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BRASS
PRESENTED BY:
AAQUIB MAHFOOZ
MOHD KHALID RAZA
SHAHBAZ KHAN
MAAZ AKBAR
MD AAMIR KHAN
MD HASHIM
• Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.
• The proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range
of brasses wi...
• First produced by ancient metalworkers in the area now known as
Syria or eastern Turkey as early as 3000 B.C.
• They kne...
CLASSIFICATION
• Alloys - (up to 35% Zn) - single phase
– Cold working alloys
• + Alloys - (35 - 40% Zn) - two phase (duplex
brasses)
– H...
Alloys
• Brasses containing a minimum of 63% copper are termed
alpha brasses or cold working brasses .
• They are highly d...
+ Alloys
• Brasses containing 35%-45% zinc are known as alpha-beta or
duplex brasses because they contain a mixture of the...
ELEMENT MATERIAL PROPERTY IMPROVED
Lead 1.0 to 4.0% High-speed Machining Brass Machinability
Manganese
Aluminium
Silicon
N...
PROPERTIES
• Excellent Machinability
– Sets the standard by which other materials are judged
– Slight reduction in ductility when lea...
• Conductivity
– Electrical
– Thermal
• Non sparking
• Attractive colours
• Strength at cryogenic temperatures
• Wear Resi...
CuZn5 4-6 % Zn
CuZn10 9-11% Zn
CuZn15 14-16% Zn
CuZn20 19-20% Zn
CuZn30 29-31% Zn
CuZn33 32-34% Zn
CuZn36 34.5-36.5% Zn
Cu...
MANUFACTURING
Hot Forging
During hot forging, the temperature reaches above the recrystallization point
of the metal. This kind of extre...
Hot Forging
• Extrusion
• Hot stamping/forging
• Hot rolling
Hot Stamping
Open Die Stamping
Closed Die Stamping
Cold Forming -
Cold forming is a process in the manufacture of industrial products. This
provides for tool life, high qual...
Cold Forming
• Drawing (Sections, Wire, Tube)
• Heading
• Rolling
• Stamping/Pressing
• Deep Drawing
• Spinning
• Machining
FABRICATION
• Brass can easily be joined to itself and all
other copper alloys, by soft soldering and
brazing.
• This make...
APPLICATIONS
SECURITY HARDWARE AND
IRONMONGERY
• Brass offers freedom from corrosion,
• Fine tolerances in machining,
• Smooth operatio...
ORNAMENTAL DOOR FURNITURE
• Finger plates,
escutcheon plates, lever
handle and ball handle
door sets, are typical of
the m...
HANDRAILS AND BALUSTRADES
The ease with which brass
can be extruded to almost
any profile makes it the
ideal metal for han...
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Brass is well suited to the
manufacture of the
numerous components in
plugs, switches and
industrial...
DECORATIVE AND PROTECTIVE FINISHES
• Brass is one of the few
metals that can be
successfully polished to
either a high glo...
PLUMBING
T MEMBERUNIONS
FACADE TREATMENT
Aberdeen Square: Brass Building
Architect: Alison Brooks
Medway Building at University of Kent
Parish Church in La vez
MAJOR PRODUCTS
• Brass Door Hardware
Brass Door Knockers
Brass Door Knobs
Brass Door Hinges
Brass Door Pull
• Brass Fittings
Brass Rods
B...
• Brass Electrical Accessories
Brass Cable Glands
Brass Coils
Brass Wires
Brass Neutral Links
• Brass Crafts
Brass Ashtray...
- BRASS HINGES - BRASS TOWER BOLTS
- BRASS LATCHES - BRASS GLASS FITTINGS
- BRASS WINDOW FITTINGS - BRASS DOOR FITTINGS
BR...
BRASS HINGES
BRASS BUTT HINGES :
THICKNESS 1/16" (1.5
MM-2.7 MM
BRASS RAILWAY HINGES
: THICKNESS 3/32" (2
MM-4.6MM
THICKNE...
BRASS BOLTS
BRASS GLASS FITTINGS
BRASS WINDOW FITTINGS
SIZE IN INCH
6”-9”
SIZE IN INCH 6”SIZE IN INCH 6.5”-8”
SIZE IN INCH 2”-8”
BRASS DOOR FITTINGS
• Brass Aldrops
• Brass Door Stopper
• Brass Door Eye
• Brass Door Chain
ROD DIMETER 1/2" (12 MM-25MM)...
