smelted (separate the metallic constituent) ,Alloyed, Rolled Wrought Iron Cast Iron Mild Iron(Steel) Re- melted, Poured into sand molds
  9. 9. PROPERTIES • Cast iron.: 2.0 – 4.5% Carbon content • Carbon (C) and silicon (Si) are the main alloying elements. • Great for the environment. Can be recycled more easily than PVC. • It is strong in compression, but weak in tension and bending. • Prefabrication enabled portability—entire buildings could be constructed in one place and shipped all over the world. • Its strength and stiffness deteriorate when subjected to high heat. • Its structure is crystalline and relatively brittle. • They don't echo when water moves through as compared to PVC, because of dense material. • It does not rust.
  10. 10. ARCHITECTURAL USES • Its use gradually spread from architectural elements like shutter and door frames to facades because it is relatively 1. inexpensive, 2. durable & 3. easily cast into a variety of shapes. • As balusters, columns & Arches • For transporting water, storm drains and sewage. • Ornate facades. Columns Spandrel panels
  11. 11. Fire proof floor- mid 19th century Cast iron is strong in compression weak in bending. Wrought iron High in elasticity and tensile strength.
  12. 12. Cast iron beams Thin webs could easily crack. Sharp angles where web joins flanges were also vulnerable. This is slightly thicker web and rounded internal angles, which is less prone to cracking during casting.
  13. 13. Cast iron beams
  14. 14. General uses • Construction of machines and structures (High Tensile Strength) For a garbage disposal because it is highly resistant to the grinding and abrasions. (The process of wearing down away by means of friction) Machines
  15. 15. Design made on column Gate design Decorative pieces Arches in bridgeUse of cast iron in facade
  16. 16. FAILURE Oxidation or rusting occurs rapidly when cast iron is exposed to moisture or air. Common problems encountered with cast iron construction include Badly rusted or missing elements. Impact damage Structural failures Broken joints Damage to connections Loss of anchorage in masonry
  18. 18. 1/04. WHITE CAST IRON • These are iron-carbon alloys having more than 2.11% carbon. • All the carbon is present in the combined cementite form. Properties • Hard and wear resistant. • Tensile strength 20000 to 70000 psi.(per square inch) • Compressive strength 200000 to 250000 psi. Microstructure of White Cast Iron
  19. 19. LIMITATIONS Because of extreme brittleness and lack of machinability, white irons find limited engineering applications. APPLICATIONS • Liners For Cement Mixers, • Ball Mills, • Certain Types Of Drawing Dies • Extrusion Nozzles Liners For Cement Mixers Ball Mills Nozzles Decorated furniture
  20. 20. 2/04. Grey cast iron Iron-carbon alloys containing flakes of graphite embedded in steel matrix, which show a grey-blackish coloured fracture due to graphite’—the free foam of carbon, are called grey cast irons. The strength of grey iron depends on the strength of steel matrix and the size and character of graphite flakes in it. Microstructure of Gray Cast Iron Microstructure of Gray Cast Iron
  21. 21. PROPERTIES OF GREY CAST IRON 1. Low cost of production. 2. Low melting point: (1150°—1250°C) 3. Cast irons have excellent fluidity and take good mould-impressions easily. 4. High compressive strength. 5. High thermal conductivity, and have ability to withstand thermal shocks. 6. Good resistance to atmospheric corrosion due to high silicon and perhaps other factors, than mild steels. 7. High damping capacity -due to the graphite flakes, which breaks the continuity of the metallic matrix, and thus, vibrations are not allowed to transfer from one side of flake to other.
