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  • 1. The history and meaning of architecture: “ ”Chronological table”; styles and periods - review with examples
  • 2. Early Medieval ArchitectureRomanesque Architecture Gothic Architecture Renaissance Architecture Islamic Architecture
  • 3. Early Medieval Architecture Carolingian Empire Restored plan of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne,Aachen, Germany, 792–805. g , , y, Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen,Germany, 792–805.Charlemagne often visited Ravenna and sought to emulate Byzantine splendor inthe North. The plan of his German palace chapel is based on that of San Vitale,but the Carolingian plan is simpler.Charlemagne’s chapel is the first vaulted structure of the Middle Ages north of theAlps. The architect transformed the complex interior of San Vitale into a simpleand massive geometric form.
  • 4. Early Medieval Architecture Ottonian Empire Built by Bishop Bernward, a great art patron, Saint Michael’s is a masterpiece of Ottonian basilica design. The church’s two apses, two transepts, and multiple towers give it a distinctive profile.Saint Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001–1031.
  • 5. Early Medieval Architecture Ottonian EmpireDoors with relief panels, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael’s,Hildesheim, Germany, 1015. Bronze. Dom-Museum, Hildesheim.
  • 6. Romanesque ArchitectureRomanesque takes its name from the Roman-like barrel and groin vaults based on round arches employed inmany European churches built between 1050 and 1200. Romanesque vaults, however, were made of stone, notconcrete.concrete Numerous churches sprang up along the French pilgrimage roads leading to the shrine of Saint Jamesat Santiago de Compostela in Spain. These churches were large enough to accommodate crowds of pilgrims whocame to view the relics displayed in radiating chapels off the ambulatory and transept. Elsewhere, especially in theHoly Roman Empire and in Normandy and England, innovative architects began to use groin vaults in naves andintroduced the three-story elevation of nave arcade, tribune and clerestory three story arcade tribune, clerestory.The Romanesque period also brought the revival of monumental stone relief sculpture, especially on churchfacades.
  • 7. Romanesque Architecture
  • 8. Romanesque ArchitectureKrak des Chevaliers, Syria
  • 9. Romanesque ArchitectureCathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 1078 -1122 Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Spain 1078 -1122 (1211) 1122 Churches were the most sophisticated of Romanesque structures, and typically consisted of basilica-plan buildings with decorated façades, tall flanking bell towers, towers wide projecting transepts and elevated transepts, sanctuaries, often with ambulatories and with larger and larger windows that allowed more light into the interiors. The space where the nave and the transepts, or side arms, meet is called the crossing, which increasingly was used as the basic unit of measure for the entire church, with geometry organizing the interior. The taller nave ceilings necessitated a more sophisticated support system than was traditionally found in early medieval structures, and so brick and stone barrel vaults and cross vaults with semicircular ribs became more common as time went on. The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Spain is an important early Romanesque structure that exhibits these features.
  • 10. Romanesque Architecture"Puerta de las Platerías", Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
  • 11. Romanesque ArchitectureCathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
  • 12. Romanesque ArchitecturePlan of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070–1120(after Kenneth John Conant).Increased traffic led to changes in church design. “Pilgrimagechurches” such as Saint-Sernin have longer and wider naves andaisles, as well as transepts and ambulatories with radiating p gchapels for viewing relics.Saint-Sernin’s groin-vaulted tribune galleries housed overflowcrowds and buttressed the stone barrel vault over the nave. Thetransverse arches continue the lines of the compound piers.Interior of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070–1120.
  • 13. Romanesque Architecture West facade of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France, begun 1067.The division of Saint-Étienne’s facade into three parts corresponding to the nave and aislesreflects the methodical planning of the entire church. The towers also have a tripartite design.
  • 14. Romanesque Architecture Interior of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France, vaulted ca. 1115–1120.The six-part groin vaults of Saint-Étienne made possible an efficient clerestory.The three-story elevation with its large arched openings provides ample lightand makes the nave appear taller than it isis.
  • 15. Romanesque Architecture Although sculpture in a variety of materials adorned different areas of Romanesque churches, it was most often found in the grand stone portals through which the faithful had to pass. Sculpture had been employed in church doorways before. For example, Ottonian bronze doors decorated with Old and New Testament scenes marked one entrance to Saint Michael’s at Hildesheim. In the Romanesque era (and during the Gothic period that followed), sculpture usually appeared in the area around the doors rather than on them. Romanesque sculptors regularly decorated several parts of church portals with figural reliefs: ❚ Tympanum, the prominent semicircular lunette above the doorway proper, comparable in importance to the triangular pediment of a Greco-Roman temple ❚ Voussoirs , the wedge-shaped blocks that together form the archivolts of th arch f hi lt f the h framing th t i the tympanum ❚ Lintel , the horizontal beam above the doorway ❚ Trumeau , the center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway ❚ Jambs . the side posts of the doorwayThe Romanesque church portal.
