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  1. 1. Emotions and Moods Chapter EIGHT
  2. 2. Emotions - Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB <ul><li>The “myth of rationality” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations are not emotion-free. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What Are Emotions? Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience.
  4. 5. Emotion Dimensions <ul><li>Biology of emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originate in brain’s limbic system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity of emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency and duration of emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often emotions are exhibited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long emotions are displayed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions of emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical for rational thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate people </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Mood as Positive and Negative Affect
  6. 7. SOURCES OF EMOTIONS AND MOODS <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Day and Time of the Week </li></ul><ul><li>NOT Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Social Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Positive Moods are Highest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the End of the Week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Middle Part of the Day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Moods are Highest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the Beginning of the Week </li></ul></ul>And, show little variation throughout the day
  8. 9. Gender and Emotions <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can show greater emotional expression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience emotions more intensely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display emotions more frequently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are more comfortable in expressing emotions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are better at reading others’ emotions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. External Constraints on Emotions Organizational Influences Cultural Influences Individual Emotions
  10. 11. Emotional Labor Emotional Labor A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
  11. 12. Felt versus Displayed Emotions Felt Emotions An individual’s actual emotions. Displayed Emotions Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.
  12. 13. <ul><li>Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. </li></ul>Note: Higher emotional labor = more highly paid jobs (with high cognitive requirements)
  13. 14. Affective Events Theory (AET) <ul><li>Emotions are negative or positive responses to a work environment event. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality and mood determine the intensity of the emotional response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance and job satisfaction variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications of the theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction and performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Affective Events Theory (AET) E X H I B I T 8 –6 Source: Based on N.M. Ashkanasy and C.S. Daus, “Emotion in the Workplace: The New Challenge for Managers,” Academy of Management Executive , February 2002, p. 77.
  15. 16. Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Self-awareness (know how you feel) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management (manage your emotions and impulses) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-motivation (can motivate yourself & persist) </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy (sense & understand what others feel) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Skills (can handle the emotions of others) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Findings: High EI scores, not high IQ scores, characterize high performers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. OB Applications of Understanding Emotions <ul><li>Emotions and Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions affect employee effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive mood increases creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. OB Applications… (cont’d) <ul><li>Interpersonal Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions can impair negotiations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can carry over to home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deviant Workplace Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity failures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property theft and destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal aggression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Lucy has a high need for achievement and likes to come to work and focus on her job only. If you were Lucy’s manager, how could you get her to feel more emotion at work? Would you want her to? Why or why not? Discuss with a classmate. </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Emotions and Moods
  19. 20. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Discuss with your neighbor how low positive affect is the same or different as high negative affect. </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Emotions and Moods
  20. 21. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Roberto comes to class and sits quietly looking content and relaxed. The teacher is guessing that Roberto is </li></ul>Low on negative affect High on positive affect High on negative affect Low on positive affect Chapter Check-Up: Emotions and Moods Discuss with a neighbor why Roberto, who is seemingly happy but calm, isn’t just low on positive affect.
  21. 22. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Check-Up: Emotions and Moods Do you think there could be emotional and mood implications for telecommuting? If yes, how so? Discuss with a classmate . Hint: Consider this woman! Why might she NOT always feel this way?