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  • Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward the attainment of a goal. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we discuss the topic of motivation. However, unless effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization, high intensity is no guarantee of favorable job-performance outcomes. Quality of effort, therefore, is just as important as intensity of effort. Finally, persistence (how long a person can maintain effort) is important. A motivated person stays with a task long enough to achieve his or her goal.
  • Douglas McGregor said that managers hold one of two sets of assumptions about human nature: either Theory X or Theory Y. Seeing people as irresponsible and lazy, managers who follow Theory X assume the following: 1. Employees inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it. 2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve goals. 3. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction, if possible. 4. Most workers place security above all other work-related factors and will display little ambition. Since they see people as responsible and conscientious, managers who follow Theory Y assume the following: 1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. 2. When committed to their objectives, people will exercise self-direction and self-control 3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. 4. Many workers besides managers have innovative decision-making skills. No hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may or may not be appropriate, depending on the situation at hand.
  • Ch6 ob

    1. 1. Motivation Concepts Chapter SIX
    2. 2. What Is Motivation? Persistence Intensity Direction
    3. 3. What is Motivation? <ul><li>Key Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity: how hard a person tries </li></ul><ul><li>Direction: toward beneficial goal </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence: how long a person tries </li></ul>Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
    4. 4. Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needs —physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. <ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs E X H I B I T 6 –1 Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological
    6. 6. Assumptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy <ul><li>Movement up the Pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. </li></ul>Maslow Application: A homeless person will not be motivated to meditate! <ul><li>Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order </li></ul>
    7. 7. Theory X Managers See Workers As… Disliking Work Avoiding Responsibility Having Little Ambition Theory Y Managers See Workers As… Enjoying Work Accepting Responsibility Self-Directed
    8. 8. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Separate constructs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene Factors---Extrinsic & Related to Dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation Factors---Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction </li></ul></ul>Bottom Line: Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction are not Opposite Ends of the Same Thing! <ul><li>Hygiene Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Work Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Company Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Motivators: </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul>
    9. 9. Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction E X H I B I T 6 –2 Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review . An exhibit from One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? by Frederick Herzberg, September–October 1987. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College: All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6 –3
    11. 11. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Bottom Line: Individuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior
    12. 12. Matching High Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6 –4
    13. 13. Cognitive Evaluation Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. The theory may only be relevant to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting. Hint: For this theory, think about how fun it is to read in the summer, but once reading is assigned to you for a grade, you don’t want to do it!
    14. 14. E X H I B I T 6 –5 What Would Herzberg Say? What Would Maslow Say?
    15. 15. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback , lead to higher performance. <ul><li>But, the relationship between goals and performance will depend on </li></ul><ul><li>goal commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I want to do it & I can do it” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>task characteristics (simple, well-learned) </li></ul><ul><li>national culture </li></ul>
    16. 16. Goal Setting in Action: MBO Programs <ul><li>M anagement B y O bjectives Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Company wide goals & objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Goals aligned at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Goal Setting Theory </li></ul>
    17. 17. What is MBO? <ul><li>Key Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Goal specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Participative decision making </li></ul><ul><li>An explicit time period </li></ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul>Management by Objectives (MBO) A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.
    18. 18. Cascading of Objectives E X H I B I T 6 –1
    19. 19. Linking MBO and Goal-Setting Theory MBO Goal-Setting Theory Goal Specificity Yes Yes Goal Difficulty Yes Yes Feedback Yes Yes Participation Yes No (qualified)
    20. 20. Why MBOs Fail <ul><li>Unrealistic expectations about MBO results </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of commitment by top management </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to allocate reward properly </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural incompatibilities </li></ul>
    21. 21. Self-Efficacy Self Esteem, which is…. Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. <ul><li>An individual’s feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. “I know I can!”) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances probability that goals will be achieved </li></ul>Not to be confused with:
    22. 22. Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting
    23. 23. Four Ways of Increasing Self Efficacy (Bandura) <ul><li>Enactive Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal </li></ul>Note: Basic Premise/Mechanism of Pygmalion and Galatea Effects
    24. 24. Reinforcement Theory <ul><li>Assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is environmentally caused. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. </li></ul>Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences.
    25. 25. Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
    26. 26. Equity Theory (cont’d) E X H I B I T 6 –8
    27. 27. Equity Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>Choices for dealing with inequity: </li></ul><ul><li>Change inputs (slack off) </li></ul><ul><li>Change outcomes (increase output) </li></ul><ul><li>Distort/change perceptions of self </li></ul><ul><li>Distort/change perceptions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a different referent person </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the field (quit the job) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Equity Theory (cont’d) <ul><li>Propositions relating to inequitable pay: </li></ul><ul><li>Overrewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Overrewarded piece-work employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. </li></ul><ul><li>Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. </li></ul><ul><li>Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Justice and Equity Theory
    30. 30. Three types of Justice Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the outcome (the final distribution). “ Who got what?” Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the outcome (the final distribution). “How was who gets what decided?” Interactional Justice The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect. “ Was I treated well?”
    31. 31. Expectancy Theory Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders <ul><li>Bottom line </li></ul><ul><li>All three links between the boxes must be intact or motivation will not occur. Thus, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals must feel that if they try, they can perform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If they perform, they will be rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When they are rewarded, the reward will be something they care about </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li> Elizabeth’s boss starts out the day each morning saying, “Bet you wish you didn’t have to be here, huh?” Knowing this, which theory gives us insight as to why Elizabeth may not be motivated at work? </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
    33. 33. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li> Elizabeth’s boss my well be a Theory X manager, as s/he assumes employees don’t like work and/or want to be there. </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
    34. 34. If you study really hard and only get a B on an exam, but your classmate barely studies at all and gets an A, what theory will help explain why you feel less motivated to go to class? Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
    35. 35. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>What theory would say that this man, who knows he works hard and is performing well, will be motivated by a gym membership for being a high performer? </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
    36. 36. Expectancy Theory. Would a gym membership be considered a motivator or hygiene factor, according to Herzberg? Discuss with a classmate. Chapter Check-Up: Motivation
    37. 37. Putting It All Together