  • 16. Gothic ArchitectureThe birthplace of Gothic art and architecture was Saint-Denis, where Abbot Suger used rib vaults with pointedarches and stained-glass windows to rebuild the Carolingian royal church. The Early Gothic (1140–1194) westfacade of Suger’s church also introduced statue-columns on the portal jambs, which appeared shortly later on theRoyal Portal of Chartres Cathedral. After a fire in 1194, Chartres Cathedral was rebuilt with flying buttresses, four-part nave vaults, and a three-storyelevation of nave arcade, triforium, and clerestory, setting the pattern for High Gothic (1194–1300) cathedrals,including Amiens with its 144-foot-high vaults.Flying buttresses made possible huge stained-glass windows. The divine colored light (lux nova) they admittedtransformed the character of church interiors.High Gothic t tHi h G thi statue-columns b k out of the architectural straitjacket of their Early G thi predecessors. At l broke t f th hit t l t itj k t f th i E l Gothic dChartres, Reims, and elsewhere, the sculpted figures move freely and sometimes converse with their neighbors.
  • 17. Gothic ArchitectureTheTh ancestors of th Gothic rib vault are th Romanesque vaults found at Caen, Durham, and elsewhere. Th rib vault’s di ti t f the G thi ib lt the R lt f d tC D h d l h The ib lt’ distinguishing f t i hi feature i th crossed, or is the ddiagonal, ribs (arches) under its groins, as seen in the Saint-Denis ambulatory and chapels. The ribs form the armature, or skeletal framework, for constructingthe vault.Gothic vaults generally have more thinly vaulted webs (the masonry between the ribs) than found in Romanesque vaults. But the chief difference between thetwo styles of rib vaults is the pointed arch, an integral part of the Gothic skeletal armature. French Romanesque architects borrowed the form from Muslim Spainand passed it to their Gothic successors. pPointed arches allowed Gothic builders to make the crowns of all the vault’s arches approximately the same level, regardless of the space to be vaulted. TheRomanesque architects could not achieve this with their semicircular arches. Diagram (a) and drawings of rib vaults with semicircular (b) and pointed (c) arches. Pointed arches channel the weight of the rib vaults more directly downward than do semicircular arches, requiring less buttressing. Pointed arches also make the vaults appear taller than they are.
  • 18. Gothic Architecture Ambulatory and radiating chapels, y g p abbey church, Saint- Denis, France, 1140–1144.The remodeling of the east end of Saint-Denis Saint Denismarked the beginningof Gothic architecture. Rib vaults with pointedarches spring fromslender columns. The radiating chapels havestained-glass windows.
  • 19. Gothic ArchitectureWest façade of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, begun 1134; rebuilt after 1194. The Early Gothic west facade was all that remained of Chartres Cathedral after the fire of 1194. Architectural historians consider the rebuilt church the first great monument of High Gothic architecture.
  • 20. Gothic ArchitectureRoyal Portal, west facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155.
  • 21. Gothic ArchitectureMost of the architectural components of Gothic cathedrals appearedin earlier structures, but the way Gothic architects combined theseelements made these later buildings unique expressions of medievalfaith. The key ingredients of the Gothic “recipe” were rib vaults withpointed arches, flying buttresses, and huge windows of colored glass.The cutaway view of a typical Gothic cathedral illustrates how theseand other important architectural devices worked together.❚ Pinnacle: A sharply pointed ornament capping the piers or flyingbuttresses; also used on cathedral fb tt l d th d l facades. d❚ Flying buttresses: Masonry struts that transfer the thrust of the navevaults across the roofs of the side aisles and ambulatory to a tall pierrising above the church’s exterior wall.❚ Vaulting web: The masonry blocks that fill the area between the ribsof a groin vault. g❚ Diagonal rib: In plan, one of the ribs that form the X of a groin vault.❚ Transverse rib: A rib that crosses the nave or aisle at a 90-degreeangle.❚ Springing: The lowest stone of an arch; in Gothic vaulting, thelowest stone of a diagonal or transverse rib.❚ Clerestory: The windows below the vaults that form the naveelevation’s uppermost level. By using flying buttresses and ribvaults on pointed arches, Gothic architects could build hugeclerestory windows and fill them with stained glass held in place byornamental stonework called tracery.❚ Oculus: A small round window.❚ Lancet: A tall, narrow window crowned by a pointed arch.❚ Triforium: The story in the nave elevation consisting of arcades,usually blind but occasionally filled with stained glass).❚ Nave arcade: The series of arches supported by piers separatingthe nave from the side aisles.❚ Compound pier with shafts (responds): Also called the cluster pier,a pier with a group, or cluster, of attached shafts, or responds,extending to the springing of the vaults.Cutaway view of a typical French Gothic cathedral (JohnBurge). (1) pinnacle,(2) flying buttress, (3) vaulting web,(4) diagonal rib, (5) transverse rib, (6) springing,(7)clerestory, (8) oculus, (9) lancet, (10) triforium, (11) navearcade, (12) compound pier with responds.
