“Commodity” (utility): how does the building function? “Firmness” (strength) : ( g ) how does the building stand up?VITRUVIUS ON ARCHITECTUREEDITED FROM THE HARLEIAN MANUSCRIPT 2767 AND TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH BY FRANK GRANGER, D.Lrr., A.R.I.B.A.PROFESSOR IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM IN TWO VOLUMES I
“Haec autem ita fieri debent, ut habeatur ratio firmitatis, utilitatis, venustatis.” .BOOK I. c. i., CHAPTER III, ON THE PARTS OF ARCHITECTURE, page 34 / 35Image: Vitruvius’ De Architectura, Book X. Medieval Copy Carolingian Anonymous (750-987)Image source: http://wobblingsolutions.wordpress.com/category/uncategorized/page/2/
“2. Now these should be so carried out that account is taken of strength, t th utility, tilit grace. firmitatis, utilitatis, venustatis (lat.)CHAPTER IIION THE PARTS OFARCHITECTURE, page34 / 35 Account will be taken of strength when the foundations are carried down to the solid ground and when from each material there is a ground, choice of supplies without parsimony; of utility, when the sites are arranged without mistake and impediment to their use, and a fit and convenient disposition for the aspect of each kind ; of grace, when the appearance of the work shall be pleasing and elegant, and the scale of the constituent parts is justly calculated for symmetry”
A place to shelter, celebrate, work or worship? We ca ta about “utility” on two levels, i.e, from two aspects: e can talk ut ty o t o e e s, e, o t o aspects• in regard with organization of space, which must meet the needs arising from a specific physiological civilizational anthropological spiritual, physiological, civilizational, anthropological, spiritual cultural, economic, social and other needs. • in regard with material components i.e., material system of building - components, i eenclosure, that must respond to all physical impacts of environment and needs of users.
Shelter1 2Artificial shelter starts with such gentle manipulations In progressively more elaborate stages ofof the landscape as planting a tree for shade or a row environmental intervention, a paving of stonesof shrubbery for a windbreak. A simple, freestanding or a platform of wood provides a drier footingeast-west wall of piled-up rocks, by means of its for the inhabitant. A lean-to roof keeps off rainvertical profile and its thermal capacity, can create a and snow.small zone of shaded coolness immediately to its ynorth in hot weather and a sun-warmed, less windyzone to its south in cold weather.
Shelter3 4At night, a fire at the mouth of this simple shelter One can easily imagine further steps in thewarms its occupants by both direct and wall- improvement of such a rudimentary shelter: the use ofreflected radiation, and a small portion of its heat is fabric or skins to close off the open side after dark orstored in the stones to moderate the temperature of on cloudy days, the moving of the fire to an interiorthe sheltered space even after the fire has died. hearth, and so on.
Development of human civilization –development of needs, requirements, spaces
Development of human civilization:development of needs,requirements, spaces i
The Function of Buildings Spiritual, cultural, Spiritual cultural social and other needs Temple of Horus, Edfu, Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, cca. 490 B.C. 237-212 B.C., the Ptolemaic period Differences regarding disposition, articulation of space and arrangement of space:buildings of same functions, constructed in different cultural, civilization and religious contexts.
The Function of Buildings Spiritual, cultural, Spiritual cultural social and other needs Differences regarding visual expression: buildings of same functions, constructed within different cultural, civilization and religious contexts.Temple of Horus, Edfu, 237-212 B.C., the Ptolemaic period Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, cca. 490 B.C.
The Function of Buildings A place to shelter, celebrate work or worship? shelter celebrate, Differences regarding articulation of space and arrangement of space: buildings of different functionspublic library layout
The Function of Buildings A place to shelter, celebrate work or worship? shelter celebrate,Differences regarding articulation of space and arrangement of space: buildings of different functions hotel, floor layout
The Function of BuildingsFactor of traditionSpecific developing of layout based on traditions and culturalfactorsJapanese house with spatial sections serving for traditional tea ceremony
What a building should do? This is the graphical presentation of the list, attempting to include all the functional expectations we have for a building at the present time. The diagram shows interconnections / interdependences of different f diff functions of the i f h building.