  22. 22. APPLICATIONS • Internal Combustion Engine • Pump Housings • Valve Bodies • Electrical Boxes • Cast iron cookware • Disc brake Internal combustion engine Pump Housings Disc brakeGrey Cast iron cookware Decorative pattern
  23. 23. 3/04. Malleable cast iron 24 Malleable iron is produced by heat treatment of cast iron. The properties of malleable cast iron are more like mild steel. Microstructure of Malleable Iron • Graphite in module(knot/lump) form. • Produced by heat treatment of white cast iron • Graphite nodules are irregular clusters Properties • Similar to ductile iron • Good shock resistance • Good ductility
  24. 24. applications • Malleable iron is better for thinner castings • Vehicle components 1. Power trains, frames, suspensions and wheels 2. Steering components, transmission and differential parts, 3. connecting rods • Railway components • Pipe fittings • Electrical fittings Rail tracks Pipe fittings wheels
  25. 25. 4/04. Ductile (nodule ) cast iron In ductile irons, the graphite is in the form of spherical nodules thus prevent the creation of cracks and providing ductility. PROPERTIES • Strength higher than grey cast iron. • Low cost Microstructure of Ductile Iron
  26. 26. APPLICATIONS  Pipe and pipe fittings Major industrial applications include Highway diesel trucks, Agricultural tractors, Oil well pumps. – Crankshafts, – Front wheel spindle supports, – Steering knuckles, – Disc brake callipers used for water and sewer lines. Pipes Machinery products: oil well pumps Crankshafts in motor engineDisc brake callipers
  27. 27. 02-WROUGHT IRON
  28. 28. Wrought Iron Is A form of Iron With A Very Low Carbon Content (0.25%) In Contrast To Cast iron (2.1% to 4%). "Grain" Resembling Wood, Is Visible When It Is Bent To The Point Of Failure. Wrought Iron Is Tough, Malleable, Ductile And Easily Welded. Purest form of iron in which the total impurities do not exceed 0.5%. Wrought iron is much more expensive to produce than cast. Most wrought iron work are joined by riveting. MAJOR EXAMPLE ARE- 1. Iron pillar at Delhi, India, containing 98% wrought iron. 2. The Eiffel tower
  29. 29. PROPERTIES •It can be used to form temporary magnets but cannot be magnetised permanently. •It fuses with difficulty. • high elasticity and tensile strength •Unaffected by saline water. • If pulled apart, the fracture shows a fibrous break. • Capable of bearing 24 tons per square inch ultimate tensile strain, & 20 tons of compression and shearing. .
  30. 30. In fencing In main entrance gates In railings As balusters USES • Used for rivets, chains, ornamental iron work, railway couplings, bridges, water and steam pipes. • Roofing sheets, corrugated sheets. • It is manufactured for bolts and nuts, horse shoe bars, handrails, straps for timer roof trusses, boiler tubes, roofing sheets, etc.
  31. 31. 1. 3 I beams used. The inner beam is riveted through it flanges to the webs of the outer beams by four lines of rivets. (permanent mechanical fastener.) 2. 2.channels are used outside in place of I beams, the flanges being turned inward gives the column a better finished appearance. 3. 3. composed of two channels and plates riveted to the flanges of channels with four lines of rivets. 4. The rolled segment is composed of 4 segments riveted together through the projecting flanges, and made from 4-18” outside dia.---3 to 24 inches deep (75mm to 600mm) and with flanges about 200mm wide Fig-4
  32. 32. Pipes Chains Wire RIVET Nail EXTERNAL USE
  33. 33. Jubilee Bridge (1887) in Derbyshire. • It's a good example of a structure made from different wrought iron sections riveted together. • The bridge spans 85 feet, about 26 metres.
