Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Economie islamique
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Economie islamique

344

Published on

Economie islamique

Economie islamique

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
344
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. : : . :
  • 2. : : 2012 / :
  • 3. « . » , . . , , « , « , » . www.minbaralhurriyya.org , , . , » , , ,
  • 4. . 1990 1989 . ,
  • 5. , , . , , .
  • 6. 11 ................................................................ 27 .................................. : 91 ........................ : 119 .......... 163 ... : : , : 199 ................. 231 ................................ : : : 275 ................................................................................
  • 7. , / , 11 . , . , ,2001 . , , , . , .« , . , , . , , , . »
  • 8. . . , , , . , . . , , . . . , . . , , , . , . 12 . ,
  • 9. , ( , , . . . , , . ) , . , , . ,1« , , , , » , . . , ; . , , , .(1992) . 13 , ,Hobsbawm and Ranger (1)
  • 10. . . , . . . , , , . » , .1 ; . . « « , » . . , , , . , , . (1962) Udovitch (1) 14
  • 11. , . , 1 , ? . , . , . . , , , . . — , , . . .(1990) Tediyildiz (2001)- Kuran (1) 15
  • 12. . . , , , . . , . . , . . . . , . , , , , 16 , , , , , , ,
  • 13. , . , 1999 . , . . , , 2002 , . 2002 1 . , , , . . ,1974 1970 , , , . 2 ,(2002) Islamic Economic Bulletin .(2000) Shaukat Ali , 17 (1)
  • 14. .2 .1« . » . , . , , . . , . , . , : . , . , ,(1985) al-Yassini :18 16 Organization for Economic Co-operation and . 18 ,(1981)- Holden and Johns (1) . (2) ,(1983) Development
  • 15. , , . , . . , . , . . , : . . , , , . . . , , . 19 . , (...)
  • 16. . . . , , , , , , .1 , , . , ? . , . . ,( 2003) Kuran 20 , .( 2003) Kuran , (1)
  • 17. , , , » 11 . . . , , / , , . « , . , . . . . .2002 ,« , , . » , 21
  • 18. , , « « . .1 , . . . , , , . » . . , , , . , , . » » « , ; : .United Nations Development Programme (2002) 22 . , (1)
  • 19. , . . , , , , . , . , . . , . .1« » . , . , , , , . . .(1993)- Huntington (1) 23
  • 20. , . , . , . , , . , . , . »: . Fundamentalisms and the State:Remaking ) . , « . ,(of Policies, Economies, and Militance » .341 302 ,(1993 , : ) 9 ,Journal of Economic Perspectives ,« Inernational « : » .173 155 :(1995 ) » .102 71 :(1997) 9 , Review of Comparative Public Policy ,Social Research ,« : 24
  • 21. « :(1989 / » .338 301 :(1997) 64 ) 21 , International Journal of Middle East Studies Journal of Institutional and ,« » .191 171 .71 41 :(1997 / ) 53 ,Theortical Economics , , , ,2003 2002 . , . , , , , . , ,. . . , , . 1997 1996 . , 1993 1990 1989 . , , . , , , . , . , 25 , , , , , , , , , , , . , ,
  • 22. , , , , . . 26 .
  • 23. 1979 , , . . , . , ,1979 . , . . . .1 , . ,(1984) Iqbal , , (1)
  • 24. . , . .« « . .1 » . » , , 2 , , , , . , , ,Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance . . » . ,« ’ . . , ,(1970)Mannan : Ahmed, , , ,( 1981) Naqvi .( ) ,Khan and Mirakhor , M. N. ,( 1980) ( ,( 1983) ( 28 .(1988) Moore (1) (2) .(1981) Siddiqi . ) K. Ahmed ) Iqbal and Khan .(1987)
  • 25. , , . 1 , , – . . . , . . , ,( 1406 1332) , . 1903) . , , , , , , ‘ 2 , ,(1979 , , .(1987/1950) Ibn Khaldun , 29 «. » (1) (2)
  • 26. , .1 . .2 (1966 1906) , (1980 1931) , , . . . , . . , , . , . . : Social .(1975/1947) The Economic Problem of Man and its Islamic Solution Qutb .(1970/1948) Justice in Islam .(1984 1982/1961) Iqtisaduna: Our Economy 30 (1) (2)
  • 27. . ; 1 ; 661 622 . 2 . « . 3 » . , , » « » « , . . , , , : , . . ,(1970) Mannan : ,( 1981) Naqvi , ,(1981/1966) Qardawi , ; ,(1984) Mannan ; , . 31 .14 ,(1987) Hussein (1) (2) (3)
  • 28. . . , , , . . . , , . , , , , . . . , , , . .1 ( , ;217 187 . ,(1974) Hodgson .4 2 32 , . ,(1971) Shaban ) (1)
  • 29. . . , . , . .1 ; . , , . . , , , , . , . , , . ,(1985) Chapra 33 , , (1)
  • 30. . ,« , . , » « . » , : , .2 , , , . . ,(1964) Rahman ,(1986) Kuran ,(1985) Pryor , .1 , , , . (1991) Marti and Appleby ,(1983) Kuran .(1990) Philipp 34 ,(1974) Rahman ( 1989) Kuran (1) (2)
  • 31. . , . , . 1 . . » , .« , .2 , . , . , .3 .30 35 , , .(1988) S.V.R Nasr (1) ,(1989) S.V.R Nasr .(1991) M. Ahmed . (2) .16 . ,(1989) Bakhash (3)
  • 32. , . , , . . , , . . . , . , . .1 , Choudhury , . , . .(1989) 36 (1)
  • 33. , . , . .1 . , , . 2 , . . . . . (1) , . . .568 565 ,(1952) 37 , ,J. Ahmed . . (2)
  • 34. .1 . , . , , . , . , . . . , , . . . . , , (1) . .(1990) Kuran 38 ,
  • 35. 5% . , 105 . 100 , . 105 , , 105 , . , » .1« . » 3 . .2« . , , . .55 ,3 ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman .63 ,(1981) M.N. Siddiqi . 39 : . . . (1) (2) (3)
  • 36. , , . . . , : , , . . . , . , . . , .1 , , : , , . .(1987) Cizakca 40 (1)
  • 37. . . . , , , , . . , , ; . . ; , : . .1 . , . ,1975 , , . (1) 41
  • 38. .1 , 38% 14% .2 . .3« , , 8% , :5 , » , 4 « , . » ,‘ ’ ,(1990) Khan and Mirakhor (1) .6 . (2) .60 58 ,(1986) Ingram (3) , .(1988) , ,( 1990) Moore ;76 ,(1989) Cillar and Cizakca (4) .249 248 .(1986) Carlson , (5) .(1986) Carlson .3 , , .1% . . 1986 42
  • 39. . . . ; . : « . » « . , « , ‘ ’ » » , , , . . , , , 1 . .10 4 3 , , .( 1988) Ariff ,(1988) , , ;57 . . 43 ,(1986) Ingram « » (1)
  • 40. .1 .2« » : 9% , ( 1887 . , . ) , , . . .4 . 3 , , . , . .3 2 , (1) ,(1988) .77 . . ,(1989) Cillar and Cizakca .(1986) Allawi .(1988) Ceylan 44 (2) (3) (4)
  • 41. . , , . . . , , . , , , . : , , , . , , 1975 . . ,1% 55% . 45 , ) 1986 (80% 1975
  • 42. .1 , , , . , , .2 . . . , , , . ,(1988) , . . ? 48 , . .19 18 . .10 7 46 (1) ,(1987) « » »: .« ,(1989) Meenai (2)
  • 43. » . , : , . .1 : , . , , « . » , . , 1982 ,1984 . « .43 ,(1986) Nienhaus 47 .2 , (1) (2)
  • 44. . , . « » » . , , .1 , . . . . , , . .« , (1) , Directory of Islamic » « ,(1988) John R. Presley . , ) ,(Financial Institutions , 48 .(300 »: )«
  • 45. .1 . , . , , . . . . , , ; . , .337 . . .« ,(1989) W. M. Khan « » 49 » . . , , , (1)
  • 46. , .1 . , . , 2 , . . , .1963 . , . . , , , , , 1968 , .3 , , .6 .40 36 ,(1986) Cizakca .(1962) Udovitch ,(1985)Mayer , 50 (1) (2) (3)
  • 47. , . , ; 1975 . . , , , . , . , . ’ , , ’ .159 155 , , . ,(1987) el-Ashker . 51 , , . . ‘ , . , . .1 , (1) . , ‘
  • 48. . , . .2 100 ( , ) 100 ( , . ( ) ) . : . , , 5% 100 ( ) , ) , ) ,(1964) Rahman , (1) (1964) Rahman ,(1973/1966) Rodinson .(1979) Mandaville , (2) (3) .37 30 . ( 100 ( ( ) , , ) ,5% 105 ( ) , .( .3 105 , . 1 . .(1980) .30 12 . 52 ,
  • 49. . 1980 , () , , 2 . « , , » , ? , ,1987 » 1 .( ) . . . 1986 .3 .« ? , (1) Report of the Council of ,(1980) Islamic Ideology on the Elimination of Interest from the Economy . ,16 15 .300 . ,(1988) Presley (2) . ,( 1984) Mannan , (3) Z. . .(1985) Zaman . (1989) Ahmed 53
  • 50. .1 . . , . , , , .2 , . , . , . , . : . 3 .87 . .290 287 ,1988 , ,( 1988) Ariff ,(1988) Uludag 54 (1) (2) (3)
  • 51. , , ,1989 , . . . , . 1 , , . , , , , , , . .2 99% , . .42 , ,1989 .(1988) / 16 ,The Economics . .99.9% 95% 55 .74 .(1986) Patel 1989 ( (1) ) (2)
  • 52. , , . , . , . , . . « . , , » . . . 1986 1984 , . . .1 .30 24 , ,(1988) Nienhaus .242 235 2 , 56 ,(1990) Moore (1)
  • 53. , , . 1% , , . , . . , . , . . 1 , , , . , , , , , Ozel Finans Kurumlari ve , . .135 73 ,(1988) Turkiye Uygulamasi Sempozyome . . : .(1988) Mumcu 57 , (1)
  • 54. . .1 , . , 2 , . . , , .3 , . , . . 1986 . , ,74 . Iqbal and Mirakhor . « ; 58 ,(1989) Meenai , » (1) .2 ( 1990) Moore (2) ,(1987) M. S. Khan . . (3) .(1987)
  • 55. 100 . , 1 . .2 , , . . 3 . , . , , , . .61 45 , ,(1989) Springborg , .49 33 ,(1988) Neinhaus ;25 . ,(1987) Iqbal and Mirakhor , .71 370 ,(1987) Khan and Mirakhor 59 . . (1) (2) (3)
  • 56. .« , , , , » . , : . , ‘ ’ ‘ ‘ , ’ . ’ . . .( , . .(1988) Zarqa . .1 , ) . , , (1) 60
  • 57. ,( . , ) . , 20% 2.5% . .20% 10% , . . 5% , 1 , 14 ,3 . , ’ , . , . . , ,‘ .2 , , %2.5 , , , . ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman , .(1986) Shad .(1989) Oran and Rashid , 61 , ,18 (1) (2)
  • 58. ,« . , 20% . , . , , , . . , . , .2« ,3 , » . »: ( . 1 . ) . ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman .100 . 62 , ,(1986) Shad ;197 . .33 ,(1974) Rahman (1) (2)
  • 59. .1 . . . , , . , , .2 ; . . . 5% Ahmed, .21 15 ,(1982) Salama . , , , , , , .3 , , .4 1 . ,( 1983) .( ,(1981) Tanzil-ur-Rahman ;75 73 ,69 67 .85 27 63 (1) ) Iqbal and Khan , (2) ,(1986) Mayer (3) .54 349 ,(1981) Tanzil-ur-Rahman
  • 60. , . . , , 1 1988 1987 , . . 451 . , 0.04% 0.01% 3 . 4 . 5 8% , , , 8% , , . 0.35% 2 , , , 1988 . .84 81 ,(1980) Salleh and Ngah ,(1989) Pakistan Statictical Yearbook .507 ,452 .1 ,(1982) Salama .351 , .49 . ,(1995) Ghazali et al 64 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
  • 61. . 1 1985 ( ) , : , 93% , , .2 , 15% . . , 1979 1977 , . 85% .3 . . , , . , 4 , , . ,(1987) Mustapha (1) ,(1980) Salleh and Ngah .427 426 ,(1987) Scott (2) (3) (4) .57 . .110 86 . .(1995) al-Omar 65 .