What a building should do? After Vitruvius, many theoreticians of architecture proposed many different systems by which buildings may be analysed, their qualities discussed and their meanings understood. Besides this, within the scope of building science numerous sets of requirements, standards and regulations on different aspects of building functioning have been developed.Set of requirements on wall designing, according to Neil Hutcheon.
Below:Some of the more critical physical phenomena impacting enclosures,according to Hutcheon.Left:Building occupancy types and occupancy factors, according toHutcheon.
Concept of Enclosureigloo wigwam Buildings are enclosed for privacy, to exclude wind, rain, and snow from the interior, and to y yurt control interior temperature and humidity. A single-enclosure type of system is one that extends continuously from the ground to enclose the floor. Simple examples are cone-like tepees and dome igloos igloos. A multiple-enclosure type of system consists of aisba hut horizontal or inclined top covering, called a roof, and vertical or inclined side enclosures called walls. ll pile dwelling hut tepee
Concept of EnclosureBuilding: shell (envelope) and structure In order to understand how a building works, we can dissect it and study its various elemental functions. But few building functions take place in isolation. Almost every component of a building serves more than one f h function, i with some components commonly serving ten or more simultaneously, and these functions are heavily f ti h il interdependent. A VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE, FRANCIS D.K. CHING
How Buildings Work? THERMAL CONTROL: Heat transfer and the building envelopeInsulated wallHow much heat the building envelope -the construction that separates the interior spaces from the outsideenvironment - gains or loses is influenced by the construction of the outside of the building envelope, along withthe wind velocity outside the building. Each layer of material making up the building’s exterior shell contributessome resistance to the flow of heat into or out of the building. The amount of resistance depends on the propertiesand thickness of the materials making up the envelope. Heavy, compact materials usually have less resistance toheat flow than light ones. Each air space separating materials in the building envelope adds resistance as well.The surface inside the building also resists heat flow by holding a film of air along its surface. The rougher thesurface is, the thicker the film and the higher the insulation value.
How Buildings Work? THERMAL CONTROL: Ventilation Before the invention of mechanical ventilation, the common high ceilings in buildings created a large volume of indoor air that diluted odors and carbon dioxide. Fresh air was provided by infiltration, the accidental leakage of air through cracks in the building, which along with operable windows created a steady exchange of air with the outdoors. “Cupola” Whole house fanRoof window
How Buildings Work? DAYLIGHTING Skylights Clerestory windowUntil recently, the workday ended when the sun went down. At the end of the day, everyone huddled around thefire, and then headed off to bed in the dark. Fires, candles, and oil lamps provided weak illumination, and wereoften too expensive for poorer people. People depended on daylight entering their buildings to give enough lightfor daily tasks.Architects and builders understood the role of natural light in buildings intuitively. Building orientations,configurations, and interior finishes were selected to provide sufficient levels of daylighting in interior spaces.
How Buildings Work? WATER AND WASTESThroughout history, a primary concern of architects, builders, and homeowners has been how to keep water out ofbuildings. It wasn’t until the end of the nineteenth century that supplying water inside a building became common in industrial countries. Indoor plumbing is still not available in many parts of the world today.Today, interior designers work with architects, engineers, andcontractors to make sure that water is supplied in a way that supports health, safety, comfort, and utility. Supply plumbing
How Buildings Work? HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS In steam heating systems, steam that is produced in a boiler is circulated under pressure through insulated pipes, and then condensed in cast-iron radiators. In the radiator, the latent heat given off when the steam cools and becomes water is released to the air of the room. The condensed water then returns to the boiler through a network of return pipes. The system is reasonably efficient but difficult to control precisely, as the steam gives off its heat rapidly.Radiators
How electricity is supplied to a buildingHow Buildings Work?ELECTRICITYUntil around 1870, only fire and muscle power were commonly used in buildings to perform useful work.Historically, coal and oil were burned for heat and light or converted into energy for machines that generated heat.Since the end of the nineteenth century, heat has been converted into electricity. Even nuclear energy producesheat for conversion to electricity. Converting heat to electricity is inherently inefficient, with about 60 percent of theenergy in the heat wasted.Today, electricity offers a clean, reliable, and very convenient source of energy for illumination, heating, powerequipment, and electronic communication.
