Software Project Management( lecture 1)

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  • No lab today
    More lab in later term
  • dice.com search “project management”
    See everything from this class
    Bridge Technical and non-technical
    Other Certs don’t matter
    Hundreds of PM programs like MS-Project
    Project: the illusion of control
  • Temporary:
    can be years
    Result can be lasting
    Team can be temporary
    Finite duration
    Ex: thousands of buildings, but each is unique
    Scope s/b constant even as elaboration happens
  • managing all stakeholder Expectations is challenging – conflict
  • If you study for the PMI certification you’ll need to know these
  • Like families, each dysfunctional in it’s own “special way”
    Classic Mistakes later == Anti
    Different sizes need different choices from the PM
  • McConnell refers to “Pillars”
    These provide balance
  • Peopleware issues
    10-to-1 difference in Dev productivity
    Teams 3 or 5 to 1 diff
    Process
    Dev basics, risk mgmt, QA, lifecycle planning, customer orientation
    Product
    Most tangible dimension
    Technology
  • Teams: 5-to-1 range
  • cut time-to-market
    Improve quality
  • Seductive: good reason for decisions at the time
    Some are IT, most not
    We’ll visit these throughout course
    Gilligan’s Island: new scheme, get off island, seems to work, then fails
    Being aware can help prevent
    Class discussion
  • Motivation: studies show has largest impact
    Don’t undermine Morale
    2nd greatest influence on productivity
    Junior != bad
    Uncontrolled: most common developer complain about their managers
    Heroics. Company hostage.
    “Can-do”, “how high” attitudes
    Brooks, reading assignment
  • 60%of developers feel unsatisfactory environment: need quite and privacy
    MS offices
    Friction: classic differing viewpoints
    Results in ‘poor communication’
    Passive-aggressive
    Realistic Expectations: 1 of top 5 reasons for success of in-house projects
    Perception woe
    Politics
    Managing-up
    Wishful
    Cognitive dissonance
    Closing your eyes and hoping
    McConnell: maybe causes the most problems in software development
  • Sponsor: a must, no power
    All players must buy-in
    User input: Survey: number 1 reason for success
    W/O input: guessing
  • Similar to wishful thinking
    Puts unnecessary pressure
    Risk Mgmt:
    Risks will manage you
    Contractor: late, poor quality, or fails to meet specifications
    Requires lots of management
    Insufficient planning: “if you don’t care where you’re going, any plan will do”
    Abandonment
    Out the window
    Fall into code-and-fix mode
  • fuzzy: before sign-off
    Upstream:
    Lack of analysis and design
    10 to 100 times more costly
    5 hrs vs. 50
    Design:
    Seen schedules w/o it at all
    QA:
    Seems easy to compress
    1 day QA == 3 to 10 later
  • Management controls
    Need to be able to track
    We’ll cover lots of these
    PMI
    Convergence
    Waste of time
    Missing tasks
    Often 20-30% of a schedule
    Catch-up later
    How many times have you seen a project catch-up?
    Only by all-nighters
    Like hell
    “Entrepreneurial” approach
    See catch-up later
  • Gold
    Gilding the lily
    Performance is required more often than need be
    Feature creep
    25% average change in req.
    Dev. Gold
    Nifty new technology
    Pet project
    Push-me
    Slip schedule + add features
    Research vs. Development
  • who’s heard of ‘silver bullet’ (not the beer)
    SCM
    Jones: 10% month, I see more
  • We covered some here
    Brooks
    Overview
  • Not yet at bookstore
    Amazon discounted
    Show texts to class
    Only selections from each
    Chosen for balance and relevance
    Going to read the Important sections and the Fun sections
    Expose to a variety of practices and viewpoints
    I will put together a reading list for reference
    Online resources (URLs)
    100’s of books on topic
    Quality range of titles (age, size too)
    Different Subject leanings (general, technical, people, process)
    Questions?
  • Software Project Management( lecture 1)

    1. 1. Software Project Management Introduction, Fundamentals, Classic Mistakes 1
    2. 2. Today • • • • Course basics, administrative items Introductions Fundamentals Classic Mistakes 2
    3. 3. The Field • Jobs: where are they? • Professional Organizations – Project Management Institute (PMI) (pmi.org) – Software Engineering Institute (SEI) – IEEE Software Engineering Group • Certifications – PMI PMP • The “PMBOK” – PMI Body of Knowledge • Tools – MS Project 3
    4. 4. PM History in a Nutshell • Birth of modern PM: Manhattan Project (the bomb) • 1970’s: military, defense, construction industry were using PM software • 1990’s: large shift to PM-based models – – – – 1985: TQM 1990-93: Re-engineering, self-directed teams 1996-99: Risk mgmt, project offices 2000: global projects 4
    5. 5. Job Fundamentals • Skills required • PM Positions and roles • The process 5
    6. 6. Project Management Skills • • • • • • • Leadership Communications Problem Solving Negotiating Influencing the Organization Mentoring Process and technical expertise 6
    7. 7. Project Manager Positions • • • • • Project Administrator / Coordinator Assistant Project Manager Project Manager / Program Manager Executive Program Manager V.P. Program Development 7
    8. 8. Software Project Management Management Project Management Software Project Management 8
    9. 9. Software + Project + Management • Software Computer software, or just software, is the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do 9
    10. 10. Software + Project + Management • What’s a project? • PMI definition – A project is a temporary attempt undertaken to create a unique product or service • Progressively elaborated – With repetitive elements • A project manager – Analogy: conductor, coach, captain 10
    11. 11. Software + Project + Management • A project in business and science is a collaborative enterprise, frequently involving research or design, that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim • Project Management Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project. 11
    12. 12. Dimensions of a Software Project • A software project has two main activity dimensions: – engineering and Project Management. – The engineering dimension deals with building the system and focuses on issues such as how to design, test, code, and so on. – The project management dimension deals with properly planning and controlling the engineering activities to meet project goals for cost, schedule, and quality.