  • 62. . ( ) .1 , .2 , . ; , . 1978 , . 4 . , 3 . , . , . .5 4 .4 ,(1988) 66 .(1934) Schachat ,(1983) . .. .(1979) Sabzwari , (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 63. . 5.5% .1 . , . ‘ , , . » , . ’ . ,1955 , . « , .2 . . , , ‘ ’ , .78 196 ,22 121 67 .(1988) Haitogullari (1) ,(1985) Scott (2)
  • 64. . , . , , ? , , ? . . . , 1 58 % , ,1988 1980 .2 , Tanzil-ur-Rahman , . . ? , , .91 83 ,(1986) Clark 453 ,(1989) Pakistan Statictical Yearbook 68 , .(1981) .459 (1) (2)
  • 65. , 22 , 10% , » . « , , . « » , . .3 » , . « » .4 .5 , . 8 « » « . , . 4 .1 . , 2 , 8 ,(1988) (1989) Zahid . 69 .89 , ,(1986) Clark . (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 66. , 20% , .1 . , , , , 75.000 .2 , . . , . , . ‘ ’ ( 6% ,( 53% : 22% , , ) 1970 )« . 3 15% 2% 3% 11% .90 .433 .433 70 ,(1986) Clark ,(1987) Scott ,(1987) Scott » , (1) (2) (3)
  • 67. 12% ( 19 ) , .2 3 .1 , . . , , , , .1980 , .4 . 3 . , .5 .62 60 .1990 ( ) 6 ,( .34 433 ,(1987) Mustapha .62 , .64 63 , ,(1987) Scott ) New Straits Times 71 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
  • 68. , . . , . , ; , . ; , . . . 1 , 453 . , ; , , . .2 . , .69 . ,(1989) %8.6 ,(1986) Mayer 1988 1980 . 72 ,459 (1) (2)
  • 69. . . 1 , . , , , . 2 , . , . 60% , . , . , 3 ,1987 .4 .31 431 .13 ,(1986) Scott ,(1986) Kuran .24 123 .9 ,(1981) Tanzil-ur-Rahman ,48 47 ,(1995) Ghazali et al. 73 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 70. .1 , . , .2 . , . . .3 , ,« .« » . . Morad Scott » , « « » » . . , , ;64 (1) .22 120 ,(1988) .64 63 ,(1988) Patel (2) ,(1986) Mayer , (3) .35 431 ,(1987) 74
  • 71. , , , , , . , . , . . . . . . , , . . . . 75 . ,
  • 72. , .1 . 3% , , . . , . . . , : . , . 2 . . .(1968/1922) Weber .(1974) Turner .202 201 , 76 ,(1988) Zarqa (1) (2)
  • 73. , . . , « . , , , » . ; . « , » , , .1 . , : .2 . , , , Abdul-Rauf ,(1970) Chapra .(1985) S.V.R. Nasr .47 . . ,( 1981) Naqvi ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman 77 ,(1979) (1) (2)
  • 74. .1 , .2 , , . , , . . :1987 ,1982 , . / . »: . , .3« .60 57 (1972) Siddiqi .81 79 78 . . , ,(1980) Hasaini .97 ,(1987) Atalay (1) (2) (3)
  • 75. . , , ( , , )» : 1 «. . , . . . . , . , . . , , , . . .(1990) Sadeq » . , , « , , . .178 ,(1980) Ahmed ,(1990) Ghazali ,(1985) Al-Buraey 79 (1)
  • 76. , . . , ? . . , . ; ? . . , .1 . . . , . .63 ,( 1981) Naqvi .(1987) Nasr 80 , , (1)
  • 77. : , . , . , . , . , , . . . . , , . 81 ,( . . , , , )
  • 78. . . , , . , . . , , . , , . , . . . . , , 82 .
  • 79. . , . « » , « » .1 , . . . , , , , . .2 . .5 1 .[1979 1973] ,( . . Lewis , , ) .47 45 (1) (2) . 83 ,(1988) Hayek .92 78 ,(1970)
  • 80. , , , « » . , » . » « .« » . , . ,« , » ... . , 1 , » ; . , .« , ,( 1981) Naqvi , (1989) Bahdad .2 ,(1970) Chapra , .1984 .113 ,(1987) Bakhash 84 » , .2« (1) (2)
  • 81. .1« . « , . » , . . : . , . , . . . ,« , . . » , . . 85 (1)
  • 82. . , , . , . , , , . . , , . , , . , , , . , . . , , , . , 86 . ,
  • 83. . . ? ? . . , . . , , . , . , , . ? , .1 , ? , , , , . . .(1968) Hirschman 87 , (1)
  • 84. . , . , . , . , , ; : . . . , , , . . , . , , . . , 88 , ,
  • 85. , . . , . : .1 . , . , . . , , , . . . , . . . .(1962/1926) Tawney 89 (1)
  • 86. , , . , . , . , , . . , « , . * , * 90 » *
  • 87. , .1 , , . , . 1970 , . , . , , (1981) Siddiqi , . . . , .(1993) Islamic Research Institute (1)
  • 88. , . ) . , . , ? , ? ? ? ? ? ,« , ? ? » . . , ,( . . Mawdudi , , 1 , (1979) Ahmed and Ansari 92 .(1994) Nasr .(1975/1947) (1)
  • 89. , . . , . . , , . , . , . , , . .1 , , . , , . .(1973/1966) Rodinson 93 (1964) Rahman , (1)
  • 90. , , .2 . , , .1 , , , , . , , . . , .(1992) Chapra , . , . , (1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman 94 . , .(1980) Posner (1) (2)
  • 91. . , . , , . , . , . . , . 50.000 , , , . , .1 , , .« » . .(1990) Cowen and Kroszner 95 (1)
  • 92. . , , , . , . , . .1 , , ; , , . , , , , , . .(1990) Ismail 96 , , . (1)
  • 93. , , .1 , . . . , , . , , Ahmed, Iqbal , , . . ; , , . ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman (1) .( 1983) ( ) and Khan 97
  • 94. , « , » . , » « » « , » . . . « . . , . 1 , . » « . « » . . . , .(1992) Chapra . ( 1981) Naqvi 98 ,(1972) Siddiqi . . (1)
  • 95. . , . . , , 1 » . , .2 , . . , , . , 2.6 , . ,3 .(1992) Chapra 99 .(1983) Kuran (84 1982/1961) Al-Sadr . (1) (2) (3)
  • 96. . , , 1 , . 18.8% 20% . , « » . , 22.9 « ; .2 » , » . , . , , « , . .(1990) R. Wilson 100 .(1995) Ray . (1990) Moore (1) (2)
  • 97. (1 2) 6 3 69.42 69.47 24.90 25.38 11.68 11.64 1990 / 57.12 56.25 24.61 25.51 12.02 12.34 1991 ,2 / 58.83 58.79 26.60 26.92 15.20 15.25 64.30 65.11 30.46 30.51 15.85 15.68 1992 ,2 / 66.16 66.84 30.39 30.00 16.01 13.91 1992 / 64.51 66.96 30.43 29.88 15.65 14.72 1993 ,2 / .28 . .1 2 3 . « . , » 1 60 % 1991 ,(1994) Kofteoglu / : : , (1) 101
  • 98. « , » . . , . ,« » . , , , . . , , . , 5% , . . ; . ? 102 . .
  • 99. , . , ,( ) , ) , .( , , , , . , , , , ? . . , , . , . .48% 103 ,
  • 100. , .1 . , . . . . , , . , , , , . , .2 , , . : , , , , .(1993) Cizakca .(1994) Brown 104 (1) (2)
  • 101. , . . . , . . , .1 , . . .2 . , , .3 , , . , .(1995) Khaf .( 1993) Kuran . (1993) Novossyolov 105 (1) (2) (3)
  • 102. .1 . , .2 . . , , , . . .3 , . , .4 , , , (1994) Sullivan . , . (1) (2) ,(1989) Zahid ,(1987) Mustapha (3) .(1993) Novossyolov ,( 1993) Kuran .(1995) Muhammed (1995)et al Ghazali (4) 106
  • 103. . , ( . ) 1979 1978 . . , . . . , , , . , . . ( ) . , ; 107 , .
  • 104. . .1 . , , . , . . , . , , . . . , , . , ‘‘Adil Duzen’ , .( 1989) Kuran 108 (1)
  • 105. . , , « , » , 1 , . , « .2 , . « » . . , , . . . , » , . . .(1991) Erbakan .( 1994) Behdad 109 (1) (2)
  • 106. ,1( ) , . . . , , , . . » 2 , . « . ? , , , ? . ? , . .(1980/79 1976) Qaddafi .(1991) Vandewale 110 . (1) (2)
  • 107. . . , , . , ; , . . 1 , , , . , , . . , . .(1978) El-Ashker 111 (1)
  • 108. . . , . , . . , . , , . .1 , , . . , . . .(1980) Rushton 112 (1)
  • 109. , , . , . . . . ; 1 , , , , , . . . , .(1985) Williamson 113 , (1)
  • 110. . , . , . . , . , , . , .1 . , , , . , , . , . .(1997) Kuran 114 (1)
  • 111. , . . . , . , . . . . . , . , , . , , , . . , , , ; .1 = . ,( 1981) Naqvi , , 115 (1)
  • 112. . « , ; , » .1 ,homo economicus . , , .( ) . , . , , , . ) . , = , . , .( 1994 Behdad .(1987) Khan and Mirakhor 116 (1)
  • 113. . , . . , , , . .1 . , . , « , , , . » . . . , . .(1993) Cizakca 117 (1)
  • 114. , »: . , . . .1« ; ; , , ; . * * * .(1994) Siddiqi 118 . . (1)
  • 115. : .1 , ,1993 , , 48 , ( ) ,97 ,(1993) ,(1988) Mumcu 12 Hurriyet ‘ ’ . .2 , . . ;196 171 , . (1) , , , » .« ,(1987) Mumcu (2) 1996 .153 151 ,50 . . 1996
  • 116. , . , , . , , . « .1« . , . . . . . . , . , .57 » »: . ,1993 ( ) 120 , 7 ,Economist (1)
  • 117. : . , . . , . , ; . . , . , , , . , , , . . .1 , , .2 . .54 152 (1979 1973) Hayek ,(1986) Kuran , 121 (1) (2)
  • 118. , , . , . , « » . . . , « ‘ ’ » , .1 , . . , , . . 122 (1)
  • 119. : .1 , . . , , , , . , , 2 . . , , » , . , .(1992) Chapra . , « . , , , . , .192 , ,8 (1970) Mannan 123 ,(1991) Ayubi (1) (2)
  • 120. , . . . . « , » 1979 1 , 1992 .2 , . ,3 . . , , 4 , . , , Kuran , .33 , , ,1992 ( ) 18 Economist .( 1993) .(1973/1966) Rodinson , . 124 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 121. : . . , , . , . .1 » . .2« « . , » . . , .89 688 ,(1994) R. Ahmed .115 ,(1990/1940) Mawdudi 125 . (1) (2)
  • 122. .1 , , , , . 2 1975 . . , , , , . . , , , . . , .(1996) Kuran , , , . 126 . (1) (2)
  • 123. : . , ,( , . ) » .1« , , , . , . . , . . = . , , 2 ,(1987) El-Ashker ; . .189 188 , ,(1991) Ayubi . 127 (1) (2)
  • 124. , . . , 1 , . , . , , .2 , , , , . , ,« » : . 3 , .4 , . (1972) Siddiqi .( 1981) Naqvi . . .(1993) Rashwan and Gad .(1992) Murphy . ,(1990) Baker 128 = (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 125. : . . . , . . . 1190 , .1 ( ) 927 ( , ) 374 73 1984 1976 .2 . , . . . .(1991) Gursoy-Tezcan .4 2 ,(1988) Reed 129 (1) (2)
  • 126. , , . , .1 , .2 , . . , . « . . , ,( 1993 ,( ) . » , .3 . . ,Mursi Saad El-Din .(1994) Sullivan , ) 7 ;15 ,1 ,1993 ( . 2, .25 318 130 ) 10 ,Cumhuriyat .17 ,1 ,( 1993) Kuran .1993 (1) (2) (3)
  • 127. : . .1 90 , , . , . .2 , , . . , (1987) Hayman , . , .15 ,1 . . ,1993 ( ) 19 Cumhuriyat .20 19 ,11 : 131 (1) (2)
  • 128. . . . . , , , . The Domino Effect , . . , . , . , , , 132 . . , .
  • 129. : . , , . . , . , , , . . , .1 , 1992 1991 , , , : , . . , . .2 .18 15 .( 1995) Kuran 133 , .(1994) Roberts (1) (2)
  • 130. , . , . , . , . .1 , . . . , 2 , , . , . . .79 474 134 .687 , ,(1991) M. Ahmed ,(1994) R. Ahmed . . (1) (2)
  • 131. : . »: «? , , , . . . . . . . , , , , , . , . . 135
  • 132. , , . . , , . , , . , . . . , , , , , .1 , , ,(1988) Etzioni 136 (1995) Williamson . (1)
  • 133. : . , . . , . , . . . : , , . .1 , . , Rowley, Tollison and Tullock , , 137 , .(1988) ( , ) (1)
  • 134. , .1 . , , . . , , , . , Gambetta . . . « , , » . , .2 . . . ,(1993) Elster 138 , (1993) (1) (2)
  • 135. : . . . , , . , . . , . . 2 , .63 58 , , . . .1993 ( ) , .1 .3 3, ,(1994) Sullvian 139 . ,(1991) Ayubi (1993) Saracgil (1) (2) (3)
  • 136. . , , . , . , . , . , . . 1 , .2 , .(1989) Behdad ; ( 1993) Kuran .3 ,(1990) Rahnema and Nomani (1) , (2) .( 1995) Kuran .( 1993) Kuran (3) 140
  • 137. : . , . , . , . , , , , . , , , .1 , . . , , , , , . . , .296 ,(1990) Rahnema and Nomani 141 . (1)
  • 138. , , , .1 , . , , , , . , . . . , , .2 . . 3 , , 4 .296 , .(1988) Bhagwati .(1988) ( , ) Rowley, Tollison and Tullock , Papageorgiou, Michaely and , , , (1979) Chenery .(1991) ( ) Choksi 142 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 139. : , , . , , . , . , , . . , , , , . , . , 1979 1978 , , , , . . , . :« .(1992) Amuzegar 143 , 1 , » ( 1994) Behdad (1)
  • 140. , , . , . , , , , , . . , , , , , , , , , . . .1 , , , , , . , .2 ? .(1982) B. Lewis 144 . (1982) Rahman .(1990) Mokyr (1) (2)
  • 141. : , , , , . . , , , , . , . , , . . . , . , . , , , . . , , . , , , , . . , 145
  • 142. , . . , , 1 . , ? , , . , . , , , , , ? . , , , , , . . . 146 . , (1982) Olson . . (1)
  • 143. : : , . , . . , . , . , . . . . « , » , . 1 , . .(1993) Iannaccone 147 , (1)
  • 144. « . . » . , . , , . . . , . , , , , , . , . .1 .( 1989) Kuran . . , ,(1986) Saleh 148 ,(1969) Coulson , . (1)
  • 145. : . . , , . , . , . . , , , , . . , , . . , . . ,« , . 149 »
  • 146. . . . , , , . , ‘ 1 ’ ‘ , ’ : . . , ;20% .3 , . 2 1% . Kuran .(1994) Agaoglu .61 45 :149 . ,(1991) Kazarian ,(1989) Springborg 150 .( 1995) , ;( 1990) Moore (1) (2) (3)
  • 147. : . « » ,« », ? « . » . . . . ; , ; . . ; , , 6% .1 . . . ,( 1993) B. Lewis 151 (1)
  • 148. .1 . , , .2 , . . , , , . . . . , , . . 3 6% , .62 49 Gungor ;16 115 : 1991 ,(1989) Ozel ;215 . ,(1991) Meeker (1) ,(1990/1988) Bulac , (2) .241 ,150 ,11 ,(1981) .695 689 ,(1994) R. Ahmed . (3) 152
  • 149. : . , .1 , .1995 . . , ,1990 , .2 / , . . . . . . .31 , 47 –146 (1993) Mayer .78 465 153 , (1994) Roberts (1) (2)
  • 150. , . , ; , , . , . ‘ . .1 . , . ’ . , .2 , . , . ,(1973/1966) Rodinson , , ( ;(1929) M. S. A. Khan . . .(1979) Mandaville ; .(1991) Schlessinger (1991) D'Souza 154 ) . (1) (2)
  • 151. : , . , ‘ . , ’ , . . , . . . , , : . , . . , . , , ; , , . . 155 ,
  • 152. . . , . . . . , . . , , . , . , , . , . , . , . 156 ,
  • 153. : . . , . , , , , , . . « . (1776) « » , . . , » . , (1756) . . , , . , 157
  • 154. , , . . , , ,1 . . . , , : . , , . , ; .2 . , . (1993) Wilson . ,(1994) Metcalf .17 710 158 . (1) (2)
  • 155. : . . , , , : ,The Postponed Islamic Life ,in Difficult Times Speaking The Minister Who . 1 Recognized "Allah" After His Death , 1938 . . ,1946 , . , . , , Yilmaz ;(1984) Ozel . , . . . , ;(1990 1986) Balci and Balci 159 , .(1990) (1)
  • 156. . . , . , , 1 . , . . . , . . . , , , .43 37 , . ,(1992) Casanova , . .(1992) Chaves and Cann . 160 (1)
  • 157. : . , , , . . , . . . . . . , , , . . . , , . . , . . 161 .