OTHER BRASS FITTINGS
BRASS LATCHES
SIZE IN INCH 2-4”
SIZE IN INCH 6-12”
SIZE IN INCH 4-24”
SIZE IN INCH 2-4”
Duct Covers
• Contemporary
Classic
FORMS IN WHICH BRASS IS AVAILABLE
StripsFoils
PipesSheets
Bars Wires
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Brass Bronze COPPER STEEL
Composition: Brass is any alloy
of copper and
zinc
Brass is any alloy
of copper and
tin
Copper i...
Color: Muted yellow,
somewhat
similar to gold,
but duller.
Reddish brown. reddish-orange greyish
Rates 380-450/kg 400-450/...
• Superb colour and texture
• Will accept a mirror-like polish
• Will not corrode
• Can be manufactured as rod, profile, t...
• Brass is cost-effective
• No plating or painting required
• Brass also has excellent thermal conductivity making it a fi...
DISADVANTAGES
• Brass requires a good deal of maintenance since it is
prone to a blackish tarnish.
Disadvantages of Brass ...
• http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=product%20of%20brass%20ppt&sourc
e=web&
• http://www.starmfg.com
• http://www.c...
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  1. 1. BRASS PRESENTED BY: AAQUIB MAHFOOZ MOHD KHALID RAZA SHAHBAZ KHAN MAAZ AKBAR MD AAMIR KHAN MD HASHIM
  2. 2. • Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. • The proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. • It is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance • for applications where low friction is required such as locks, gears, bearings, • Brass is often used in situations where it is important that sparks not be struck, as in fittings and tools around explosive gases. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. • First produced by ancient metalworkers in the area now known as Syria or eastern Turkey as early as 3000 B.C. • They knew how to melt copper with tin to make a metal called bronze but sometimes they also made brass without knowing it • By the Roman period brass was being deliberately produced from metallic copper and zinc minerals using the cementation process and variations on this method continued until the mid-19th century • It wasn't until 1746 that a German scientist named Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (1709-1782) identified zinc and determined its properties. • The process for combining metallic copper and zinc to make brass was patented in England in 1781. HISTORCAL DEVELOPMENT
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION
  5. 5. • Alloys - (up to 35% Zn) - single phase – Cold working alloys • + Alloys - (35 - 40% Zn) - two phase (duplex brasses) – Hot working alloys NB Copper alloys containing 5% zinc, tin and lead are known in the USA as “red brass” but in the UK are classified as leaded gunmetal TYPES OF BRASS
  6. 6. Alloys • Brasses containing a minimum of 63% copper are termed alpha brasses or cold working brasses . • They are highly ductile at room temperature, and are readily deformed by cold rolling, deep drawing, bending, spinning cold heading, thread rolling etc. • Alloys with a higher copper content (80%-90%) and which are gold in colour are used extensively for decorative metalwork, costume jewellery, badges and buttons
  7. 7. + Alloys • Brasses containing 35%-45% zinc are known as alpha-beta or duplex brasses because they contain a mixture of the original solid solution (alpha phase) and a new solid solution of higher zinc content (beta phase) • Their ability to be deformed at room temperature (cold worked) is limited. • They and are ideal for extruding into complex solid and hollow shapes and hot forging.