How Buildings Work? ACOUSTICS ReverberationAcoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects ofsound. Acoustical design is the planning, shaping, finishing, and furnishing of an enclosed space to establish anacoustic environment necessary for the distinct hearing of speech or musical sounds. Understandinghow we hear sound and how sound interacts with the built environment helps us design spaces that are asacoustically pleasing as they are visually rich.
Structural Types POST AND BEAM (POST AND LINTEL) Beam is a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. Column is a rigid, relatively slender rigidstructural member designed primarily tosupport axial, compressive loads applied at the member ends.A VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE, FRANCIS D.K. CHING
Structural Types POST AND BEAM (POST AND LINTEL)
Structural Types ARCHES AND VAULTSArch is a curved structure for spanning an opening designed to support a vertical load primarily by axial opening, compression. A VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE, FRANCIS D.K. CHING
Structural Types ARCHES AND VAULTS Ilustracija 7: potkovičasti kameni luk, u različitim izvedbama, periodima i kulturama.Figure 7: stone horseshoe arc, in different versions, periods and cultures. MUJEZINOVIĆ, NERMINA: KAMEN – MATERIJAL KONTINUITETA I IZRAŽAJNIH MOGUĆNOSTI, FEDERAL MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, SARAJEVO, 2009.
Structural Types ARCHES AND VAULTSVault isV l i an arched structure of stone, b i k h d f brick or reinforced concrete, forming a ceilingor roof over a hall, room or other wholly or partially enclosed space. A VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE, FRANCIS D.K. CHING
Structural Types ARCHES AND VAULTSIlustracija 19: romaničko i gotičko oblikovanje ukamenu, kameni rebrasti svod.Illustration 19: artistic expression of Romanesqueand Gothic periods in stone. Ribbed vault made ofstone.stone MUJEZINOVIĆ, NERMINA: KAMEN – MATERIJAL KONTINUITETA I IZRAŽAJNIH MOGUĆNOSTI, FEDERAL MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, SARAJEVO, 2009.
Structural Types DOMESDome is a vaulted structurehaving a circular plan and usuallythe form of a portion of a sphere,so constructed as to exert anequal thrust in all directions directions. A VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE, FRANCIS D.K. CHING
Structural Types DOMESIlustracija 8: najstarije kupole na trompama,Firuzabad, rano III st.Illustration 8: The oldest domes on squinches,Firouzabad, early III century MUJEZINOVIĆ, NERMINA: KAMEN – MATERIJAL KONTINUITETA I IZRAŽAJNIH MOGUĆNOSTI, FEDERAL MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, SARAJEVO, 2009.
Structural Types PORTAL FRAME STRUCTURES Portal frame construction is a method of building anddesigning simple structures primarily using steel or steel structures, steel- reinforced precast concrete although they can also be constructed using laminated timber. The connections between the columns and the rafters are designed to be moment-resistant, i e moment resistant i.e. they can carry bending forces. forces
Structural Types TRUSSESA structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear members subject only to axial tension or compression. A VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE, FRANCIS D.K. CHING
Structural Types SPACE FRAME TRUSSESA two-dimensional truss transforms into three dimensions over the central span of the terminal.
