Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.
Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.
What Are Emotions? Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience.
Biology of emotions
Originate in brain’s limbic system
Intensity of emotions
Frequency and duration of emotions
How often emotions are exhibited
How long emotions are displayed
Functions of emotions
Critical for rational thinking
Mood as Positive and Negative Affect
SOURCES OF EMOTIONS AND MOODS
Day and Time of the Week
Positive Moods are Highest
At the End of the Week
In the Middle Part of the Day
Negative Moods are Highest
At the Beginning of the Week
And, show little variation throughout the day
Gender and Emotions
Can show greater emotional expression.
Experience emotions more intensely.
Display emotions more frequently.
Are more comfortable in expressing emotions.
Are better at reading others’ emotions.
Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image.
Are innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions.
Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions.
External Constraints on Emotions Organizational Influences Cultural Influences Individual Emotions
Emotional Labor Emotional Labor A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Felt versus Displayed Emotions Felt Emotions An individual’s actual emotions. Displayed Emotions Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.
Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
Note: Higher emotional labor = more highly paid jobs (with high cognitive requirements)
Affective Events Theory (AET)
Emotions are negative or positive responses to a work environment event.
Personality and mood determine the intensity of the emotional response.
Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance and job satisfaction variables.
Implications of the theory:
Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.
Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.
Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction and performance.
Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance.
Affective Events Theory (AET) E X H I B I T 8 –6 Source: Based on N.M. Ashkanasy and C.S. Daus, “Emotion in the Workplace: The New Challenge for Managers,” Academy of Management Executive , February 2002, p. 77.
Self-awareness (know how you feel)
Self-management (manage your emotions and impulses)
Self-motivation (can motivate yourself & persist)
Empathy (sense & understand what others feel)
Social Skills (can handle the emotions of others)
Research Findings: High EI scores, not high IQ scores, characterize high performers.
OB Applications of Understanding Emotions
Emotions and Selection
Emotions affect employee effectiveness.
Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.
Positive mood increases creativity
Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.
Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.
OB Applications… (cont’d)
Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.
Emotions can impair negotiations.
Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships.
Can carry over to home
Deviant Workplace Behaviors
Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization).
Lucy has a high need for achievement and likes to come to work and focus on her job only. If you were Lucy’s manager, how could you get her to feel more emotion at work? Would you want her to? Why or why not? Discuss with a classmate.
Roberto comes to class and sits quietly looking content and relaxed. The teacher is guessing that Roberto is
Low on negative affect High on positive affect High on negative affect Low on positive affect Chapter Check-Up: Emotions and Moods Discuss with a neighbor why Roberto, who is seemingly happy but calm, isn’t just low on positive affect.