  • 158. . , . . . . . . . .1 . * * , * . (1) .(1956) Dahl 162 .
  • 159. : » » .« « . » .( )« » .(1994) Naqvi ,( 1993) Kuran Rahnema ;( 1995) Kuran (1996) Malik « .1 , , , ; , , » « .2 (1992) Chapra ,(1989) Behdad ,( 1989) .(1995) Haneef ;( 1993) Kuran , ,( 1994) Behdad ;(1990) and Nomani ,(1996) Richard and Waterbury . (1) (2)
  • 160. . . , ; , , . , « . » . , , . . . , . « , . . , , , . . 164 . ; , »
  • 161. : . , . , . , ? , , . . , , , , ,1 , ( ) ,(1967) Aziz (1975) Nagarkar . . « ;5 3 . . » « ,(1968) Sayeed , 165 (1) » ;3 2 .
  • 162. . , 1 , .2 , , . , . , (1979 1903) , , » . . « » . « » 3 . « .40 239 » ,(1993) Talbot . . , , ,(1947) Darling ;85 184 ,(1991) Ansari .36 ,(1981/1944) Mawdudi 166 .« (1) (2) (3)
  • 163. : ,« » ,« » .1« , » « » 2 ,« ,« , « .4« » ,« . » .« » « . « 5 Mawdudi » » » 3 , , , » » . , .464 . , ,(1991) M. Ahmed . , (1) (2) ,(1976/1941) Mawdudi ,(1990/1940) Mawdudi ,(1976/1939) : .(1950/1948) Mawdudi ,(1981) Lerman ,(1967) A. Ahmed . ,(1996) Nasr . ,(1961) Binder .115. ,(1990/1940) Mawdudi (3) Mawdudi .40 38 ,(1981/1945) Mawdudi (4) .9 7 ,4 2 ,(1990/1940) .40 ,(1981/1945) Mawdudi (5) 167
  • 164. , , . . , . , . . , , , » , . 1 , . , . . « » .2« .68 65 Mawdudi . . .1 ,(1981/1948) Mawdudi ,(1976/1941) Mawdudi 40 30 .(1981/1951) Mawdudi 168 ;23 17 ,(1990/1940) (1) (2)
  • 165. : , . . . , , , , , , , ? , . . . , . , , . . , . . , . , 1 « .291 . 169 , , ,(1979) Brohi » , (1)
  • 166. ? , .1« , « : » ( ) «pagan .2 , » , » , , , « , . . » . , . , . . . .374 373 ,(1976) A. Ahmed .56 ,(1990/1940) Mawdudi 170 , (1) (2)
  • 167. : ’ , , ‘Westerniziation , . 1 ; ... ; » , ; .2« . » , »: «. »: . , , , , , « .« .3 .56 . .10 6 .255 254 171 ,(1990/1940) Mawdudi ,(1965/1909) Macdonald ,(1971/1911) Macdonald (1) (2) (3)
  • 168. , , .1« . , , »: , .3 . , 6.4% , » , . « 2 . , , . 1931 , , ; 5 .(1978) Sayeed .8 ,(1957) K. Ahmed . ,(1996) Nasr . 172 (1) (2) (3)
  • 169. : .2 .1 , , . , 1.2% . ,1931 1.5% , . , , .0.9% , , . 1.3% .3 , 1931 ,1911 .330 322 %3.5 . ,1911 %5.1 %9.5 %13.5 .427 426 ,2:1 . ,2 :1 ;53 .1931 ;329 328 ,61 ,1:1 ,1911 ,1:1 1911 (2) %12.3 , ,1931 173 ,1931 (1) . . . (3) %11.5
  • 170. , 1 « » , . .2 . , . . ; 3 , . . . , . .(1967) Luckmann . ,(1994) Casanova .(1980) Johnson 174 (1) (2) (3)
  • 171. : .1 . . 2 , » ,« . « . » .4 5 « » ,« . « 3 . , , , » . .(1987) Hechter ; . . 175 » , « ,(1995) Hardin .(1992) Iannaccone .148 ,(1967) Aziz .90 . ,(1989) Denny » , (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
  • 172. « » . « 1 » , . , , , . . , . , , , . . . ; . . « ,1902 . » .« ,(1938 1876) » .20 . ,(1957)W. C. Smith 176 . . (1)
  • 173. : . , . . . » , « . ,1909 . 1 .« » , .2 , . , . .3 pan-) . .(1993) . ,(1957) W. C. Smith , , .54 ,43 ,(1983) Horani 177 (Islamism ,(1964/1909) Iqbal (1981) Siddiqi . . ,(1947) .(1982) Rahman (1) (2) (3)
  • 174. . .1 . 2 . , . . , , . . . . , .(1990) Lando . . , . , (1) , , . , .120 119 178 , (2)
  • 175. : , . , . « » . , , . . . , , . . , . . , , , , , . . ( , . 179 . , . )
  • 176. . , , . .1 , .« . » , , . , , « .« .300 299 . . . ; . , » , . . , , (1) » ,(1979) Brohi . 180 « »
  • 177. : . , , . . , . .1 , , . : , . . . , (Islamic orthopraxy) ; , . . . ,1925 . .(1998) Kuran 181 (1)
  • 178. . ... . « 1 , . . , . 2 . . . , , . . ; , . , . , . .267 ,(1968) B. Lewis ,(1961) Banani (1993) Chehabi 182 (1) (2)
  • 179. : . , 1 . . . . , . . , , , . 2 . . , , Heyworth - Dunne .(1943 1939) Erigin ; . ,(1982) Rahman 183 :(1939) ,(1964) Berkes , .(1975) B. Lewis . (1) (2)
  • 180. , . ; . .1 , . , 3 . . , , , .4 . « » ; . , . . Mawdudi 2 ;15 9 . .(1992) Al-Ahsan , ,(1990/1940) Mawdudi (1) ,(1976/1947) Mawdudi (2) .1 ,(1963/1940) .(1991) (3) (4) ;4 ,(1994/1992) Roy , .134 125 184
  • 181. : .1 . . , .2 . , , . , . . , . , . , . .(1991) M. Ahmed . ; , . , ? (1986) Agwani .(1978) ( ) I. Ahmed . 185 (1) (2)
  • 182. ? . , . . . « , . . » , . . . , « . » , 1 : . , . .(1986) Kuran 186 , (1)
  • 183. : . .1 « ,( » , » , , ( . » , ( , ... .« 2 , , . .« , » ) » . « , : ) « .3 . )» : , ,(1963/1940) Mawdudi , , .(26 . ) ,« . .34 ,29 ,26 , ,(1979) .(1991) 187 (1) (2) (3)
  • 184. . , . .1 , , . , ; . . . 2 . , . . , .3 .« » . , , . .76 369 ,28 21 : .(1987) Crone ;.30 28 : .217 146 ,(1974) Hodgson ,(1985) Lowenthal ,(1973/1966) Rodinson ;4 1 ,(1971) Shaban 188 (1) (2) (3)
  • 185. : . , , . , ; . , , , . , , » , .1« , , , . . , , , , .23 .(1995) 189 ,(1993) Huntington . .(1996) (1)
  • 186. . . , , . , . ‘secularized , ’ , , 1954 ‘ , , ’ . » . . . . 1 , .2 , . .11 9 ,(1961) Binder ;82 ,(1995) Jalal (1996) Huntington .(1979) Quigley .11 ,8 ,1 ,( 1993) B. Lewis 190 .« (1) (2)
  • 187. : , , .1« . . , (1966 1906) . » . » , , .2 , , ;« . , . 1931) , Shepad ,(1985) Sivan ,(1980 . 3 , ; ( ) .90 (1970/1948) Qutb (1) ,(1985/1984) Kepel .(1989) .3 2 .(1994) Akhvi (2) .1 ,1 ,(1984 1982/1961) Al-Sadr (3) 191
  • 188. .1 , , . , 2 ,3« » (1979 1978) . . . .4 , . , , ; . . , Mallat ,(1983) Katouzian .1 . , ; (1) .4 3 ,(1993) , (84 1982/1961) Al-Sadr (2) .108 ,(1992/1989) Shayegan (3) .43 329 : ,(1985) Khomeini (4) 192
  • 189. : . 1993 1 . «. , . ... » , . « . . , ,‘ ’ , , ? » ? . . , . « . , » . .(1993) Howeidi 193 (1)
  • 190. .1 ! , .2 ; . , , . . ; , , , . , , «Westoxification .3 .1990 1950 % 2.5 .3 1 %2.6 ,(1996) Easterlin » . , (1) : . .(1993) Tibi .(1982/1946) Al-e Ahmed 194 . (2) (3)
  • 191. : . . .1 , . . . .2« » . . . , . , , , , .(1990) Ozdenoren . , , , ,(1985) Ozel , .(1990) Cakir .71 68 ,(1974) Lisakurek .(1993) Mardin 195 . (1) (2)
  • 192. , , , , , . . . . . . , ,1975 . , . . , , , . 196 .
  • 193. : , . . . * * 197 *
  • 194. 198
  • 195. » , 1 . 2 , . , . . Pryor ; . . « , ,(1983) Kuran ,(1981/1966) Al-Qardawi ; ,( 1984) Mannan ; . ,(1977) Ajijola , (1) .(1981) Siddiqi .(1986) Kuran ,(1985) , (2) ,(1970) Mannan ; ,( 9181) Naqvi
  • 196. . . ‘ . . , , , , , , . , , , .1 , . . . . . , . Qutb , (1975/1947) Mawdudi , 200 .(1970/1948) (1)
  • 197. . ,( ,( , .1( .1987 1970 ) ) .( , ,( ) .( ) ) . , ) , . , . . ;7 ( , ) , . : , , , Taleghani .(1982) Society and Economics in Islam ,(1984) Bakhash , (1983) Katouzian 201 : (1)
  • 198. . , , « , « » » , « » . »: » . . A. » , «. 149) « .1 . 2 : , . 3 «. . ,(1977) Ajijola , (1) ;66 62 , ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman ;(98 . ;211 ,(1971) A. Hasan . ;16 14 ,(1970) Chapra .16 15 ,(1987) M. S. Khan . . ;1 . ,(1984) Ahmed .11 ,(1970) Chapra (2) , .1 ,(1984) A. Ahmed (3) .38 ,(1972) Siddiqi 202
  • 199. . , .1 , ,20% 2.5% , . , , . , , . , , , , , , .2 .1 , ,3 , (1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman ;302 284 ,(1970) Mannan ,16 14 . ,(1986) Choudhury ;(1982) Khaf .144 138 ,(1982) Khaf , , , . ,(1986) Kuran , .(1980) Faridi .149 143 203 (1) (2)
  • 200. , . , . , ( ) »: ... .1« . . . , »: .2« , , , »: . « 3 . , . . , .182 .303 300 ,(1970) Mannan .186 176 .61 ,(1971) Yusuf .16 ,(1972) Siddiqi ,( 1984) Mannan 204 (1) (2) (3)
  • 201. , , ,1 , . , , .2 . , , , .3 . 4 , « » , .5 « » , ,(1980) Choudhury ;10 9 ,(1970) Chapra , .73 61 ,(1972) Siddiqi ;64 ,( 1981) Naqvi ;514 Siddiqi . . ;(1979) Abdul-Raquf , , . ,(1972) .(1983) Kuran .9 ,(1970) Chapra , Yusuf ; ,(1970) Mannan , .80 77 (1971) ,( 1984) Mannan ,54 52 ,(1972) Siddiqi . . .58 256 205 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
  • 202. , . . , , , , .( ? , , . , ). , , . , 30% . , : . . , . 1 5% .(1982) Siddiqi . . , ;8 5 ,( 1983) Ahmed, Iqbal and Khan .(1987) ( ) Khan and Mirakhor ,(1986) Kuran ,(1982) Karsten 206 , , , ,(1985) Chapra .158 149 (1)
  • 203. , , . . » , .1« .2 , , , . . . , , . 3 , , . . . M. A. Khan . . ; .41 40 ,(1970) Mannan , .. , , ,(1985) Siddiqi .90 ,(1971) Yusuf (1) (1985) Siddiqi . . (2) , ,(1971) Yusuf .(1982) Samiullah .28 26 ,(1981) Siddiqi .(1985) ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman (3) . . ;57 54 ,(1972) Siddiqi 207
  • 204. . .1 , . . .2 . . . , 3 »: , ,( , . . ;45 44 .40 237 .4 ... , ) . ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman ,(1977) Ajijola ;60 57 ,(1972) Siddiqi .149 ,(1970) Chapra .16 15 ,(1981) Siddiqi . . .27 23 ,(1971) Yusuf 208 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 205. ... . 1 «... .2 , , , . , , : , .3 . . . « 4 »: , . .173 ,2 .177 175 . . ;11 ,(1971) Yusuf ,( 1984) Mannan ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman , , .207 193 , .181 ,(1977) Ajijola ;135 115 ,(1972) Siddiqi . 209 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 206. , . .1 , , , , . , , .2« , .3 . : , . , . ,(1971) Yusuf (1) .43 242 , ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman .16 ,(1970) Chapra (2) , (3) . ,(1984) Khadduri ,(1965) Barry ;90 83 ,(1971) Rawls . (1985) Brennan and Buchanan .38 34 ; »: 210
  • 207. : . . , . , . , , , .1 .2 ? . . . , , , . , . , . ,(1980) World Development Report .(1980) Salleh and Ngah . 211 (1) (2)
  • 208. , , « , , , . . .1 , . » , . . , , . « » « , , , , ) . . , «.( ,73 169 » . » :64 . , ,( 1981) Naqvi , ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman . 212 (1)
  • 209. . . , 1 , , . .3 , 2 . , ? , , , , . . . , .(1980) ( . 213 (1) ) Buchanan, Tollison and Tullock (1974) Hodgson (2) , (3) , 661 .