  • 22. Gothic ArchitectureRose window a d lancets, north transept, C a es ose do and a ce s, o a sep , Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220.
  • 23. Gothic ArchitectureInterior of Amiens Cathedral (looking east), Amiens, France, begun 1220.
  • 24. Gothic ArchitectureNotre-Dame (looking north), Paris, France, begun 1163; nave and flying buttresses, ca. 1180–1200; remodeled after 1225.
  • 25. Renaissance ArchitectureThe fortunate congruence of artistic genius, the spread of humanism, and economic prosperity nourished the genius humanismflowering of the new artistic culture that historians call the Renaissance—the rebirth of classical values in art andlife. The greatest center of Renaissance art in the 15th century was Florence, home of the powerful Medici family,who were among the most ambitious art patrons in history.Italian architects revived the classical style. Brunelleschi’s Santo Spirito basilica showcases the clarity andRoman-inspired rationality of 15th-century Florentine architecture.Mantua became an important art center under Marquis Ludovico Gonzaga, who brought in Leon Battista Alberti to p q g , grebuild the church of Sant’Andrea. Alberti applied the principles he developed in his influential 1450 treatise Onthe Art of Building to the project and freely adapted forms from Roman religious, triumphal, and civic architecture.The leading architect of the early 16th century was Bramante, who championed the classical style of the ancients g y y , p ybut combined classical elements in original ways. He favored the central plan for ecclesiastical buildings.During the High (1500–1520) and Late (1520–1600) Renaissance, the major Italian artistic centers were Florence,Rome, and Venice. ,
  • 26. The Renaissance architect was not trained in theprofession of architecture, which did not yet existas a separate career; rather, artists became Renaissance Architecturearchitects via a variety of professions. FilippoBrunelleschi, widely considered the firstRenaissance architect, i a good example.R i hit t is d lHe traveled to Rome around 1402 after losing acommission to create a set of bronze doors forthe Baptistry of Florence. In Rome, Brunelleschiembarked on a sustained study of AncientRoman architecture, including the Pantheon. He greturned to Florence to build the largest domesince antiquity for the Florence Cathedral, latercalled the “Duomo.”
  • 27. Renaissance Architecture
  • 28. Renaissance Architecture Santo Spirito displays the classical rationality of Brunelleschi’s mature architectural style in its all- encompassing modular scheme based on the dimensions of the dome-covered crossing square. FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, interior of Santo Spirito (looking northeast), Florence, Italy, begun ca. 1436.
  • 29. Renaissance ArchitectureThe Medici palace, with its combination of dressed and rusticatedmasonry and classical moldings, draws heavily on ancient Romanarchitecture, but Michelozzo creatively reinterpreted his models.MICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, facade of the PalazzoMedici-Riccardi, Florence, Italy, begun 1445.
  • 30. Renaissance ArchitectureMICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, interior court of the Palazzo Medici- Riccardi, Florence, Italy, begun 1445.
  • 31. Renaissance ArchitectureAlberti sAlberti’s design for Sant’Andrea reflects his study of ancient Sant AndreaRoman architecture.Employing a colossal order, the architect locked together atriumphal arch and a Roman temple front with pediment.LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, west facade ofSant’Andrea, Mantua, Italy, designed 1470, begun1472.
  • 32. Renaissance ArchitectureContemporaries celebrated Bramante as the first to revive theclassical style in architecture. Roman round temples inspired this “littletemple,” but Bramante combined the classical parts in new ways.DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE, Tempietto, San Pietroin Montorio, Rome, Italy.
  • 33. Renaissance Architecture Michelangelo’s plan for the new Saint Peter’s was radically different from that of the original basilica. His central plan called for a domed Greek cross inscribed in a square and fronted by columns. The west end of Saint Peter’s offers the best view of Michelangelo’s intentions. The giant pilasters of his colossal order march around the undulating wall surfaces of the central-plan building. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Saint Peter’s (looking northeast), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564. Dome completed by GIACOMO DELLA PORTA, 1590.MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI plan for Saint BUONARROTI,Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546. (1) dome,(2) apse, (3) portico.
