Ffi basic presentation

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Ffi basic presentation

  1. 2. Kluger & DeNisi (1996, 1998)   Mean d = .4 38% of the effects are negative Today’s program <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The challenge of feedback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Psychology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciative Inquiry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedforward Interview (FFI) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practicing FFI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a plan on the basis of FFI learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies & testimonials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of scientific research pertaining to FFI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Kluger & DeNisi (1996, 1998)   Mean d = .4 38% of the effects are negative Kluger & DeNisi (1996, 1998)  
  3. 4. Kluger & DeNisi (1996, 1998)   Mean d = .4 38% of the effects are negative When is feedback more/less effective? <ul><ul><li>Feedback sign does not, by itself, determine feedback effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more threatening the feedback to the self the more destructive it is </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Kluger & DeNisi (1996, 1998)   Mean d = .4 38% of the effects are negative Self regulation theory (Higgins, 1997) Promotion focus versus Prevention focus
  5. 6. Van-Dijk & Kluger (2004) – Scenario Intention to invest effort by feedback sign & type of work
  6. 7. Intention to invest effort by feedback sign & values
  7. 8. Intention to invest effort by feedback sign & occupation
  8. 9. Intention to invest effort by feedback sign & reason for being in one’s job
  9. 10. Van-Dijk & Kluger (2009) The Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior Division’s 2009 Award for Best Competitive Paper <ul><li>Performance by time (before/after feedback), feedback sign and task type </li></ul>
  10. 11. Shall we give negative feedback to people who do things because they “have to”? <ul><li>When we must do something, negative feedback both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the urgency to act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases the belief that success is possible (Levontin & Kluger, under preparation) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Aguinis, H. (2009). Performance management (2nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. <ul><li>“ The risks associated with implementing a 360-degree system can be illustrated by Watson Wyatt’s 2001 Human Capital Index (HCI). This is an ongoing study of the effects of HR practices on the stock value of more than 700 publicly traded companies. One particular result was especially alarming. Of the companies surveyed, those that had implemented 360-degree feedback had lower stock value! Specifically, the companies that used peer reviews had 4.9% lower market value than did similar companies that did not implement peer reviews. Furthermore, companies that implemented upward feedback, where employees rated managers, had a 5.7% lower stock value than did similar companies that did not implement upward feedback. Does this necessarily mean that implementing 360-degree feedback systems causes the stock price to decrease? Based on the data collected, there is no definitive answer to this question. It could be that organizations that are not performing well financially decide to implement 360-degree feedback systems precisely to help improve their performance. Nevertheless, these results highlight the importance of following best practices in implementing 360-degree feedback systems in order to avoid any negative consequences of implementing such a system.” (p. 194 ) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Feedback: Conclusion <ul><li>Feedback is a double edged sword: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My work just reviewed (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996, 1998). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of performance appraisal on average is practically zero ( Smither, London, & Reilly, 2005 ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some experts suggest to drop performance appraisal altogether because it destroys relationships and stifles creativity ( Coens & Jenkins, 2000 ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies implementing 360-degree feedback had lower stock value! (Aguinis, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Challenges <ul><li>Can we develop another tool that can enhance motivation and learning and lead to increased performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we do it in a way that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decreases the threat to the self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases well-being, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>builds relationships ? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Can we do better than this?
  15. 16. The Feedforward Interview (FFI) is a tool based on feedback principles, Positive Psychology and Appreciative Inquiry FFI is proposed for use: Before, or instead of, performance appraisals and 360-degrees feedback reviews, selection interviews, customer surveys, team development and strategy development. The unique features of FFI: Focusing on success stories, care-full listening, insight are intrinsic to the interviewee and the system
  16. 17. Feedback & motivational principle: Discrepancies Possible response Information (feed) Standard Strive to attain standard, lower standard, reject information, escape the field External External Feedback Strive to attain standard, escape the field Internal Internal Feedforward
  17. 18. <ul><li>“ Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; but a man of understanding will draw it out.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Proverbs 20:5 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; מים עמוקים , עצה בלב - איש ;    </li></ul><ul><li>ואיש תבונה ידלנה .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>( משלי פרק כ ' פסוק ה ') </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>A meta-analysis suggests that positive mood makes people at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more creative and more open, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show less job withdrawal behaviors (absenteeism, tardiness, turnover) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>earn higher income and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>display more organizational citizenship behavior (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiments show that people can be trained to be happier (e.g., Seligman et al., 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory suggests that expanding “reflected best self” makes us do more (Roberts et al., 2005) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Appreciative Inquiry: We have so many problems, so why should we talk about successes
  20. 21. “ No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.”