  • 210. , .1 , . , « . » , 99% « » . , ? . 99% ? 2 .3 ( ) .4 ;(1985) Zaman Ahmed, Iqbal , , .42 39 . ,« .(1985) Hasan ; . (1) ,(1985) Chapra ( 1984) Mannan » .1981 .( 1983) and Khan .(1984) Chapra (2) ,(1986) Choudhury (3) .20 19 ,(1987) M. Khan . (4) , 214
  • 211. , . . , . . .1 .2 , . , »: , ,(1977) Ajijola .50 147 .(1978) Kahf ;(1971) Hasan . ,( 1981) Naqvi »: . .3« ;24 208 (1) (2) ,(1971) Yusuf ,(1970) Chapra .245 ,(1970) Chapra (3) 215
  • 212. ( ) . « »: ... . « 2 « . 1 » ... . ,3 .4 : . ,5 .6 . . «? .6 3 , »: .67 ,(1971) Yusuf .135 ,(1980) Husaini ,(1984) A. Ahmed . .5 ,(1984)A. Ahmed .65 ,(1978) Kahf , .84 ,( 1984) Chapra 216 , (1) (2) (3) . (4) (5) (6)
  • 213. , . . .1 , , . . , , . , , . . , . . . , ,(1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman (1983) S. A. Ali . . 217 , , .152 145 (1)
  • 214. . ? , , , , . . , . , . , , , . , ,. : . , . . , 1 .(1982) Bazel 218 , , . (1)
  • 215. . , . , . , , . , .1 , . . » . , , , 4 , . 2 . « , , ... 3 . . .(1985) Udovitch .(1986) Saleh .59 , .60 , 219 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 216. , .1 , . . . . 2 , , , , , . . , . , , .57 56 . . ,(1972) Siddiqi 220 . . ; .7 1 . . , , (1) (2)
  • 217. , , , . , . . , , . ... .1« , , , , , . . , 3 . . ... , ,(1970) Chapra .11 10 » , : 94 ,8 . . : 2 , .( 1984) Mannan 221 .23 .30 ,( 1981) Naqvi ,( 1981) Naqvi .(1982) Mannan (1) (2) (3)
  • 218. . , , , . ?« ? , , 1 » « . , . . . 2 ; , , » , ,« », . .45 34 222 .39 38 ,(1985) Chapra ,(1971) Rawles .11 ,( 1984) Mannan » . .3« (1) (2) (3)
  • 219. » . « 1 , . . , . .2 , , . . .3 . , , 4 . ,(xii) . 11 .(1983/1966) Polanyi .217 ,3 .( 1984) Mannan (1983) Simon .(1986) Dworkin ,(1980)Afzal-ur-Rahman 223 , ,1 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 220. , ,1 , ? . ) ( . .3 .2 , , . ,4 , , . , . . , , ,(1970) Mannan , . . , .17 ;81 79 .79 71 ,(1985) Wilson ,(1980) Husaini .26 23 ,(1979) Afzal-ur-Rahman , ,(1986) Holland, Holyoak, Nisbett, and Thagard 224 (1) (2) (3) (4)
  • 221. . . , , . . ; : . . , , . , » ; 81 . 225 , , , (1970) Mannan , , . . ,(1980) Husaini .1 .23 21 (1)
  • 222. .1« .« , . » »: , . . « . , .2 , . , , , , . , . : . , .3 .22 .275 Afzal-ur- . , ,(1975/1882) Hurgronje ;45 143 (1980) Choudhury ;3 2 226 . , ,(1970) Mannan , (1) (2) ,(1970) Chapra (3) , (1980) Rahman
  • 223. . . , . . , , . , 1 . . . ; , , .2 . , ,(1985) Brennan and Buchanan Ullmann- ,( ?. . ) , .(1977) Margalit .(1986) Douglas (1975) White .(1987) Kuran 227 , (1) (2)
  • 224. . .1 , . . , 2 , . , . , , . , . , , . . , . , , , . .3 .(1986) Hallaq (1964) Hourani .75 71 ,(1984) Esposito .(1971) B. Lewis 228 (1) (2) (3)
  • 225. .1 , , , . , . .«! , , , , »: . , . . . . . ;38 237 , . , (1980) Afzal-ur-Rahman .56 . (1986) Choudhury 229 . . (1)
  • 226. , , , . , . , . , . . . . . , . . * , * 230 *
  • 227. : ,1923 , , . , , , » . . . 29 , . .1« / . , , , .68 . (1990/1923) Ataturk (1)
  • 228. . . . , , . . . , , . , , . . , .1 . ; . » .(1992) Gillis et al. , « (1985) Todaro » 232 , .87 , ,« (1)
  • 229. : , . .« , » . . . , , .1 , , . . . , .1995 , . , 132 (1978) Said, Orientalism . . 233 (1 6) (1) ,( 1993) B. Lewis
  • 230. .1 ,2 . 3 1995 Britannica Book of the Year , . ( ) . , . . . , 4 , , , , . . (1) . , .« , . , , . (2) . « » . » . 234 (3) (4)
  • 231. : (1 6 ) (2) (1) 3.55 3.33 2.07 0.41 (2.87 ) (2.57 ) 1.76 (2.29) 0.42 (2.20) 0.67 (5.77 ) 0.34 ,0.02 ,0.03 2 R , . , R2 0.04 . (***** ,**** ,*** ,** ,*) . . (t) , 132 . 0.0000 . . ,1 6 .19.22% 235 ,5.98% : ,0.005 ,0.01
  • 232. . , . , , , : . . . %5.98 %19.22 :6 1 , , , , .1 : . , 236 « » (1)
  • 233. : ; 1 , . , . . , .3 , , , , , , . 2 . , . . . .29 ,(1953) , Akyuz .(1974) Hodgson .(1980) Issawi , 237 (1) (2) (3)
  • 234. » ,1 36% ,1250 1250 ,« . 1750 . 20% . ;1750 , , 3 1% . , .5 . , ,70 69 . , . . .4 , 64% 2 ,(1991) Olcen 1400 ; (1) (2) .(1987) Dogen ,1250 . .34 ,(1991) Hoodbhoy .(1981) (1974) Cook .(1988) Johns , 238 (3) (4) (5)
  • 235. : , . . : « .1 » , . ; . , ; , . .1 , , , . (economic irrelevance thesis) . . .(1973/1966) Rodinson 239 (1)
  • 236. , , . . , 1 , . . , . , . « » . .3« 2 . , ; , , . . . . , , . » , .(1977) Jomo .(1988) Johnes .97 , 240 (1) (2) (3)
  • 237. : ; . . « » , : , . .(the economic advantage thesis) , . ,1 .2 , , ,2 , , . , . . .(1992) Chapra Á ;[10: ] , ( 1993) Kuran a`_^ ][ZYX : .[77 : 241 ] ÆÅ Ä Ã Â (1) (2)
  • 238. . , , . , ,1 .2 . , , ; , . , , . . , . , , . . .(1970) Udovitch .(1962) Udovitch 242 (1) (2)
  • 239. : , » , . , , , , . . ’ ‘ ’ , , ; .1« » : . « . . .‘ , » .3 , (the ecomonic disadvantage thesis) « , , ; .(1975) Haffar 243 . (1)
  • 240. . . ; ; , , . . , . ; »: , » . , .« , ,« . »: ,1907 1883 ; , .1« » , .« , .229 228 244 ,2 ,(1909) Cromer (1)
  • 241. : , . ; , , . , 1 .2 , , , . ; . ( , ) . . , . , . , , . 3 .2 .(1883) Renan ,(1978) Said QP O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A : 245 . .[36: (1) (2) ] (3)
  • 242. , , . , . . . ; , . . 1 . , The , »: « » ,(1975Stucliffe . .« « , . , ,Passing of a Traditional Society , ,( » ) ( .2 ) , . . .5 246 ) « » (1) , , ,(1958) Lerner (2)
  • 243. : , , , . , , . , , , . « . () , , . « » » , . . , . « 1 » , .2 ( ) + » .39 38 ( ) . .« , . .105 ,(1955) W.A. Lewis ,(1973) Adelman and Morris 247 . (1) (2)
  • 244. , .1 . .2 , , , , , . . . . 3 , . , . , , . , (1995) Stark, Iannaccone and Finke , . , , , , Adelman and Morris .( ) .(1964) Berkes 248 (1) (2) (3)
  • 245. : . . ,1 , . , . , . . 1727 , . , .2 .3 . , . .(1968) B. Lewis .41 36 .65 57 249 , ,(1964) Berkes ,(1978) Berkes , (1) (2) (3)
  • 246. , . . 1 . , ; . , . , , . . ? ; ?1493 . . , , , , , , . .117 115 250 ,(1964) Berkes (1)
  • 247. : . . ; . . . .1« » , . , , . , , , . . , . , , .54 44 , , , . ,(1994) Inalcik 251 ,(1970) Inalcik (1)
  • 248. . . . . , , . .1 , . , . , , . .319 311 , , 2 , . , , , , , .(1971) Cahen and Talbi ,(1958/1379) Ibn Khaldun 252 . ; (1) (2)
  • 249. : . , . . , . , » . , . .1« . . , . . ? , . , .1118 1117 253 , . , (1)
  • 250. .1 , . , . , .2 . , . ; ; , . , , , . , , . , . . (1981) Griswold 254 (1975) Akdag .(1984 ,1981) Ulgener (1) (2)
  • 251. : . . , , »: 1800 .1« , , ; . , . . .2 . . , , .123 . ,(1987) Goldstone .103 98 ,(1987) Jones 255 (1) (2)
  • 252. . . 1 , . , , , . . , . . 2 , – , . , . . , . , : , . , .( 1993) Kuran (1977) , ,(1987) Chapra ,(1986) Kuran (1986) . 256 (1) (2)
  • 253. : . , . , , . » .2« . , . , .1 . . .3 .27 ,16 ( 1993) B. Lewis (1982) B. Lewis »: , « ,(1987) Gladstone .196 , 257 , .(28 ,[1968] ,(1982) B. Lewis ,1625 ) .132 129 (1) (2) (3)
  • 254. , , , .1« : , , . , . , . , . , , . , ; »: . . , ? . ? » .347 258 ,( 1993) B. Lewis (1)
  • 255. : , . .1« , , . . , , » , . . 2 ? . , «. .3 , . .357 354 , .296 ,(1982) B. Lewis .230 229 , 259 (1) (2) (3)
  • 256. .« . » , , . , . 1 , , , , . . , , . .2 ? , , ; , , ? , .176 170 260 . , . ? ,(1988) Watt ,(1990) Mokyr (1) (2)
  • 257. : . . . . , . ) , » , . . . , « 1 « » , » . . (individualism .« ,« » , . .302 . 261 ,(1964) Berkes (1)
  • 258. . ; , . , , .1 : 62 . ,2 . (Gemeinschaft , «. , »; , , , ,21 18 . « . « . ; , » ,(1993/1958) Oakeshott » « » ) (1957/1887) .(Gesellschaft ) , , . .(1994) Greis 262 (1) (2)
  • 259. : .1 , , , ; , . . , . , , . . . , , , «collectivism , » ,28 24 . , : , , , . , , . , ,(1990) Triandis » .«communalism ,(1993/1958) Oakeshott . 263 (1)
  • 260. , , . : . . ; .1 . , ; . .2 : . . ,332 331 ,3 .(1997) Kaufmann ,(1981/1955) Issawi .54 48 (1986) Kafadar . 264 (1994) Ianlcik (1) (2) (3)
  • 261. : , , , . . . , Protestant , .2( ) « , 1 , . , , » , , . . Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism . .1179 . ,(1971) Ianlcik » « ;215 214 » , , ,(1970) Ianlcik .« .(1958/1905 1904) Weber 265 (1) (2)
  • 262. .1 , . . , . , . , . , .2 , . . , . . .(1962/1926) Tawney ,(1989) Abu-Lughod 10 5 , , . (1989) Risso (1997) Ensminger . 266 (1) (2)
  • 263. : , . , . . ? ? , . : .1 , . . . , , . , , . .(1993) Putnam 267 (1)
  • 264. . , , . , . , . , . , . , . . ? , , , , , ? : , 268 . ?