  • 34. Renaissance Architecture ANDREA PALLADIO, Villa Rotonda, near Vicenza, Italy, ca. 1550–1570.Palladio’s Villa Rotonda has four identical facades, each one resembling a Roman temple with a columnar porch. In the center is a great dome-covered rotunda modeled on the Pantheon
  • 35. Renaissance Architecture MannerismMICHELANGELO BUONARROTI L BUONARROTI, Laurentian Lib i Library vestibule ib l
  • 36. Islamic Architecture The Dome of the Rock is the first great monument of Islamic art. Structurally, the Dome of the Rock has centrallypplanned form. The dome, surmounting a circular drum p g pierced with windows and supported by arcades of pp yalternating piers and columns, covers the central space.The earliest mosque type was the hypostyle. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, built in the ninth century,reflects the early form of the mosque but is elaborated with later additions. Umayyad and Abbasid mosques were y q yy qof the hypostyle hall type and incorporated arcaded courtyards and minarets.The Umayyad capital in Spain was Córdoba, where the caliphs (r. 756–1031) erected and expanded the GreatMosque between the 8th and 10th centuries. The mosque features horse - shoe and multilobed arches and q qmosaic-clad domes.The Alhambra is the best surviving example of Islamic palace architecture. It is famous for its stuccoed walls andarches and its muqarnas vaults and domes.The Timurid (r. 1370–1501) and Safavid (r. 1501–1732) dynasties ruled Iran and Central Asia for almost fourcenturies and were great patrons of art and architecture. The art of tilework reached its peak under the patronageof the Safavid dynasty, when builders frequently used mosaic tiles to cover the walls and vaults of mosques andmadrasas.
  • 37. Islamic ArchitectureIslamic builders explored structure in innovative ways, using a variety of different arch types.The earliest is the simple semicircular arch, inherited from earlier cultures. It has a single center point that is level with the points from which the arch springs.The horseshoe arch is a second type, which became the prevalent arch form in the Maghreb. The center point of this kind of arch is above the level of the arch sspringing point so that it pinches inward above the capital point, capital.The pointed arch, introduced after the beginning of Islam, has two (sometimes four) center points, the points generating different circles that overlap.A keel arch has flat sides, and slopes where other arches are curved. It culminates at a pointed apex .
  • 38. Islamic Architecture Aerial view of the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687–692.
  • 39. Islamic Architecture Interior of the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687–692. The exterior of the Dome of the Rock has 16th-century tilework,but the interior’s original mosaic ornamentation has been preserved.
  • 40. Islamic Architecture Aerial view (above) and plan (right) of the Great Mosque, Kairouan, Tunisia, ca. 836–875.The hypostyle type of mosque
  • 41. Islamic Architecture Malwiya minaret, Great Mosque, Samarra, I S Iraq, 848–852. 848 852The unique spiral Malwiya minaret of Samarra’s Great Mosque is more than 165 feet tall and can be seen from afar afar.
  • 42. Islamic Architecture Dome in front of the mihrab of the Great Mosque, Córdoba, Spain, 961–965. This dome is a prime example of experimentation with highly decorativemultilobed arches. The rich and varied abstract patterns create a magnificent effect, which mosaics further heighten.
  • 43. Islamic Architecture Prayer hall of the Great Mosque, Córdoba, Spain, 8th to 10th centuries. Córdoba was the capital of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain.The Great Mosque’s prayer hall has 36 piers and 514 columns topped by a unique system of double-tiered, horseshoe-shaped arches.
  • 45. Islamic Architecture Aerial view (looking southwest) of the Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran, 11th to 17th centuries.Mosques take a variety of forms. In Iran, the standard type of mosque has four iwans opening onto a courtyard. The largest iwan leads into a dome-covered maqsura in front of the mihrab.
  • 46. THE HISTORY AND MEANING OF ARCHITECTURE:”Chronological table”; styles and periods - review with examples (Early Medieval Architecture, Romanesque Architecture, Gothic Architecture, Renaissance Architecture, Islamic Architecture) Exam preparation: Professor’s lecture and presentation Ching, Francis D., A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997., “History”, pages: 128-135. Farrelly, L., The Fundamentals of Architecture, AVA Publishing SA, 200., Chapter 2, "History and Precedent", pages: 34-61. Hamlin, A D Hamlin A.D., History of Architecture, Longmans Geen and Co Architecture Longmans, Geen, .
  • 47. Prepared by: Dr. Sc. Nermina Mujezinović architect Literature that was used for lecture preparation / Credits & References1. Kleiner, F. S. , Gardner’s Art through the Ages2. Palmer, A.L.,2 Palmer A L Historical Dictionary of Architecture, The Scarecrow Press Inc 2008 Architecture Press, Inc.,3. Mariliyn Stokstad, Michael W. Cothren, Art History4. Hansbridge, J., Graphic History of Architecture4. Hamlin, A.D., History of Architecture, Longmans, Geen, and Co, 1909.5. Farrelly, L., The Fundamentals of Architecture, AVA Publishing SA, 2007.