  21. 22. Two Human Adaptation Conflicts Model (Levontin & Kluger, 2010) Promotion Learning Change Competition Self-interest Getting ahead Bonding Team work Getting along Prevention Security Maintenance
  22. 23. Feedforward for balance and for firm competitiveness: individual needs and proposed focus Promotion Learning Change Authenticity Co-learning Developing others Competition Self-interest Getting ahead Bonding Team work Getting along Playing politics Prevention Security Maintenance
  23. 24. Introductions <ul><li>La raison d'être: </li></ul><ul><li>Could you please tell me about the first time you thought of working here? What were your aspirations? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Introductions <ul><li>Could you please tell me one story about someone helping you and one story about you helping someone? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Conditions for effective FFI <ul><li>Comfortable seating place </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting face-to-face with no barriers and with privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the interviewee from interruptions (turn off your mobile phone) </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare to give the interviewee 100% of your attention </li></ul><ul><li>Train to listen, without writing, to remember and to reflect </li></ul>
  26. 27. FFI: Step-by-step <ul><li>Affirmative Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Story </li></ul><ul><li>Peak </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Feedforward Question </li></ul>
  27. 28. Affirmative topic: General <ul><li>“ I am sure that during your work here you have had both negative experiences and positive experiences. Today, I would like to focus only on your positive experiences. ” </li></ul>
  28. 29. Story <ul><li>Could you please tell me a story that happened at your work, during which you felt full of life (happy, energized), even before the results of your actions became known? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you be happy to experience a similar story (process) again? </li></ul><ul><li>[IF YES, reflect the story & proceed; IF NOT, ask for another story.] </li></ul>
  29. 30. Peak <ul><li>What was the peak moment of this story? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you think at the peak moment? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you feel at that moment (including your physiological reaction) ? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like to experience these emotions again? </li></ul><ul><li>[IF ABSOULTELY YES, reflect the emotions & proceed; IF NOT, ask for another story.] </li></ul>
  30. 31. Conditions (learning; inquiry) <ul><li>What were the conditions, </li></ul><ul><li>in yourself, </li></ul><ul><li>others, </li></ul><ul><li>and the organization (physical, temporal) </li></ul><ul><li>that allowed this story to happen? </li></ul><ul><li>[Reflect the conditions, ask “and what else?” and make sure the interviewee considers both self and others.] </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Feedforward Interview (Kluger & Nir, in press) <ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>I am sure that during your work here you have had both negative experiences and positive experiences. Today, I would like to focus only on your positive experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Could you please tell me a story that happened at your work, during which you felt full of life (happy, energized), even before the results of your actions became known? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you be happy to experience a similar story (process) again? [IF YES, reflect the story & proceed; IF NOT, ask for another story.] </li></ul><ul><li>What was the peak moment of this story? What did you think at the peak moment? How did you feel at that moment (including your physiological reaction)? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the conditions , in yourself, others, and the organization (physical, temporal) that allowed this story to happen? </li></ul><ul><li>[Reflect the conditions, ask “and what else?” and make sure the interviewee considers both self and others.] </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>The feedforward question </li></ul><ul><li>Recall the conditions that allowed you to feel alive. Consider these conditions as road signs or a beacon that shows you the way to fulfill your dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>Do your plans for the immediate future (current behavior) take you closer to, or further away from, the conditions that allowed you to feel alive? </li></ul>
  33. 34. Building an affirmative topic from a complaint <ul><li>What currently upsets (irritates, annoys) you, or makes you desperate, the most? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am nervous when I have to give a presentation” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is it a symptom of? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ My lack of confidence” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the ideal opposites? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ enjoying what I am doing without worrying”? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Affirmative topic: worry-free presentation <ul><li>“ From what you told me, it is clear that often you feel nervous when you present, but perhaps there were times, even very rare, in which you enjoyed yourself presenting without worrying. Today, I would like us to search for such an event, even if not at the current job. ” </li></ul>