  • 265. : ; . . , , , , Private Truths, Public Lies) , .1 . ( . . , . , . , . . : , . .( 1995) Kuran 269 (1)
  • 266. , . . , , , , . , . , . , . . , , . , . . , 270 . . ;
  • 267. : . ; , . ,« , » , . , , , . . . , , .1 . . , , . .( 1989) Kuran 271 (1)
  • 268. . . , . . . . ; , . . , . ? , . . . . . . , . , , 272 ,
  • 269. : . . . , . , . , . , . . , . , , . . « » . , 273 . . .
  • 270. . , . .1 . . ,« » , . , , . , . ; , , . . , , . . , , . , . , . . 274 , (1997) Kaufmann (1)
  • 271. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Abdul-Rauf, Muhammad (1979). "The Islamic Doctrine of Economics and Contemporary Economic Thought." Pp. 4-12 in Capitalism and Socialism: A Theological Inquiry, edited by Michael Novak. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute. Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (1989). Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. New York: Oxford University Press. Adelman, Irma, and Cynthia Taft Morris (1973). Economic Growth and Social Equity in Developing Countries. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Afzal-ur-Rahman (1980). Economic Doctrines of Islam. 2ed ed. 3 vols. Lahore:Islamic Publications. Agwani, M. S. (1986). Islamic Fundamentalism in India. Chandigarh: Twenty-First Century India Society. Agaoglu, E. Abdulgaffar (1994). "A Camel-Wise Comparative Financial and Market Share Analysis of the Islamic Banks Currently Operating in Turkey." METU Studies in Development 21:475-500. Ahmad, Ausaf (1984). " A Macro Model of Distribution in an Islamic Economy." Journal of Research in Islamic Economics 2(1): 1-20. Ahmad, Aziz (1967). "Mawdudi and Orthodox Fundamentalism in Pakistan." Middle East Journal 21: 369-80. Ahamed, Imtiaz, ed.(1978). Caste and Stratification Among Muslims in India. New Delhi: Manohar. Ahmad, Jamil-ud-din, ed.(1952). Speeches and Writings of Mr. Jinnah. Vol. 2. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf.
  • 272. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Ahmad, Khurshid (1957). Islam and the West. Lahore: Jamaat-I Islami Pakistan. ____ (1980a). "Economic Development in an Islamic Framework." Pp. 171-88 in Studies in Islamic Economics, edited by K. Ahmad. Jeddah: International Center for Research in Islamics. _____ ed. (1980b). Studies in Islamic Economics. Jeddah: International Center for Research in Islamics. Ahmad, Khurshid, and Zafar Ishaq Ansari ( 1979). "Mawlana Sayyid Abul A'la awdudi: An Introduction to His Vision of Islam and Islamic Revival.” Pp. 359-84 in Islamic Perspectves: Studies in Honour of Mawlana Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi, edited by Khurshid Ahmad, and Zafar Ishaq Ansari. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. Ahmad, Mumtaz (1991). "Islamic Fundamentalism in South Asia: The Jama'ati-Islami and the Tablighi Jamaat of south Asia. " Pp. 457-530 in Fundamentalisms Observed, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ahmad, Rafiuddin (1994). "Redefining Muslim Identity in South Asia: The Transformation of the Jama'at-i-Islami." Pp. 669-705 in Accounting for Fundamentalisms: The Dynamic Character of Movements, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ahmad, Ziauddin (1989)."Currency Notes and Loan Indexation." Islamic Studies 28: 39-53. Ahmad, Ziauddin, Munawar Iqbal, and M. Fahim Khan, eds. (1983a). Money and Banking in Islam. Jeddah: International Center for Research in Islamic Economics. _____ (1983b). Fiscal policy and Resource Allocation in Islam. Islamabad: Institute of policy Studies. Ajijola, Alhaji Adeleke Dirisu (1977). The Islamic Concept of Social Justice. Lahore: Islamic Publications. Akdag, Mustafa (1975). Turk Halkinin Dirlik ve Duzenlik Kavgast. Ankara: Bilgi Yayinevi. Akhavi, Shahrough (1994). "Sayyid Qutb: The Poverty of Philosophy and the Vindication if Islamic Tradition." Pp. 130-52 in Cultural Transitions in the Middle East, edited by Serif Mardin. Leiden:E.J.Brill. 276
  • 273. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Akyuz, Kenan, ed. ( 1953). Bati Tesirinde Turk Suri Antolojisi. Ankara: Dil ve Tarih-Cografya Fakultesi. Al-Ahram Weekly (Cairo), July 1-7, 1993. Al-Ahsan, Abdullah ( 1992). Ummah or Nation? Identity Crisis in Contemporary Muslim Society. Leicester: Islamic foundation. Al-Azm, Sadik J. (1993). "Islamic Fundamentalism Reconsidered: A Critical Outline of Problems, Ideas, and Approaches." South Asia Bulletin 13:93-121. Al-Buraey, Muhammad A. (1985). Administrative Development: An Islamic Perspective. London: Kegan Paul International. Al-e Ahmad, Jalal (1964/1982). Plagued by the West (Gharbzadegi), translated by Paul Sprachman. Delmar, N.Y.: Caravan Books. Ali, Shaukat (2000). "Islamic Law and Modernity: Pakistan on Legal Crossroads." Pakistan, Journal of History and Culture 21: 1-32. Ali, Syed Aftab (1983)."Risk-Bearing and Profit-Sharing in an Islamic Framework: Some Allocational Considerations." Pp. 253-70 in Fiscal Policy and Resource Allocation in Islam, edited by Ziauddin Ahmed, Munawar Iqbal, and M. Fahim Khan. Jeddah: International Center for Research in Islamic Economics. Allawi, Luay (1986). " Leasing An Islamic Financial Instrument." Pp. 120-27 in Islamic Banking and Finance, edited by Butterworths Editorial Board. London: Butterworths. Al-Omar, Fouad Abdullah (1995). "A Comparative Study of Zakah Administration System in Muslim Countries: General, Administrative, and Organizational Aspects." Pp. 21-64 in Institutional Framework of Zakah: Dimensions and Implications, edited by Ahmad Abdel-Fattah ElAshker and Muhammad Sirajul Haq. Jeddah: Islamic Development Bank. Al-Qardawi, Yusaf (1966/1981). Economic Security in Islam, translated by Muhammad Iqbal Siddiqi. Lahore: Kazi. Publications. Al-Sader, Muhammad Baqir (1961/1982-84). Iqtisaduna: Our Economics. 4 Vols. Tehran: World Oraganization for Islamic Services. Al-Yassini, Ayman (1985). Religion and State in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Boulder: Westview. Amuzegar, Jahangir (1992). "The Iranian Economy before and after Revolution." Middle East Journal 46:413-25. 277
  • 274. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. Anderson, Benedict (1991). Imagined Communities. Rev. ed. London: verso. "Announcement on Research Proposals" (1983). 4th. Ed. Jedah: International Center for Research in Islamic Economics. Ansari, Sarah (1991). "Political Legacies of Pre- 1974 Sind." Pp. 173-93 in The Political Inheritance of Pakistan, edited by D. A. Low. New York: St. Martin's. Ariff, Muhammad (1988a). "Islamic Economics: Challenges and Potential." Pp. 73-93 in Today's Problems, Tomorrow's Solutions: The Future Structure of Muslim Societies, edited by Abdullah Omar Naseef. London: Mansell Publishing. ___ (1988b) " Islamic Banking" Asian-Pacific Economic Literature 2: 48-64. Atalay,Besir (1987). "Iktisadi Kalkinmada Geleneksel Degerlerin Yeri (Japon Ornegi). "Pp. 65-111 in Iktisadi Kalkinma ve Islam, edited by Ahmet Tabakoglu and Ismail Kurt. Istanbul: Islam Ilimler Arstirma Vakfi. Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal (1923/1990). "Maurice Pernot ile mulakat." Pp. 65-68 in Ataturk un Kultur ve Medeniyet Konusundaki Sozlire, edited by Ataturk Kultur, Dil ve Tarih Yukesk Kurumu. Ankara: Ataturk Kultur Merkezi. Ayubi, Nazih (1991). Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World. London: Routledge. Aziz, K. K. (1967). The Making of Pakistan: A Study in Nationalism. London: Chatto and Windus. Baker, Raymond William (1990). Sadat and After: Struggles for Egypt's Political Soul. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Bakhash, Shaul (1984). Reign of the Ayatollabs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution. New York: Basic Books. ___ (1987). "Islam and Social Justice in Iran." Pp. 95-115 in Shi'ism, Resistance, and Revolution, edited by Martin Kramer. Boulder: Westview. ___ (1989). " What Khomenin Did." New York Review of Books, July 20,Pp. 16-19. Balci, Ibrahim, and M. Balci (1986-90). Ertelenen Islam Hayat. 4 vols. Istanbul: Iklim Yayinlari. 278
  • 275. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. Banani, Amin (1961). The Modernization of Iran, 1921-1941. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Barry, Brian (1965). Political Argument. London: Routledge and Keagan Paul. Barzel, Yoram (1982). "Measurement Costs and the Organization of Markets." Journal of Law and Economics 25: 27-48. Behdad, Sohrab (1989). "Property Rights in Contemporary Islamic Economic Thought: a Critical Perspective. " Review of Social Economy 47: 185-211. ___ (1994a). "A Disputed Utopia: Islamic Economics in Revolutionary Iran." Comparative Studies in Society and History 36: 775-813. ___ (1994 b)." Production and Employment in Iran: Involution and DeIndustrialization Thesis." Pp. 85-111 in The Economy of Islamic Iran: Between State and Market, edited by Thierry coville. Tehran: Institut de Francais de Recherche en Iran. Berkes, Niyazi (1964). The Development of Secularism in Turkey. Montreal: McGill University Press. ___ (1978). Turkiye'de Cagdaslasma. Istanbul: Dogu-Bati Yayinlari. Bhagwait, Jagdish (1988). Protectionism. Cambridge: MIT Press. Binder, Leonard (1961). Religion and Politcs in Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press. Brennan, Geoffrey, and James M. Buchanan (1985). The Reason of Rules. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brohi, Allahbukhsh K. (1979). "Mawlana Abul a'la Mawdudi: The Man, the Scholar, the Reformer." Pp. 289-312 in Studies in Honour of Mawlana Sayyid Abul a'la Mawdudi, edited by Khurshid Ahmad and Zafar Ishaq Ansari. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. Brown, Ken(1994). "Islamic Banking: Faith and Creativity." Los Angeles Times, April 8, Pp. C1, C6. Buchanan, James M., Robert D. Tollison, and Gordon Tullock, eds. (1980). Toward A Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. Colege Station: Texas A&M University Press. Bulac, Ali (1988/1990). Insanin Ozgurluk Arayisi. Istanbul: Endulus Yayinlari. 279
  • 276. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. Cahen, Claude, and Mohamed Talbi (1971). "Hisba." Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2nd ed. 3: 485-89. Carlson, Terrence L. (1986). "Trade Finance Under Islamic Principles: A Case Study." Middle East Executive Reports 9 (December): 9, 15-16. Casanova, Jose (1992). "Private and Public Religions." Social Research 59: 17-57. _____ (1994). Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Census of India, 1911 (1913). Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing. Census of India, 1931 (1933). Delhi: Manager of Publications. Ceylan, Barbaros (1988). " Finansal Kirlama ve Uygulamaya Iliskin Sorunlar." Pp. 212-28 in Ozel Finans Kurumlari ve Turkiye Uygulamast Sempozyumu. Istanbul: Marmara Universitesi Ortadogu ve Islam Ulkeleri Ekonomik Arastirma Merkezi. Chapra, umar (1970). "The Economic System of Islam: a discussion of Its Goals and Nature." 3 parts. Islamic Quarterly 14: 3-18, 91-96, 143-56. _____ (1994a). "The Prohipition of Riba in Islam: An Evaluation of Some Objections." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 1 (2): 23-42. _____ (1194b). "Review of Kahf's The Islamic Economy." Journal of Research in Islamic Economics 1 (winter): 83-86. _____ (1985). Towards a Just Monetary System: A Discussion of Money, Banking and Monetary Policy in the Light of Islamic Teachings. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. _____ (1992). Islam and the Economic Challenge. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. Chaves, Mark, and David E. Cann (1992). "Regulation, Pluralism, and Religious Market Structure: Explaining Religion's Vitality." Rationality and Society 4: 272-90. Chehabi, Houchang E. (1993). "Staging the Emperor's New Clothes: Dress Codes and Nation-Bulding under Reza Shah." Iranian Studies 26: 209-23. Chenery, Hollis B. (1979). Structural Change and Development Policy. New York: Oxford University Press. 280
  • 277. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. Choudhury, Masudul Alam (1980). An Islamic Social Welfare Function. Indianapolis: American trust Publications. _____ (1986). Contributions to Islamic Theory: A Study in Social Economics. New York: Macmillan. _____ (1989) Islamic Economic Co-operation. New York: St. Martin's. Clark, Grace (1986). "Pakistan's Zakat and Ushr as a Welfare System." Pp. 79-95 in Islamic Reassertion in Pakistan: The Application of Islamic Laws in a Modern State, edited by Anita M. Weiss. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. Cook, Michael A. (1974). "Economic Developments." Pp. 210-43 in The Legacy of Islam. 2nd ed., edited by Joseph Schacht and C. E. Bosworth. Oxford: Clarendon press. Coulson, Noel J. (1969). Conflict and Tensions in Islamic Jurisprudence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cowen, Tyler, and Randall Kroszner (1990). "Mutual Fund Banking: A Market Approach." Cato Journal 10: 223-37. Cromer, Evelyn Baring (1909). Modern Egypt. 2vols. New York: Macmillan. Crone, Patricia (1987). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cumhuriyet, July 1, 1993. Cumhuriyet, July 10, 1993. Cumhuriyet, July 19, 1993. Cumhuriyet, August 7, 1993. Cakir, Rusen (1990). Ayet ve Slogan. Istanbul: Metis Yayinlari. Ciller, Tansu, and Cizakca, Murat (1989). Turk Finans Kesiminde Sorunlar ve Reform Onerileri. Istanbul: Istanbul Sanayi Odasi. Cizakca, Murat (1986). "Origins and Evolution of Islamic Banks." Bogazici University Research paper ISS/E-86-11. _____ (1987). "Rise of Islamic Banks and the Potential for Venture Capital in the Middle East." Pp. 74-90 in The Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean: Recent Economic and Political Developments, edited by Erol Manisali. Istanbul: Middle East Business and Banking. 281