  8. 8. ELEMENT MATERIAL PROPERTY IMPROVED Lead 1.0 to 4.0% High-speed Machining Brass Machinability Manganese Aluminium Silicon Nickel Iron 0.75 to 2.5% High Tensile Brasses Yield strength up to 500MN/m² Aluminium Arsenic Tin 0.4 to 1.5% Aluminium Brasses Dezincification-resistant Brass Naval Brasses Corrosion resistance especially in sea water Other Alloying Elements Added
  9. 9. PROPERTIES
  10. 10. • Excellent Machinability – Sets the standard by which other materials are judged – Slight reduction in ductility when lead is present • Good Strength – Yield Strength 250 to 500 MPa • Corrosion Resistance – No plating or painting required PROPERTIES OF BRASS
  11. 11. • Conductivity – Electrical – Thermal • Non sparking • Attractive colours • Strength at cryogenic temperatures • Wear Resistance • Recyclable • No loss of properties at temperatures up to 200°C • Good impact resistance (toughness)
  12. 12. CuZn5 4-6 % Zn CuZn10 9-11% Zn CuZn15 14-16% Zn CuZn20 19-20% Zn CuZn30 29-31% Zn CuZn33 32-34% Zn CuZn36 34.5-36.5% Zn CuZn37 36-38% Zn CuZn40 39.5-41.5% Zn COLOURS
  13. 13. MANUFACTURING
  14. 14. Hot Forging During hot forging, the temperature reaches above the recrystallization point of the metal. This kind of extreme heat is necessary in avoiding strain hardening of the metal during deformation. In order to prevent the oxidation of certain metals, like super alloys, a type of hot forging called isothermal forging is a good choice. In isothermal forging, the metal deformation occurs within a highly controlled atmosphere, similar to that of a vacuum Advantages Production of discrete parts Scale Formation Low stresses or low work hardening Homogenized grain structure Increased ductility Elimination of chemical incongruities Disadvantages Less precise tolerances Possible warping of the material during the cooling process Varying metal grain structure Possible reactions between the surrounding atmosphere and the metal
  15. 15. Hot Forging • Extrusion • Hot stamping/forging • Hot rolling
  16. 16. Hot Stamping Open Die Stamping Closed Die Stamping
  17. 17. Cold Forming - Cold forming is a process in the manufacture of industrial products. This provides for tool life, high quality, lower per piece cost, service, accuracy and prototype capabilities. Advantages Improved reproducibility Increased dimensional control Handles high stress and high die loads Produces net shape or near-net shape parts Disadvantages The metal is less ductile Residual stress may occur Heavier and more powerful equipment is needed Stronger tooling is required
  18. 18. Cold Forming • Drawing (Sections, Wire, Tube) • Heading • Rolling • Stamping/Pressing • Deep Drawing • Spinning • Machining
  19. 19. FABRICATION • Brass can easily be joined to itself and all other copper alloys, by soft soldering and brazing. • This makes the fabrication of intricate brasswork much easier than with some other metals and • also contributes to cleaner lines due to the omission of rivets, straps and brackets.
  20. 20. APPLICATIONS
  21. 21. SECURITY HARDWARE AND IRONMONGERY • Brass offers freedom from corrosion, • Fine tolerances in machining, • Smooth operation of moving Parts • And a general requirement for a long, trouble free life without maintenance or replacement.
  22. 22. ORNAMENTAL DOOR FURNITURE • Finger plates, escutcheon plates, lever handle and ball handle door sets, are typical of the many items which can be manufactured in architectural brass, using a variety of different processes.
  23. 23. HANDRAILS AND BALUSTRADES The ease with which brass can be extruded to almost any profile makes it the ideal metal for handrails. whereas intricate balustrade designs can be cast, formed or fabricated using brazing and soft soldering techniques.
  24. 24. ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS Brass is well suited to the manufacture of the numerous components in plugs, switches and industrial fuse gear, where good electrical conductivity is essential. It can also be used decoratively in the manufacture of domestic light switches, socket outlet plates and light fittings
  25. 25. DECORATIVE AND PROTECTIVE FINISHES • Brass is one of the few metals that can be successfully polished to either a high gloss or mirror finish. • any desired colour from a gold-like yellow, through dull yellows and amber browns, to chocolate brown and black.
