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  1. 1. Personality and Values Chapter FOUR
  2. 2. What is Personality? Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others; measurable traits a person exhibits. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator <ul><li>Personality Types </li></ul><ul><li>Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) </li></ul><ul><li>Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) </li></ul><ul><li>Score is a combination of all four (e.g., ENTJ) </li></ul>Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
  4. 4. Meyers-Briggs, Continued <ul><li>A Meyers-Briggs score </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a valuable too for self-awareness and career guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be used as a selection tool because it has not been related to job performance!!! </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Agreeableness Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. Conscientiousness Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. Openness to Experience Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive Emotional Stability Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative).
  6. 6. Measuring Personality <ul><li>Self-report surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Observer-rating surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Projective measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rorschach Inkblot Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic Apperception Test </li></ul></ul>Personality is Measured By
  7. 7. Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB <ul><li>Core Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machiavellianism </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissism </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Type A vs. Type B personality </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Personality </li></ul>
  8. 8. Core Self-Evaluation: Two Main Components <ul><li>Self Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. </li></ul><ul><li>Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Externals (External locus of control) Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Machiavellianism <ul><li>Conditions Favoring High Machs </li></ul><ul><li>Direct interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions distract for others </li></ul>Machiavellianism (Mach) Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
  10. 10. Narcissism <ul><li>A Narcissistic Person </li></ul><ul><li>Has grandiose sense of self-importance </li></ul><ul><li>Requires excessive admiration </li></ul><ul><li>Has a sense of entitlement </li></ul><ul><li>Is arrogant </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be rated as less effective </li></ul>
  11. 11. Self-Monitoring Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. <ul><li>High Self-Monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Receive better performance ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Likely to emerge as leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Show less commitment to their organizations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Risk-Taking <ul><li>High Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make quicker decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use less information to make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are slower to make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require more information before making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in larger organizations with stable environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Propensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Personality Types <ul><li>Type A’s </li></ul><ul><li>are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; </li></ul><ul><li>feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; </li></ul><ul><li>strive to think or do two or more things at once; </li></ul><ul><li>cannot cope with leisure time; </li></ul><ul><li>are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. </li></ul><ul><li>Type B’s </li></ul><ul><li>never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; </li></ul><ul><li>feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; </li></ul><ul><li>play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; </li></ul><ul><li>can relax without guilt. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Personality Types Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.
  15. 15. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Which of the following is not a typical personality trait considered to be organizationally relevant? </li></ul>Locus of control Self-monitoring Self-enhancing Self esteem Machiavellianism Chapter Check-Up: Personality Discuss with your neighbor how each of the three traits above would influence a college instructor’s behavior, and where you think your teacher falls with respect to each of them.
  16. 16. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Check-Up: Personality Alison arrives to class and realizes that she’s forgotten her homework to turn in. She says “Oh man, it’s just not my lucky day today.” Alison has ______________. Alison has a high external locus of control. Alison believes that things outside of her control determine what happens. If Alison works on a team with you, and you have a very high internal locus of control, what kinds of discussions do you think the two of you might have? Discuss with a friend.
  17. 17. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Julia is known for being a go-getter. She never leaves a task incomplete, and is involved in a number of activities. Moreover, she’s at the top of her class. She’s so busy that sometimes, she forgets to stop and eat lunch. Julia can be easily characterized as someone that has/is a Type ____ Personality. </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Personality A
  18. 18. <ul><li>Julia is also likely to not be very </li></ul><ul><li>Happy? </li></ul><ul><li>Fun? </li></ul><ul><li>Creative? </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed? </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Personality In general, Type A’s are rarely creative because they generally don’t allocate the necessary time for new solution development; they usually rely on past experiences to solve problems in order to be speedy.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Definition: Mode of conduct or end state is personally or socially preferable (i.e., what is right & good) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable End States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ways/means for achieving one’s terminal values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. </li></ul>Values Note: Values Vary by Cohort
  20. 20. Importance of Values <ul><li>Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence our perception of the world around us. </li></ul><ul><li>Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.” </li></ul><ul><li>Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Values – - Rokeach Value Survey Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.
  22. 22. Values in the Rokeach Survey E X H I B I T 4-3 Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).
  23. 23. Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d) E X H I B I T 4-3 (cont’d) Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).
  24. 24. Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists E X H I B I T 4-4 Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44.
  25. 25. Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Ethical Climate in the Organization Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders
  26. 26. <ul><li>Power Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism vs. Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity vs. Femininity </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term and Short-term orientation </li></ul>Values across Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework
  27. 27. Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Low distance: relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth High distance: extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth
  28. 28. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups. Vs.
  29. 29. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Masculinity The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and materialism are also valued. Femininity The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and women. Vs.
  30. 30. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. <ul><li>High Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not like ambiguous situations & tries to avoid them. </li></ul><ul><li>Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind ambiguous situations & embraces them. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence. Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here and now. Vs.
  32. 32. Achieving Person-Job Fit <ul><li>Personality Types </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprising </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul>Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland) Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.
  33. 33. Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations E X H I B I T 4 –8
  34. 34. Relationships among Occupational Personality Types E X H I B I T 4 –9 Source: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973, 1985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) <ul><li>Useful for determining person-organization fit </li></ul><ul><li>Survey that forces choices/rankings of one’s personal values </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful for identifying most important values to look for in an organization (in efforts to create a good fit) </li></ul>
  36. 36. In Country J most of the top management team meets employees at the local bar for a beer on Fridays, and there are no reserved parking spaces. Everyone is on a first name basis with each other. Country J, according to Hofstede’s Framework, is probably low on what dimension? Chapter Check-Up: Values <ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Power Distance </li></ul>How would a College or University in Country J differ from your College or University? Identify 3 differences and discuss with a neighbor.