  • 278. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. _____ (1993). Risk Sermayesi, Ozel Finans Kurumlari, ve para Vakiflari. Istanbul: Ilmi Nesriyat. Dahl, Robert A. (1956). A Preface to Democratice Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Darling, Malcolm (1947). The Punjab Peasant in Prosperity and Debt. 4th ed. New Delhi: Manohar. Dawn (Karachi), November 11, 1989. Denny, Frederick M. (1989). "Orthopraxy in Islam and Judaism: Convictions and Categories." Pp. 83-95 in Studies in Islamic and Judaic Traditions II, edited by William M. Brinner and Stephen D. Ricks. Atlanta: Scholars Press. Douglas, Mary (1986). How Institutions Think. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. Dogen, saban (1987). Musluman Ilim Onculeri Ansiklopedisi. Istanbul: Yeni Asya Yayinevi. D'Souza, Dinesh (1991). Illiberal Education: Politics of Race and Sex on Campus. New York: Free Press. Dworkin, Ronald (1986). Law's Empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Easterlin, Richard A. (1996). Growth Triumphant: The Twenty- First Century in Historical Perspective. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Economist (London), September 16, 1989. Economist (London), January 18, 1992. Economist (London), August 7, 1993. El-Ashker, Ahmed Abdel-Fattah (1987). The Islamic Business Enterprise. London: Croom Helm. Elster, Jon (1983). Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ensminger, Jean (1997). "Transaction Costs and Islam: Explaining Conversion in Africa." Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 153: 4-29. Erbakan, Necmettin (1991). Adil Ekonomik Duzen. Ankara: Refah Partisi. Ergin, Osman (1939-43). Turkiye Maarif Tarihi. 5vols. Istanbul: Osmanbey Matbaasi. 282
  • 279. 115. Esposito, John L. (1984). "Law in Islam." Pp. 69-88 in The Islamic Impact, edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Byron Haines, and Ellison Findly Haines. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. 116. Etzioni, Amitai (1988). The Moral Dimension: Toward a New Economics. New York: Free Press. 117. Faridi, F. R. (1980). "Zakat and Fiscal policy." Pp. 119-30 in Studies in Islamic Economics, edited by Kkurshid Ahmad. Jeddah: International Center for Resaerch in Islamic Economics. 118. Gambetta, Diego (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Protection. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 119. Ghazali, Aidit (1990). Development: An Islamic Perspective. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications. 120. Ghazali, Aidit Bin, et al. (1995). "Zakat: A Case Study of Malaysia." Pp. 297-378 in Institutional Framwork of Zakah: Dimensions and Implications, edited by Ahmad Abdel-Fattah El-Ashker and Muhammad Sirajul Haq. Jeddah: Islamic Development Bank. 121. Gibb, H.A.R. (1947). Modern Trends in Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago press. 122. Gillis, Malcolm, Dwight H. Perkins, Michal Roemer, and Donald Snodgrass (1992). Economics of Development. 3rd ed. New York: W.W Norton. 123. Goldstone, Jack A. (1987). "Cultural Orthodoxy, Risk, and Innovation: The Divergence of East and West in the Early Modern World." Sociological Theory 5: 119-35. 124. Greif, Avner (1994). "Cultural Beliefs and the Organization of Society: a Historical and Theoretical Reflection on Collectivist and Individualist Societies." Journal of Political Economy 102: 912-50. 125. Griswold, W. J. (1981)."Djalali." Encyclopedia of Islam. 2nd ed. 5: 238-39. 126. Gungor,Erol (1981). Islamm Bugunku Meseleleri. Istanbul: Otuken Nesriyat. 127. Gursoy-Tezcan, Akile (1991). "Mosque or Health Centre? A Dispute in a Gecekondu." Pp. 84- 101 in Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richared Tapper. London: I. B.Tauris. 283
  • 280. 128. Haffar, Ahmad R. (1975). "Economic Development in Islam in Western Scholarship." 2 parts. Islam and the Modern Age 6(2): 5-22 and (3): 5-29. 129. Hallaq, Wael B. (1986). "On the Authoritativeness of Sunni Consensus." International Journal of Middle East Studies 18: 427-54. 130. Hamitogullari, Besir (1988). "Turkiye'de Altin-Gumus Gibi Varliklarde Zekat Potansiyeli. " Pp. 27-51 in Turkiye'de Zekat Potansiyeli. Istanbul: Islam Ilimler Arastirma Vakfi. 131. Haneef, Mohamed Aslam (1995). Contemporary Islamic EconomicThougt: A Selected Comparative Analysis. Kuala Lumpur: Ikraq. 132. Hardin, Russell (1995). One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 133. Hassan, Ahmad (1971). "Social Justice in Islam." Islamic Studies 10: 209-19. 134. Hasan, Zubair (1985). "Determination of Profit and Loss Sharing Ratios in Interest-Free Business Finance." Journal of Research in Islamic Economics 3 (Summer): 13-29. 135. Hayek, Friedrich A. (1973-79). Law, Legislation, and Liberty. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 136. ___ (1988). The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 137. Hechter, Micheal (1987). Principles of Group Solidarity. Berkeley: Nuiversity of California Press. 138. Heyworth-Dunne, J. (1939). An Introduction to the History of Education in Modern Egypt. London: Luzac. 139. Hirschman, Albert O. (1968). "Underdevelopment, Obstacles to the Perception of Change, and Leadership." Daedalus 97: 925-37. 140. ___ (1977). The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism before Its Triumph. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 141. Hobsbawin, Eric, and Terence Ranger, eds. (1992). The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 142. Hodgson, Marshall G. S. (1974). The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization. Vol.1 Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 284
  • 281. 143. Holden, David, and Richard Johns (1981). The House of Saud: The Rise and Rule of the Most Powerful Dynasiy in the Arab World. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 144. Holland, John H., Keith J. Holyoak, Richard E. Nisbett, and Paul Thagard (1986). Inducation: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. Cambridge: MIT Press. 145. Hoodbhoy, Pervez (1991). Islam and Science: Religious Orthodoxy and the Battle for Rationality. London: Zed Books. 146. Hourani, Albert (1983). Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1989-1939. Rev. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 147. Hourani, George F. (1964). "The Basis of Authority of Consensus in Sunnite Islam." Studia Islamica 21;13-60. 148. Howeidi, Fahmi (1993). "Intellectual's Civil War." Al-Ahram Weekly no. 123, July 1-7, 1993, p. 7. 149. Huntington, Samuel P. (1993). " The Clash of Civilization?" Foreign Affairs 72: 22-49. 150. ___ (1996). The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster. 151. Hurgronge, C. Snouck (1882/1975). "The 'Foundations' of Islamic Law." Pp. 286-89 in Euvres Choisies- Selected Works, edited by G. H. Bousquet and J. Schacht. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 152. Husaini, S. Waqar Ahmad (1980). Islamic Environmental Systems Engineering. London: Macmillan. 153. Husaini, Muhammad (1987). Development Planning in an Islamic State. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 154. Hurriyet, March 12, 1996. 155. Hyman, Anthony (1987). Muslim Fundamentalism. London: Institute for the Study of Conflict. 156. Iannaccone, Laurence R. (1992). "Sacrifice and Stigma: Reducing FreeRiding in Cults, Communes, and Other Collectives. " Journal of Political Economy 100: 271-91. 157. ___ (1993). "Heirs to the Protestant Ethic? The Economics of American Fundamentalists." Pp. 342-66 in Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economics, and Militance, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 285
  • 282. 158. Ibn Khaldun (1379/1958). The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, Translated by Franz Rosenthal. 3 vols. New York: Pantheon Books. 159. ___ (1950/1987). An Arab Philosophy of History: Selections from the "Prolegomena" of Ibn Khaldun of Tunis (1332-1406), translated and edited by Charles Issawi. Princeton: Darwin Press. 160. Ingram, Tim (1986). "Islamic Banking: A Foreign Bank's View." Pp. 5368 in Islamic Banking and Finance, edited by Butterworths Publication Staff. London: Butterworths. 161. Iqbal, Afzal (1984). Islamisation of Pakistan. Delhi: Idarah- I Adabiyat-I Delli. 162. Iqbal, Mohammad (1909/1964). "Islam as a Moral and political Ideal." Pp. 29-55 in Thoughts and Reflections of Iqbal, edited by Syed Abdul Vahid. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf. 163. Iqbal, Zubair, and Abbas Mirakhor (1987). "Islamic Banking." International Monetary Fund Occasional Paper no. 49. 164. Islamic Development Bank (1987). Eleventh Annual Report (1985-1986). Jeddah: Islamic Development Bank. 165. Islamic Economics Bulletin 12 (5) ( September-October, 2002). 166. Islamic Research and Training Institute (1993). A Bibliography of Islamic Economics. Jeddah: Islamic Development Bank. 167. Ismail, Abdul Halim (1990). "The Teaching of Islamic Economics: The practitioner's Point of View." Paper presented to the seminar on the Teaching of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University Malaysia, July. 168. Issawi, Charles (1955/1981). "The Entrepreneurial Class." Pp. 331- 47 in the author's The Arab World's Legacy. Princeton: Darwin Press. 169. ___ (1970). "The Decline of Middle Eastern Trade, 1100-1850." Pp. 24566 in Islam and the Trade of Asia. Edited by D. S. Richards. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer. 170. ___ (1980). "Europe, the Middle East, and the Shift in Power: Reflections on a Theme by Mashall Hodgson." Comparative Studies in Society and History 22: 487-504. 171. Inalcik, Halil (1970). "The Ottoman Economic Mind and aspects of the Ottoman Economy." Pp. 207-18 in Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by M. A. Cook. London: Oxford University Press. 286
  • 283. 172. _____ (1971). " Imtiyazat, Ottoman Empire." Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2nd ed. 3: 1179-89. 173. _____ (1994). "The Ottoman State: Economy and Society, 1300-1600." Pp. 9-409 in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914, edited by Halil Inalcik with Donald Quataert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 174. Jalal, Ayesha (1995). "Conjuring Pakistan: History as Official Imagining." International Journal of Middle East Studies 27: 73-89. 175. Johnson, Robert Alan (1980). Religious Assortative Marriage in the United States. New York: Academic press. 176. Jomo, K. S. (1977). "Islam and Weber: Roninson on the Implications of Religion for Capitalist Development." Developing Economies 15: 240-50. 177. Jones, E. L. (1087). The European Miracle: Environments, Economies, and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 178. _____ (1988). Growth Recurring: Economic Change in World History. Oxford: Claredon Press. 179. Kafadar, Cemal (1986). "A Death in Venice (1575): Anatolian Muslim Merchants Trading in the Serenissima." Journal of Turkish Studies 10: 191-218. 180. Hakf, Monzer (1978). The Islamic Economy: Analytical Study of the Functioning of Islamic Economic System. Plainfield, Ind.: Muslim Students' Association of the United States and Canda. 181. _____ (1982). "Fical and Monetary policies in Islamic Economy." Pp. 125-44 Monetary and Fiscal Economics of Islam, edited by Mohammed Ariff. Jeddah: Intrnational Center for Research in Islamic Economics. 182. _____ (1995). "Applied Institutional Models for Zakah Collection and Distribution in Islamic Countries and Communities." Pp. 197-288 in Institutional Framework of Zakah: Dimensions and Implication, edited by Ahmad Abdel-Fattah El-Ashker and Muhammad Sirajul Haq. Jeddah: Islamic Development Bank. 183. Kahneman. Danial, and Amos Tversky (1979). "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk." Econometrica 47: 263- 91. 184. Karsten, Ingo (1982). "Islam and Financial Intermediation." International Montary Fund Staff Papers 29: 108-42. 287
  • 284. 185. Katouzian, Homa (1983). "Shi'ism and Islamic Economics: Sadr and Bani Sadr." Pp.45-65 in Religion and Politics in Iran: Shi'ism from Quietism to Revolution, edited by Nikki R. Keddie. New Haven: Yale University Press. 186. Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver (1997). "Religion and Modernization in Europe." Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 153: 80-96. 187. Kazarian, Elias (1991). Islamic Banking in Egypt. Lund, Sweden: Lund Economic Studies. 188. Kepel, Gilles (1984/1985). The Prophet and the Pharaoh: Muslim Exterism in Egypt, translated by Jon Rothschild. London: Al Saqi. 189. Khadduri, Majid (1984). The Islamic Conception of Justice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 190. Khan, Mir Siadat Ali (1929). "The Mohammadan Laws Against Usury and How They Are Evaded." Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law 11: 233-44. 191. Khan, Mohsin s. (1987). "Islamic interest-Free Banking: A Theoretical Analysis. " Pp. 15 -35 in Theoretical Studies in Islamic Banking and Finance, edited by M. S. Khan and Abbas Mirakhor. Houston: Institute for Research and Islamic Studies. 192. Khan, Mohsin S., and Abbas Mirakhor (1990). "Islamic Banking: Experiences in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan." Economic Development and Cultural Change 38: 353-76. 193. ___ eds. (1987). Theoretical Studies in Islamic Banking and Finance. Houston: Institute for Research and Islamic Studies. 194. Khan, Muhammad Akram (1985). "Role of the Auditor in an Islamic Economy." Journal of Research in Islamic Econmics 3(1): 31-42. 195. Khan, Waqar Masood (1989). "Towards an Intrest-Free Islamic Economic system." Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics 1: 3-37. 196. Khomeini, Imam Ruhollah (1985). Islam and Revolution: Writings and Declarations, Translated by Hamid Algar. London: KPI. 197. Khurshid, Ahmad, ed. (1985). Studies in Islamic Economics. Jeddah: International Center for Research in Islamic Economics. 198. Kisakurek, Necip Fazil (1974). O ve Ben. Istanbul: Buyuk Dogu. 288