Interior of a concrete shell structure Structural Types SHELLS Also known as ‘surface structures’, shells resist and transfer loads within their minimal thicknesses. They rely upon their three- dimensional curved geometry and correctInterior ribbed surface of the shell. orientation and placement of supports for their adequate structural performance.
Structural Types MEMBRANE STRUCTURESFabric or membrane structures represent another type of surface structure. These structures, where tensionedfabric initially resists selfweight and other loads, also rely upon their three-dimensional curvatures for structuraladequacy. Fabric form, thickness and strength must match the expected loads, and all surfaces must be stretchedtaut to prevent the fabric flapping during high winds. Like shell structures, there is no distinction between thearchitectural and the structural forms.
Structural Types SUSPENSION STRUCTURESSuspension structure is structure of cables suspended and prestressed between compression members to directly support applied loads. A VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE, FRANCIS D.K. CHING
...ALL THESE as applied within the contemporaryarchitectural and engineering practice: typical working drawing sheets for a medium – sized building d i h f di i d b ildi In contemporary practice, a set of projects which is to be provided within the construction documentation stage consists of the following projects: architectural project, landscape project, structural design with a static estimate and analyses, the project of electrical supply (electrical installation) project, heating and ventilation project and plumbing (water supply and sewerage) project.
1. “Commodity (utility)”: how does the building function? “Firmness (strength)” : how does the building stand up? Exam preparation: Professor s Professor’s lecture and presentation Ching, Francis D., A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997.,“Arch”, pages: 12; “Beam”, pages: 15; “Building”, pages: 21-23; “Cable structure”, pages: 29; “Column”, pages: 40; “Dome”, pages: 60 61; “Heating”, pages:121; “House”, pages:136; “Light”, pages: 150; “Membrane”, pages: Dome 60,61; Heating House Light Membrane 168; “Plate”, pages: 195.; “Plumbing”, pages: 196; ”Shell”, pages: 219; “Truss”, pages 259; “Vault”, pages 262. Neufert, E., Neufert, P., Baiche,B. , Walliman, N., Architects Data, 3rd Edition, 2002., “Suspensioned and Tensioned Structures”, pages: 88; “Space Frames: Principles , pages: 89; “Tensile and Suspensioned Structures Space Principles” Tensile Inflatable Structures”, pages: 86; “Cable Net Structures”, pages:87; “Thermal Insulation”, pages: 111. Further readings : Mujezinović, N M j i ić Nermina: K i Kamen – materijal k ti it t i i ž j ih mogućnosti, t ij l kontinuiteta izražajnih ć ti Federal Ministry of Education and Science, Sarajevo, 2009.
Prepared by: Dr. Sc. Dr Sc Nermina Mujezinović architect Literature th t was used f lecture preparation / C dit & R f Lit t that d for l t ti Credits ReferencesVitruvius, on Architecture, Cambridge, Massachusetts Harvard University Press; William Heinemann. 1953.Charleson, A.W., Structure as Architecture, A Source Book for Archtects and Structural Engineers, Elsevier, 2005.Ching, Francis D., A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997.Allen, E., How Buildings Work – The Natural Order of Architecture, Oxford University Press, 2005.Binggeli, C., Building Systems for Interior Designers, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.Mujezinović, N., Kamen – materijal kontinuiteta i izražajnih mogućnosti, Federal Ministry of Education and Science, Sarajevo, 2009.Hansbridge, J., Graphic Hiistory of Architecture, Hennessey & Ingalls, 1999.Corbeil, J. C.; Archambault, A.,Corbeil J C ; Archambault A The Macmillan Visual Dictionary: Architecture Websters New World; 1 Amer ed edition 1992 Architecture, Webster s edition, 1992.Mehta, G.; Tada, K., Japan Style: architecture, interiors, design, Tuttle Publishing, 2005.Mostaedi, A., Design Hotels, Architectural DesignG. B. McCabe; J. R. Kennedy, Planning the Modern Public Library Building, Libraries Unlimited,2003.