  34. 34. COMPARISON BETWEEN WROUGHT IRON ,CAST IRON& STEEL Wrought iron Cast Iron Steel Composition Purest Contains up to 0.25% C Crude form containing 2-4% C Midway Melting point 1500 degree Celsius 1200 degree Celsius 1300-1400 degree Celsius Hardness Cannot be hardened or tempered Hard, hardened by heating & sudden cooling Can be hardened & tempered Strength compressive strength is 2.0 tonnes/sq cm ultimate tensile strength 3.15 tonnes/sq cm Comp. strength 6.3- 7.1 tonnes/sq cm Ultimate tensile strength 1.26 to 1.57tonnes/sq cm. Comp strength 4.75 -25.2 tonnes/ sq cm Ultimate tensile strength is 5.51 to 11.02 t /sq m
  35. 35. Wrought iron Cast Iron Steel Malleability Ductility Tough, malleable, ductile & moderately elastic Brittle & cannot be welded or rolled into sheets Tough, malleable & Ductile Reaction to sudden shock Cannot stand heavy shocks Does not absorb shocks Absorbs shocks Welding Easily welded Brittle and cannot be welded or rolled into sheets Can be welded
  36. 36. Different types of iron used for pipes • Galvanized • Cast • Ductile
  37. 37. Comparison disadvantages Galvanized corrodes; produces discolored water; has a short life; Ductile deteriorates in some soils Cast Iron no longer manufactured; deteriorates in some soils
  38. 38. CAST IRON PIPE 1.Cast iron pipe CHARACTERISTICS Versatile Adaptable for use in all types of building Low-Cost Installation. Cast iron soil pipe can be preassembled Product readily available SIZE AVAILABILITY 11/2” to 12” diameter 5’ AND 10’ length USES transporting water, storm drains and sewage chosen over options like PVC, especially in high rise projects like draining from the roof garbage disposal because it is highly resistant to the grinding and abrasions
  39. 39. FEATURES Cast Iron flanged pipe and fittings are usually cast in the larger diameters. Smaller sizes have loose flanges screwed on the ends of double spigot spun pipe. Pipes are supplied in 3.7 m to 5.5 meters lengths and a variety of joints is available including socket and spigot and flanged joints. The pipes have been classified as LA,A and B according to their thicknesses. Class LA pipes have been taken as the basis for evolving the series of pipes. · Class A allows a 10% increase in thickness over Class LA. · Class B allows a 20% increase in thickness over Class LA.
  40. 40. JOINING • THREE METHODS • Compression Gaskets • Hubless Joints • Caulked Joints
  41. 41. Advantages  they don't echo when water moves through  good lasting qualities.. Disadvantages  heavy weight,  consequent high transport costs,  short length, leading to higher laying and jointing cost,  low tensile strength,  liability to defect of inner surface
  42. 42. 2.Ductile pipes  . Nominal pipe sizes vary from 3 inches up to 64 inches  The ductile iron used to manufacture the pipe is characterized by the spheroidal or nodular nature of the graphite within the iron  pipe is manufactured using centrifugal casting in metal or resin lined molds
  43. 43. joints.  Individual lengths of ductile iron pipe are joined either by flanges, couplings, or some form of spigot and socket arrangement  Flanges are flat rings around the end of pipes which mate with an equivalent flange from another pipe, the two being held together by bolts usually passed through holes drilled through the flanges.  Spigot and sockets involve a normal pipe end, the spigot, being inserted into the socket or bell of another pipe or fitting with a seal being made between the two within the socket. Normal spigot and socket joints do not allow direct metal to metal contact with all forces being transmitted through the elastomeric seal
  44. 44. The most popular, quickest, and easiest-to assemble joint for Ductile Iron pipe and fittings in underground applications is the push-on joint. This joint consists of a single rubber gasket placed in a groove inside the socket at the bell end of the pipe. There are two types of push-on joints: the FASTITE®1 and TYTON®2 joints,which are shown in Figure
  45. 45. Advantages  Ductile iron pipe is made from 100% recycled ferritic scrap—and is itself a 100% recyclable material.  . Ductile iron saves money. It requires very little maintenance once it’s installed and  It is resistant to corrosion in most soils, and typically requires only effective, economical polyethylene  It is strong enough to withstand the most severe conditions,  Ductile iron pipe is rugged and resists damage during handling and installation Disadvantages  Similar rate of corrosion to grey iron and steel  Prone to external and internal corrosion  Internal and external protection systems required  Polyethylene wrappings can be damaged
  46. 46. 3. GALVANISED IRON PIPES(FEATURES)  Physically, galvanized steel pipes are slightly darker than steel pipes because of zinc's darker color  Economically, galvanized steel pipes are inexpensive and recyclable. USES  These pipes are widely used for conveying raw water & distribution of treated water in majority of rural water supply schemes
  47. 47. Thank you………