  • 285. 199. Kofteoglu, Fehmi (1994). "Kapitalist Sisteme Ahlaki kilif: Islam Ekonomisi." Iktisat Dergisi 30 (July): 26-35. 200. Kuran, Timur (1983). "Behavioral Norms in the Islamic Doctrine of Economics: A Critique." Journal of Economic Behavior and Oraganization 4: 353-79. 201. _____ (1986). "The Economic System in Contemporary Islamic Thought: Interpretation and Assessment." International Journal of Middle East Studies 18: 135-64. 202. _____ (1987). " Preference Falsification, Policy Continuity, and Collective Conservatism." Economic Journal 97: 642-65. 203. _____ (1989a). "On the Notion of Economic Justice in Contemporary Islamic Thought." International Journal of Middle East Studies 21: 17191. chapter 5 of this volume. 204. ___ (1989b). " The Craft Guilds of Tunis and Their Amins: A Study in Institutional Atrophy." Pp. 236-64 in The New Institutional Economics and Development: Theory and Applications to Tunisia, edited by Mustapha K. Nabli and Jeffery B. Nugent. Amsterdam: North-Holland. 205. _____ (1990). " Private and Public Preferences." Economics and Philosophy 6: 1-26. 206. _____ (1993a). "Fundamentalism and Economy." Pp. 289-301 in Fundamentalisms and State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 207. ___ (1993b). "The Economic Impact of Islamic Fundamentalism." Pp. 302-41 in Fundamentalism and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chapter 1 of this volume. 208. _____ (1995a). Private Truths, Public Lies: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 209. _____ (1995b). " Islamic Economics and the Islamic Subeconomy. "Journal of Economic Perspectives 9: 155- 73. Chapter 2 of this volume. 210. _____ (1996). " The Discontents of Islamic Economic Morality." American Economic Review 86: 438-42. 289
  • 286. 211. _____ (1997). "Islamism and Economics: Policy Implications for Free Society." International Review for Comparative Public Policy 9: 71-102. Chapter 3 of this volume. 212. _____ (1998). "Moral Overload and Its Alleviation." Pp. 231-66 in Economics, Values, and Oraganization, edited by Avner Ben-Ner and Louis Putterman. New York: Cambridge University Press. 213. _____ (2001). "The Provision of Public Goods Under Islamic Law: Origins, Impact and Limitations of the Waqf System." Law and Society Review 35: 841-97. 214. _____ (2003a). "Islamic Redistribution Though Zakat: Historical Record and Modern Realities." Pp. 275-93 in Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, edited by Micheal Bonner, Mine Ener, and Amy Singer. Albany: State University of New York Press. 215. _____ (2003b). "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in Middle East." Journal of Economic History 63: 414-46. 216. Kurin, Richared (1986). "Islamization: A View from the Countryside." Pp. 115-28 in Islamic Reassertion in Pakistan: The Application of Islamic Laws in a Modern State, edited by Anita M. Weiss. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. 217. Landau, Jacob (1990). The Politics of Pan-Islam: Ideology and Organization. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 218. Lerman, Eran (1981). "Mawdudi's Concept of Islam." Middle Eastern Studies 17: 492-509. 219. Lerner, Daniel (1958). The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the middle East. Glencoe,III.: Free Press. 220. Lewis, Bernared (1968). The Emergence of Modern Turkey. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press. 221. _____ (1970). "Sources for the Economic History of the Middle East." Pp. 78-92 in Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East, edited by M. A. Cook. London: Oxford University Press. 222. _____ (1971). Race and Color in Islam. New York: Harper and Row. 223. _____ (1975). History Remembered, Recovered, Invented. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 290
  • 287. 224. _____ (1982). The Muslim Discovery of Europe. New York: W. W. Norton. 225. _____ (1993a). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East. 2nd ed. Chicago: Open Court. 226. _____ (1993b). Islam and the West. New York: Oxford University Press. 227. Lewis, W. Arthur (1955). The Theory of Economic Growth. London: George Allen and Unwin. 228. Lowenthal, david (1985). The Past Is a Foreign Country. New York: Cambridge University Press. 229. Luckmann, Thomas(1967). The Invisible Religion: The Problem of Religion in Modern Society. New York: Macmillan. 230. Macdonald, Duncan Black (1909/1965). The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam. Beirut; Khayats. 231. _____ (1911/1971). Aspects of Islam. New York: Books for Libraries Press. 232. Malik, Jamal (1996). Colonialization of Islam: Dissolution of Traditional Institutions in Pakistan. New Delhi: Manohar. 233. Mallat, Chilbi (1988). "The Debate on Riba and Interest in Twentieth Century Jurisprudence." Pp. 69-88 in Islamic Law and Finance, Edited by Mallat. London: Graham and Totman. 234. _____ (1993). The Renewal of Islamic Law: Muhammad Baqer as-Sadr, Najaf and the Shi'i International. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 235. Mandaville, Jon E. (1979). " Usurious Piety: The Cash waqf Controversy in the Ottoman Empire." International Journal of Middle East Studies 10: 289-308. 236. Mannan, Muhammad Abdul (1970). Islamic Economics: Theory and Practice. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf. 237. _____ (1982). " Allocative Efficiency, Decision and Welfare Criteria in an Interest-Free Islamic Economy: A Comparative Policy Approach." Pp. 43-62 in Monetary and Fiscal Economics of Islam, edited by Mohammad Ariff. Jeddah:International Center for Research in Islamic Economics. 238. _____ (1994a). The Making of an Islamic Economic Society: Islamic Dimensions in Economic Analysis. Cairo: International Association of Islamic Banks. 291
  • 288. 239. _____ (1984b). The Frontiers of Islamic Economics: Theory and Practice. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. 240. Mardin, Serif (1993). "The Nakshibendi Order in Modern Turkey." Pp. 204-32 in Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 241. Marty, Martin E., and R. Scott Appleby (1991). "Conclusion: An Interim Report on a Hypothetical Family." Pp. 814-42 in Fundamentalisms Observed., edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 242. _____ eds. (1993). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 243. Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul-Ala (1939/1976). Jihad in Islam, translated from Urdu. Lahore: Islamic Publications. 244. _____ (1939-60/1981). Selected Speeches and Writings of Mawlana Mawdudi. Vol. 1, translated by S. Zakir Aijaz. Karachi: International Islamic Publishers. 245. ___ (1940/1963). Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam, translated by Al-Ash'ari. Lahore: Islamic Publications. 246. _____ (1940/1990). Let Us Be Muslims, translated from Urdu. Kuala Lumpur: Noordeen. 247. _____ (1941/1976). Islam and Ignorance, translated from Urdu. Lahore: Islamic Publications. 248. _____ (1944/1981). "Pakistan versus Jewish State." Pp. 35-36 in Selected Speeches and Writings of Mawlana Mawdudi. Vol. 1, translated by S. Zakir Aijaz. Karachi: International Islamic Publishers. 249. _____ (1945/1981). "Formal and Real IslamDifferentiated." Pp. 37-42 in Selected Speeches and Writings of Mawlana Mawdudi. Vol. 1, translated by S. zakir Aijaz. Karachi: International Islamic Publishers. 250. _____ (1947/1975). The Economic Problem of Man and Its Islamic Solution, translated from Urdu. Lahore: Islamic Publications. 251. _____ (1947/1976). Nations Rise and Decline- Why?, translated from Urdu. Lahore: Islamic publications. 292
  • 289. 252. _____ (1948/1950). Islamic Way of Life, translated from Urdu. Lahore: Islamic Publications. 253. _____ (1948/1981). "Speech Delivered in a Gathering of Ladies at Lahore." Pp. 58-75 in Selected Speeches and Writings of Mawlana Mawdudi. Vol. 1, translated by S. Zakir Aijaz. Karachi: International Islamic Publishers. 254. _____( 1950/1981). "A Critique of Constitutional Proposals." Pp. 140-70 in Selected Speeches and Writings of Mawlana Mawdudi. Vol. 1, translated by S. Zakir Aijaz. Karachi: International Islamic Publishers. 255. _____ (1951/1981). "The Rudiments of Islamic Philosophy of Economics." Pp. 173-82 in Selected Speeches and Writings of Mawlana Mawdudi. Vol. 1, translated by S. zakir Aijaz. Karachi: International Islamic Publishers. 256. _____ (1952/1960). First Principles of the Islamic State, translated from Urdu. Lahore: Islamic Publications. 257. Mayer, Ann Elizabeth (1985). "Islamic Banking and Credit Policies in the Sadat Era: The Social Origins of Islamic Banking in Egypt." Arab Law Quarterly 1: 32-50. 258. _____(1986). "Islamization and taxation in Pakistan." Pp. 59-77 in Islamic Reassertion in Pakistan: The Application of Islamic Laws in a Modern State, edited by Anita M. weiss. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. 259. _____ (1993). "The Fundamentalist Impact on law, Politice, and Constitutions in Iran, Pakistan, and Sudan." Pp.110-51 in Fundamentalisms and State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 260. Meeker, Michael E. (1991). "The New Muslim Intellectuals in the Republic of Turkey." Pp. 189-219 in Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics, and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard tapper. London: I.B. Tauris. 261. Meenai, S. A. (1989). The Islamic Development Bank: A Case Study of Islamic Co-operation. London: Kegan Paul International. 293
  • 290. 262. Metcalf, Barbara D. (1994). " 'Remaking Ourselves': Islamic SelfFashioning in A Global Movement of Spiritual Renewal." Pp. 706-25 in Accounting for Fundamentalisms: The Dynamic character of Movements, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 263. Mishra, vikas (1962). Hinduism and Economic Growth. London: Oxford University Press. 264. Mohammad, Faiz (1995). "Relationship between Obligatory Official Zakah Collection and Voluntary Zakah Collection by Charitable Organizations." Pp. 163-95 in Institutional Framework of Zakah: Dimensions and Implications, edited by Ahmad Abdel-Fattah el- Ashker and Muhammad Sirajul Haq. Jeddah: Islamic Development bank. 265. Mokyr, Joel (1990). The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. New York: Oxford University Press. 266. Moore, Clement Henry (1988)."Islamic Banks: Financial and Political Intermediation in Arab Countries." Orient 29: 45-57. 267. _____ (1990a). "Islamic Banks and Competitive Politics in the Arab World and Turkey." Middle East Journal 44: 234-55. 268. _____ (1990b). "La Place des banques Islamiques dans un systeme politique d'ouverture: Comparison des cas turc et egyptien." Unpublished paper presented at the National Political Science Foundation (FondationNationale des Science Politiques), Paris, March. 269. Morad, Munir (1988), "Current Thought on Islamic Taxation: A Critical Synthesis." Pp. 117-27 in Islamic Law and Finance, edited by Chibli Mallat. London: Graham and Totman. 270. Mottahadeh, Roy p. (1995). "The Clash of Civilizations: An Islamicist's Critique." Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review 2:1-26. 271. Mumcu,Ugur (1987). Rabita. Istanbul: Tekin Yayinevi. 272. _____ (1988). Tarikat, Siyaset, Ticaret. Istanbul: Tekin Yayinevi. 273. Murphy, Kim (1992). "Islamic Extremists Declaring War on Egypt's Tourist Industry." Los Angeles Times, October 23, A6. 274. Mustapha, Nik, Bin Hj. Nik Hasan (1987). " Zakat in Malaysia- Present and Future Status." Journal of Islamic Economics 1 (August- September): 47-75. 294
  • 291. 275. Nagarkar, V.V. (1975). Genesis of Pakistan. Bombay: Allied Publishers. 276. Naqvi, Syed Nawab Haider (1981a). Ethics and Economics: An Islamic Synthesis. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. 277. _____ (1981b). Individual Freedom, Social Welfare and Islamic Economic Order. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. 278. _____ (1994). Islam, Economics, and Society. London: Kegan Paul International. 279. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1985). "Islamic Work Ethics." Pp. 49-62 in Comparative Work Ethics: Judeo-Christian, Islamic and Eastern, edited by Jarosly Pelican, Joseph Kitagawa, and Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Washington, D.C. Library of Congress. 280. Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1987). "Toward a Philosophy of Islamic Economics." Muslim World 77: 175-96. 281. _____ (1988). "Whither Islamic Economics?" Islamic Quarterly 30: 21120. 282. _____ (1989). "Islamic Economics: Novel Perspectives." Middle Eastern Studies 25: 516-30. 283. _____ (1994). The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jama'at-I Islami of Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press. 284. ___ (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. New York: Oxford University Press. 285. New Sraits Times (Kuala Lumpur), March 6; 1990. 286. Nienhaus, Volker (1986). "Islamic Economics, Finance and banking: Theory and Practice." Journal of Islamic Banking and Finance (London) 3: 3-17. 287. _____ (1988). "Lectures on Islamic Economics and banking." Faculty of Economics Discussion Paper no. 6 University of Bochum, West Germany, December. 288. Novossyolov, Dimitri B. (1993). "The Islamization of Welfare in Pakistan." Pp. 160-74 in Russia'a Muslim Frontiers: New Directions in Cross-Cultual Analysis, edited by Dale F. Eickelman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 295