  26. 26. PLUMBING T MEMBERUNIONS
  27. 27. FACADE TREATMENT Aberdeen Square: Brass Building Architect: Alison Brooks Medway Building at University of Kent
  28. 28. Parish Church in La vez
  29. 29. MAJOR PRODUCTS
  30. 30. • Brass Door Hardware Brass Door Knockers Brass Door Knobs Brass Door Hinges Brass Door Pull • Brass Fittings Brass Rods Brass Inserts Brass Tubes Brass Elbow • Brass Builder Hardware Brass Cabinet Brass Spring Brass Bolts Brass Anchors
  31. 31. • Brass Electrical Accessories Brass Cable Glands Brass Coils Brass Wires Brass Neutral Links • Brass Crafts Brass Ashtray Brass Coaster Brass Figures Brass Key Chain • Antiques & Nautical Instruments Brass Artifacts Brass Collectibles Brass Telescope Brass Trumpet
  32. 32. - BRASS HINGES - BRASS TOWER BOLTS - BRASS LATCHES - BRASS GLASS FITTINGS - BRASS WINDOW FITTINGS - BRASS DOOR FITTINGS BRASS PRODUCTS
  33. 33. BRASS HINGES BRASS BUTT HINGES : THICKNESS 1/16" (1.5 MM-2.7 MM BRASS RAILWAY HINGES : THICKNESS 3/32" (2 MM-4.6MM THICKNESS 5/32" (3.6 MM- 4.6MM) THICKNESS 1/8 " (2.7 MM-3.6) Thickness (3mm- 5MM)
  34. 34. BRASS BOLTS
  35. 35. BRASS GLASS FITTINGS
  36. 36. BRASS WINDOW FITTINGS SIZE IN INCH 6”-9” SIZE IN INCH 6”SIZE IN INCH 6.5”-8” SIZE IN INCH 2”-8”
  37. 37. BRASS DOOR FITTINGS • Brass Aldrops • Brass Door Stopper • Brass Door Eye • Brass Door Chain ROD DIMETER 1/2" (12 MM-25MM) SIZE IN MM85-100 175 mm
  38. 38. OTHER BRASS FITTINGS
  39. 39. BRASS LATCHES SIZE IN INCH 2-4” SIZE IN INCH 6-12” SIZE IN INCH 4-24” SIZE IN INCH 2-4”
  40. 40. Duct Covers • Contemporary Classic
  41. 41. FORMS IN WHICH BRASS IS AVAILABLE StripsFoils PipesSheets Bars Wires
  42. 42. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
  43. 43. Brass Bronze COPPER STEEL Composition: Brass is any alloy of copper and zinc Brass is any alloy of copper and tin Copper is a base metal STEEL is any alloy Properties Higher malleability than zinc or copper. Low melting point (900 c) corrosion resistant. Good conductor Not as hard as steel. Melts at 950 centigrade. Melts at 950 c Bronze resists corrosion a better conductor of heat and electricity Hard and brittle high level of electrical and thermal conductivity 1083c corrosion resistant. Good conductor Copper is softer and easier to Steel structures have more fatigue life and strength. 1050c resists corrosion Conductor Hard and brittle
  44. 44. Color: Muted yellow, somewhat similar to gold, but duller. Reddish brown. reddish-orange greyish Rates 380-450/kg 400-450/kg 45-60/kg
  45. 45. • Superb colour and texture • Will accept a mirror-like polish • Will not corrode • Can be manufactured as rod, profile, tube, plate, sheet, foil and wire • Good strength and ductility • Easily processed by casting, extruding, rolling, drawing and hot stamping • Excellent machining qualities • No degradation in sunlight • Will not soften in high temperatures (up to 200oC) • Will not embrittle in sub-zero temperatures (down to -100 oC) ADVANTAGES
  46. 46. • Brass is cost-effective • No plating or painting required • Brass also has excellent thermal conductivity making it a first choice for heat exchangers (radiators). • Brasses have a range of attractive colours ranging from red to yellow to gold to silver. • Pathogens, which can be spread by touch, die in a few hours on brass surfaces. • It is a metal ideally suited to the production of almost every item of architectural hardware including mortice locks, lever handle and ball handle sets, finger plates, escutcheon plates, window furniture and many other products • Brass is recyclable – Without loss of properties – The recycling infrastructure is already in place
  47. 47. DISADVANTAGES • Brass requires a good deal of maintenance since it is prone to a blackish tarnish. Disadvantages of Brass Doors • These doors can be scratched or dented which gives bad look. • Brass doors are suitable for only interiors as they fade away in harsh weather conditions. • They require polishing to protect their surface. • Color of brass doors fades with the passage of time. • These doors have warm feeling in summer and cold in winter when they are touched.
  48. 48. • http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=product%20of%20brass%20ppt&sourc e=web& • http://www.starmfg.com • http://www.copperinfo.co.uk/alloys/brass • http://www.kme.com/en/arkita_brass_and_bronze_for_architecture • http://www.venus-ind.com/ • http://dominobrass.com.au/ • Wikipedia BOOKS • Materials hand book • Engineering materials • W.c.mackay BIBLIOGRAPHY
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