What Is Motivation? Persistence Intensity Direction
What is Motivation?
Intensity: how hard a person tries
Direction: toward beneficial goal
Persistence: how long a person tries
Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needs —physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs E X H I B I T 6 –1 Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological
Assumptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy
Movement up the Pyramid
Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied.
Maslow Application: A homeless person will not be motivated to meditate!
Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order
Theory X Managers See Workers As… Disliking Work Avoiding Responsibility Having Little Ambition Theory Y Managers See Workers As… Enjoying Work Accepting Responsibility Self-Directed
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors---Extrinsic & Related to Dissatisfaction
Motivation Factors---Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction
Bottom Line: Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are not Opposite Ends of the Same Thing!
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6 –3
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Bottom Line: Individuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior
Matching High Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6 –4
Cognitive Evaluation Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. The theory may only be relevant to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting. Hint: For this theory, think about how fun it is to read in the summer, but once reading is assigned to you for a grade, you don’t want to do it!
E X H I B I T 6 –5 What Would Herzberg Say? What Would Maslow Say?
Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback , lead to higher performance.
But, the relationship between goals and performance will depend on
“ I want to do it & I can do it”
task characteristics (simple, well-learned)
Goal Setting in Action: MBO Programs
M anagement B y O bjectives Programs
Company wide goals & objectives
Goals aligned at all levels
Based on Goal Setting Theory
What is MBO?
Participative decision making
An explicit time period
Management by Objectives (MBO) A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.
Cascading of Objectives E X H I B I T 6 –1
Linking MBO and Goal-Setting Theory MBO Goal-Setting Theory Goal Specificity Yes Yes Goal Difficulty Yes Yes Feedback Yes Yes Participation Yes No (qualified)
Why MBOs Fail
Unrealistic expectations about MBO results
Lack of commitment by top management
Failure to allocate reward properly
Self-Efficacy Self Esteem, which is…. Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.
An individual’s feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. “I know I can!”)
Enhances probability that goals will be achieved
Not to be confused with:
Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting
Four Ways of Increasing Self Efficacy (Bandura)
Note: Basic Premise/Mechanism of Pygmalion and Galatea Effects
Behavior is environmentally caused.
Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences.
Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
Equity Theory (cont’d) E X H I B I T 6 –8
Equity Theory (cont’d)
Choices for dealing with inequity:
Change inputs (slack off)
Change outcomes (increase output)
Distort/change perceptions of self
Distort/change perceptions of others
Choose a different referent person
Leave the field (quit the job)
Equity Theory (cont’d)
Propositions relating to inequitable pay:
Overrewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees.
Overrewarded piece-work employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work.
Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work.
Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees.
Justice and Equity Theory
Three types of Justice Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the outcome (the final distribution). “ Who got what?” Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the outcome (the final distribution). “How was who gets what decided?” Interactional Justice The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect. “ Was I treated well?”
Expectancy Theory Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders
All three links between the boxes must be intact or motivation will not occur. Thus,
Individuals must feel that if they try, they can perform
If they perform, they will be rewarded
When they are rewarded, the reward will be something they care about
Elizabeth’s boss my well be a Theory X manager, as s/he assumes employees don’t like work and/or want to be there.
Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
If you study really hard and only get a B on an exam, but your classmate barely studies at all and gets an A, what theory will help explain why you feel less motivated to go to class? Chapter Check-Up: Motivation