  • 292. 289. Oakeshott, Michael (1958/1993). Morality and Politics in Modern Europe: The Harvard Lectures, edited by Shirley Robin Letwin. New Haven: Yale University Press. 290. Olson, Mancur (1982). The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagnation, and Social Rigdities. New Haven: Yale University Press. 291. Oran, Ahmed and Salim Rashid (1989). "Fiscal Policy in Early Islam." Public Finance 44: 75-101. 292. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (1983). Aid from OPEC Countries. Paris: OECD. 293. Owen, Roger (1981). The Middle East in the World Economy, 18001914. London: Methuen. 294. Olcen, Ali Nejat (1991). Islamda Karanlign Baslangici ve Turk-Islam Sentenzi. Ankara: Ekin Yayinevi. 295. Ozdenoren, Rasim (1990). Muslumancw Yasamak. Istanbul: Iz Yayincilik. 296. Ozel Finans Kurumlari ve Turkiye Uygulmasi Sempozyumu (1988). Istanbul: Marmara Universitesi Ortadogu ve Islam Ulkeleri Ekonomik Arastirma Merkezi. 297. Ozel, Ismet (1984). Zor Zamanda Konusmak. Istanbul: Cidam Yayinilari. 298. _____ (1985). Bakanlar ve Gorenler. Istanbul: Cidam Yayinlari. 299. _____ (1989). Sorulunca Soylenen. Istanbul: Cidam Yayinlari. 300. Paksitan Statistical Yearbook (1989). Karachi: Manager of Publications. 301. Papageorgiou, Demetris, Michael Michaely, and Armeane Choksi, eds. (1991). Liberalizing Foreign Trade. 7 vols. Cambridge, Mass; Basil Blackwell. 302. Patel, Rahida (1986). Islamisation of Laws in Pakistan? Karachi: Faiza Publishers. 303. Permenant Comission on Islamisation of Economy, Pakistan (1988). "Improvement in the Nizam-e Zakat and Ushr for Achieving Its Declared Objectives of Removing Abject Poverty and Eradication of Beggary from the Country." Mimeographical report, February. 304. Phillip, Thomas (1990). "The Idea of Islamic Economics." Die Welt des Islams 30: 117 – 39. 296
  • 293. 305. Polanyi, Michael (1966/1983). The Tacit Dimension. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith. 306. Posner, Richard A. (1980). "A Theory of Primitive Society with Special Reference to Law." Journal of Law and Economics 23: 1-53. 307. Presley, John R., ed. (1988). Directory of Islamic Financial Institutions. London: Croom Helm for the International Center for Islamic Studies. 308. Pryor, Frederick L. (1985). " The Islamic Economic Sysyem." Journal of Comparative Economics 9: 197-223. 309. Putman, Robert D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton University Press. 310. Qaddafi, Mummar (1976-79). The Green Book, translated from Arabic. Tripoli: Green Book World Center for Research and Study. 311. Qardawi, Yusuf (1966/1981). Economic Security in Islam, translated by Muhammed Iqbal Siddiqi. Lahore: Kazi Publications. 312. Quigley, Carroll (1979). The Evolution of Civilizations: An Introduction to Historical Analysis. 2nd ed. Indianaplois: Liberty Press. 313. Qutb, Sayyid (1948 / 1979). Social Justice in Islam, translated by John D. Hardie. New York: American Council of Learned Societies. 314. Rahman, Fazlur (1964). "Riba and Interest." Islamic Studies 3: 1-43. 315. _____ (1974). "Islam and the Problem of Economic Justice." Pakistan Economist 14 (August 24): 14-39. 316. _____ (1979). Islam. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 317. _____ (1982). Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 318. Rahnema, Ali and Farhad Nomani (1990). The Secular Miracle: Religion, Politics, and Economic Policy in Iran. London: Zed Books. 319. Rashwan Diaa, and Emad Gad (1993). "The Marriage of Militancy and Tradition." Al-Ahram Weekly (Cairo), July 8-14, p. 3. 320. Rawls, John (1971). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 321. Ray, Nicholas D. (1995) Arab Islamic Banking and the Renewal of Islamic Law. London: Graham and Trotman. 322. Reed, Howard A. (1988). "Islamic and Education in Turkey." Turkish Studies Association Bulletin 12: 1-5. 297
  • 294. 323. Renan, Ernest (1883). L'Islamisme et la science (Sorboone conference, March 29). Paris: Calmann Levy. 324. Report of the Council of Islamic Ideology on the Elimination of Interest from the Economy (1980). Islamabad: Council of Islamic Ideology. 325. Richards, Alan and John Waterbury (1996). A Poiltical Economy of the Middle East. 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview. 326. Risso, Patricia (1989). "Muslim Identity in Maritime Trade: General Observations and Some Evidence from the 18th-Century Persian Gulf/Indian Ocean Region.'' International Journal of Middle East Studies 21: 381-92. 327. Roberts, Hugh (1994). "From Radical Mission to Equivocal Ambition: The Expansion and Manipulation of Algerian Islamism, 1979-1992." Pp. 428-89 in Accounting for Fundematalisms: The Dynamic Character of Movements, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago Press. 328. Rodinson, Maxime (1966/1973). Islam and Capitalism, translated by Brian Pearce. New York: Pantheon. 329. Rosenberg, Nathan, and Luther E. Birdzell, Jr. (1986). How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World. New York: Basic Books. 330. Roy, Olivier (1992/1994). The Failure of Political Islam, translated by Carol Volk. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 331. Rowley, Charles K., Robert D. Tollison and Gordon Tullock, eds. (1988). The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking. Boston: Kluwer. 332. Rushton, J. Philippe (1980). Altrusim, Socialization, and Society. Englewwod Cliffs, N.J.: Printice-Hall. 333. Sabzwari, M.A. (1979). A Study of Zakat and Ushr with Special Reference to Pakistan. Karatchi: Industries Printing Press. 334. Sadeq, Abul Hasan Muhammed (1990). Economic Development in Islam. Petaling jaya, Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications. 335. Said, Edward W. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books. 336. Salama, Abdin Ahmed (1982). "Fiscal Analysis of Zakah with Special Refernce to Saudi Arabia's Experience in Zakah." Pp. 341-71 in 298
  • 295. 337. 338. 339. 340. 341. 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347. 348. 349. 350. 351. Monatery and Fiscal Economics of Islam, edited by Mohammed Ariff. Jeddah: International Center for Research in Islamic Economics. Saleh, Nabil A. (1986). Unlawful Gain and Legitimate Profit in Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Salleh, Ismail Muhd, and Rogayah Ngah (1980). "Distribution of the Zakat Burden on Padi Producers in Malaysia." Pp. 80-153 in Some Aspects of the Economics of Zakah, edited by m. Raqibuz Zaman. Plainfield, Ind.: Association of Muslim Social Scientists. Samiullah, Muhammad (1982). "Prohibition of Riba (Interest) and Insurance in the Light of Islam." Islamic Studies 21: 53-76. Saracgil, Bahadir (1993). "Islamic Giyimde Moda ve Turketim." Yeni Zemin, August: 74-76. Sayeed, Khalil B. (1968). Pakistan: The Formative Phase, 1857-1948. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press. Schachet, Joseph (1934). "Zakat." Encyclopedia of Islam. Vol. 3: 1202-4. Schlessinger, Arthur M., Jr. (1991). The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society. Knoxville, Tenn.: Whittle Books. Scott, James C. (1985). Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press. _____ (1987). "Resistance without Proteset and Without Organization: Peasant opposition to the Islamic Zakat and the Chirstian Tithe." Comparative Studies in Society and History 29; 417 -52. Shaban, M. A. (1971). Islamic History: A New Interpretation. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shad, Abdur Rahman (1986). Zakat and Ushr. Lahore: Kazi Publications. Shayegan, Darysh (1989/1992). Cultural Schizophrenia: Islamic Societies Confronting the West, translated by John Howe. London: Saqi Books. Shepard, William E. (1989). "Islam as a 'System' in the Later Writings of Sayyid Qutb." Middle Eastern Studies 25: 31-50. Siddiqi, Muhammed Akhtar Saeed (1983). Early Development of Zakat Law and Ijtihad. Karachi: Islamic Reaserch Academy. Siddiqi, Muhammad Nejatullah (1972). The Economic Enterprise in Islam. Lahore: Islamic Publications. 299
  • 296. 352. _____ (1981). Muslim Economic Thinking: A Survey of Contemporary Literature. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. 353. _____ (1982). "Islamic Approaches to Money, Banking and monetary Policy: A Review." Pp. 25-38 in Monetary and Fiscal Economics in Islam Economics. 354. _____ (1985). Insurance in an Islamic Economy. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. 355. _____ (1994). "Nature and Methodology of Islamic Political Economy." Paper presented at the seminar on Islamic Political Economy in the Age of Capitalis Globalization, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, December. 356. Simon, Herbert A. (1983). Reason in Human Affairs. Stanford: Stanford Univeristy Press. 357. Sivan, Emmanuel (1985). Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern Politics. New Haven: Yale University Press. 358. Smith, Adam (1759/1976). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 359. _____ (1776/1937). The Wealth of Nations. New York: Modern Library. 360. Smith, Wilfred Cantwell (1957). Islam in Modern History. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 361. Springborg, Robert (1989). Mubarak's Egypt: Fragmentation of the Political Order. Boulder: Westview. 362. Stark, Rodney, Laurence Iannaccone, and Roger Finke (1998). "Rationality and the 'Religious Mind.' " Economic Inquiry 36: 373 – 89. 363. Sullivan, Denis (1994). Private Voluntary Organizations in Egypt: Islamic Development, Private Initiative, and State Control. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 364. Sutliffe, Claud R. (1975). "Is Islam an Obstacle to Development? Ideal Patterns of Belief versus Actual Patterns of Behavior." Journal of Developing Areas 10: 77-82. 365. Talbot, Ian (1993). "The Growth of the Muslim League in the Punjab, 1937 – 46." Pp. 230 – 53 in India's Partition: Process, Strategy, and Mobilization, edited by Mushirul Hasan. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 366. Tanzil-ur-Rahman (1981). Introduction of Zakat in Pakistan. Islamabad: Council of Islamic Ideology. 300
  • 297. 367. Tawney, R. H. (1926/1962). Religion and the Rise of Capitalism. Gloucester, Mass: Peter Smith. 368. Tibi, Bassam (1993). "The Worldview of Sunni Arab Fundamentalists: Attitudes toward Modern Science and Technology." Pp. 73-102 in Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education, edited by Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 369. Todaro, Michael P. (1985). Economic Development in the Third World. 3rd ed. New York: Longman. 370. Tonnies, Ferdinand (1887/1957). Community and Society (Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft), translated by Charles P. Loomis. East lansing: Michigan State University Press. 371. Triandis, Harry C. (1990). "Cross-cultural Studies of Individualism and Collectivism." Pp. 41-133 in Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1989, edited by John J. Berman. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 372. Turner, Bryan S.(1974). Weber and Islam: A Critical Study. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 373. Tversky, Amos, and Daniel Kahnemen (1991). "Loss Aversion and Riskless Choice: A Reference Dependent Model." Quarterly Journal of Economics 106: 1039-61. 374. Udovtich, Abraham L. (1962). "At the Origin of the Western Commenda: Islam, Israel, Byzantium?" Speculum 37: 198-207. 375. _____ (1970). Partnership and Profit in Medieval Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 376. _____ (1985). "Islamic Law and the Social Context of Exchange in the Medieval Middle East." History and Anthropology 1: 445-65. 377. Ullmann-Margalit, Edna (1977). The Emergence of Norms. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 378. Uludag, Suleyman (1988). Islam 'da Faiz Meselesine Yeni Bir Bakis. Istanbul: Dergah Yayinlari. 379. United Nations Development Programme (2002). Arab Human Development Report 2002: Creating Opportunities for Future Generations. New york: UNDP. 301
  • 298. 380. Ulgener, Sabri F. (1981). Iktisadi Cozulmenin Ahlak ve Zihniyet Dunyast. 2nd ed. Istanbul: Der Yayinlari. 381. _____ (1984). Darlik Buhranlari ve Islam Iktisat Siyaseti. Ankara: Mayas Yayinlari. 382. Vandewalle, Dirk (1991). "Qadhafe's 'Perestroika': Economic and Political Liberalization in Libya." Middle East Journal 45: 216-31. 383. Watt, W. Montgomery (1988). Islamic Fundemanlaism and Modernity. London: Routledge. 384. Weber, Max (1904-5/1958). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, translated by A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 385. _____ (1922/1968). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. 3 vols., edited by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. New York: Bedminster Press. 386. White, Leslie (1975). The Concept of Cultural Systems: A Key to Understanding Tribes and Nations. New York: Columbia Univarity Press. 387. Williamsons, Oliver E. (1985). The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press. 388. Wilson, James Q. (1993). The Moral Sense. New York: Free Press. 389. Wilson, Rodney (1985). Islamic Business. Theory and Practice. Rev.ed. London: Economist Intelligence Unit. 390. _____ (1990). "Retail Development and Wholesale Possibilities." Pp. 718 in Islamic Financial Markets, edited by Rodney Wilson. London: Routledge. 391. World Development Report (1980). Washington, D.C.: World Bank. 392. Yediyildiz, Bahaeddin (1990). Institution du vakf au XVIIIe siecle en Turquie. Ankara: Editions Ministere de la Culture. 393. Yilmaz, Huseyin (1990). Oldukten Sonra "Allah" Diyen Bakan. Istanbul: Timas Yayinlari. 394. Yusuf, S. M. (1971). Economic Justice in Islam. Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf. 395. Zahid, Shahid N. (1989). "The Zakat and Ushr System in Pakistan." Report prepared for the World Bank, Karachi, August. 302
  • 299. 396. Zaman, S. M. hasanuz (1985). "Indexation – an Islamic Evaluation." Journal of Research in Islamic Economics 2: 31-53. 397. Zarqa, Muhammad Anas (1988). "Islamic Distributive Schemes." Pp. 163-216 in Distributive Justice and Need Fulfilment in an Islamic Economy, edited by Munawar Iqbal. Leicester: Islamic Foundation. 303
  • 300. 304

×