  35. 36. Example: FFI adapted to handle a complaint <ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>From what you told me, it is clear that often you feel nervous when you present, but perhaps there were times, even very rare, in which you enjoyed yourself presenting without worrying. Today, I would like us to search for such an event, even if not at the current job. </li></ul><ul><li>Could you please tell me a story a presentation (or other) event during which you felt that you enjoy yourself without worrying? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you be happy to experience a similar story (process) again? [IF YES, reflect the story & proceed; IF NOT, ask for another story.] </li></ul><ul><li>What was the peak moment of this story? What did you think at the peak moment? How did you feel at that moment (including your physiological reaction)? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like to experience these emotions again? [IF ABSOULTELY YES, reflect the emotions & proceed; IF NOT, ask for another story.] </li></ul><ul><li>What were the conditions , in yourself, others, and the organization (physical, temporal) that allowed this story to happen? </li></ul><ul><li>[Reflect the conditions, ask “and what else?” and make sure the interviewee considers both self and others.] </li></ul>
  36. 37. Applications Before Feedback An Israeli Bank, Brembo, Vodaphone Strength-Based Performance Appraisal SodaStream Selection The Hebrew University Customer Satisfaction Aerobic Studio
  37. 38. <ul><li>FFI – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evokes positive emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discovery of critical data </li></ul><ul><li>Brings to the foreground data that are forgotten or outside of the discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies keys for optimal functioning </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>FFI – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses deep needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster communication and interpersonal contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates opportunities to recognize abilities and talents of the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows personal growth via discovery of one’s strengths and virtues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates an atmosphere that enables a more open consideration of feedback </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. FFI limitation <ul><li>Some people find telling stories difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Do not mandate participation </li></ul><ul><li>Some people become sad to discover how little joy they have at work </li></ul><ul><li>Offer to listen at a later time </li></ul><ul><li>FFI does not handle prevention behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Set limits to specific simple prevention behaviors; </li></ul><ul><li>Use a 3:1 principle </li></ul>
  40. 41. Rechter (2010) <ul><li>FFI (84 business students) </li></ul>A story about peak team experience in which you showed creativity, cooperation, and openess <ul><li>Control interview (85 business students) </li></ul>Two stories about team experience <ul><li>No interview control (83 business students) </li></ul>Were not interviewed
  41. 42. Does FFI increase positive mood? <ul><li>FFI > No interview d = .77** </li></ul><ul><li>FFI > Control interview d = .39** </li></ul>
  42. 43. Does FFI lead to discovery of critical data? <ul><li>Self-reported learning </li></ul><ul><li>FFI > Control interview </li></ul><ul><li>d = .49** </li></ul>
  43. 44. Does FFI fit everybody?
  44. 45. Rechter (2010) Study 2 FFI vs. Feedback Personal goals 84 students   Cohen’s d * . 66 Interviewers Liking partner † . 42 Interviewees * . 65 Interviewers Partner appreciation     ns Interviewees * . 68 Interviewers Self-efficacy ** 1.11 Interviewees † . 51 Interviewers Satisfaction * . 69 Interviewees ** . 78 Interviewers Positive affect     ns Interviewees     ns Interviewers Personal Recourses * . 84 Interviewees * . 68 Interviewers Behavioral Intention     ns Interviewees
  45. 46. Try at your company OR try it at home <ul><li>Interview other people and allow them to discover what are their conditions for well being (at work). </li></ul><ul><li>How can I remember the instructions? </li></ul><ul><li>Visit www.feedforward.co.il under TOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>What should I interview about? </li></ul><ul><li>Any topics that you or the other person wants to explore </li></ul><ul><li>Who should be interviewed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... and even spouses (partners) </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>“ Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; but a man of understanding will draw it out.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Proverbs 20:5 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; מים עמוקים , עצה בלב - איש ;    </li></ul><ul><li>ואיש תבונה ידלנה .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>( משלי פרק כ ' פסוק ה ') </li></ul>

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