    13. 13. Dimensions of a Software Project • For small projects an email may be fine, but for large commercial projects you need: – Defined Processes, a degree of formality – Tested and Documented processes – To Secure the Quality of outcome
    14. 14. Significance of Processes  What is a Process? Technically, a process for a task comprises a sequence of steps that should be followed to execute the task.  So, why we require Processes? – Processes represent collective knowledge. Using them increases your chances of success. – A process may have some extra steps, but you will not always know beforehand which ones are not needed, and hence you will increase your risks by taking shortcuts.
    15. 15. Significance of Processes  Without processes, you cannot predict much about the outcome of your project.  You and the organization cannot learn effectively without having defined processes. Learning and improvement are imperative in today's knowledge-based world  Processes lower your anxiety level. The checklists inevitably cover 80 % of what needs to be done. Hence, your task reduces to working out the remaining 20 percent.
    16. 16. Project vs. Program Management • • • • • What’s a ‘program’? Mostly differences of scale Often a number of related projects Longer than projects Definitions vary 16
    17. 17. Factors affecting Software Projects
    18. 18. Interactions / Stakeholders • As a PM, who do you interact with? • Project Stakeholders – – – – – – Project sponsor Executives Team Customers Contractors Functional managers 18
    19. 19. PM Tools: Software • Low-end – Basic features, tasks management, charting – MS Excel, Milestones Simplicity • Mid-market – Handle larger projects, multiple projects, analysis tools – MS Project (approx. 50% of market) • High-end – Very large projects, specialized needs, enterprise – AMS Realtime (Adv Mngt Solution) – Primavera Project Manager 19
    20. 20. Tools: Gantt Chart 20
    21. 21. Tools: Network Diagram 21
    22. 22. PMI’s 9 Knowledge Areas • • • • • • • • • Project integration management Scope Time Cost Quality Human resource Communications Risk Procurement 22
    23. 23. First Principles • One project size does not fit all • Patterns and Anti-Patterns • Spectrums – Project types – Sizes – Formality and rigor (severity) 23
    24. 24. Why Rapid Development • • • • Faster delivery Reduced risk Increased visibility to customer Don’t forsake quality 24
    25. 25. Strategy • • • • Classic Mistake Avoidance Development Fundamentals Risk Management Schedule-Oriented Practices 25
    26. 26. Four Project Dimensions • • • • People Process Product Technology 26
    27. 27. Traditional Project Management Constraints Every project has 3 constrains Scope goals: What work will be done? Time goals: How long should it take to complete? Cost goals: What should it cost? Scope Time Cost Triple Constraint
    28. 28. Traditional Project Management Constraints •Time constraint may lead to less quality because of ? less time for analysis, less time for planning, less time for reviewing, less time for checking, less time for monitoring, less time for control,
    29. 29. Traditional Project Management Constraints Cost constraint may lead to less quality because of ? Hiring less skilled people, Getting less quality resources (HW, NW) Ignoring some customer requirements
    30. 30. Traditional Project Management Constraints •Scope limitations may lead to less quality because of ? •Scope limitations may lead to Ignore some customer requirements •shortcuts
    31. 31. Traditional Project Management Constraints Quadruple Constraint Quality is a key factor for projects success We may add Quality as a 4th constraint: The Quadruple constraint =The Triple constraint +Quality constraint •Scope •Quality •Time •Cost
    32. 32. Trade-off Triangle • Fast, cheap, good. Choose two. 32
    33. 33. Trade-off Triangle • Know which of these are fixed & variable for every project 33
    34. 34. People • “It’s always a people problem” Gerald Weinberg, “The Secrets of Consulting” • Developer productivity: 10-to-1 range - Improvements: - Team selection - Team organization – Motivation 34
    35. 35. People 2 • Other success factors – – – – Matching people to tasks Career development Balance: individual and team Clear communication 35
    36. 36. Process • • • • • • • Is process stifling? 2 Types: Management & Technical Development fundamentals Quality assurance Risk management Lifecycle planning Avoid abuse by neglect 36
    37. 37. Process 2 • Customer orientation • Process maturity improvement • Rework avoidance 37
    38. 38. Product • • • • The “tangible” dimension Product size management Product characteristics and requirements Feature creep management 38
    39. 39. Technology • Often the least important dimension • Language and tool selection • Value and cost of reuse 39
    40. 40. Planning • • • • Determine requirements Determine resources Select lifecycle model Determine product features strategy 40
    41. 41. Tracking • Cost, effort, schedule • Planned vs. Actual • How to handle when things go off plan? 41
    42. 42. Measurements • To date and projected – – – – Cost Schedule Effort Product features • Alternatives – – – – Earned value analysis Defect rates Productivity (ex: SLOC) Complexity (ex: function points) 42
    43. 43. Technical Fundamentals • • • • • • Requirements Analysis Design Construction Quality Assurance Deployment 43
    44. 44. Project Phases • All projects are divided into phases • All phases together are known as the Project Life Cycle • Each phase is marked by completion of Deliverables • Identify the primary software project phases 44
    45. 45. Lifecycle Relationships 45
    46. 46. Seven Core Project Phases 46
    47. 47. Project Phases A.K.A. 47
    48. 48. Phases Variation Concept Exploration System Exploration Requirements Design Implementation Installation Operations and Support Maintenance Retirement 48
    49. 49. 36 Classic Mistakes • McConnell’s Anti-Patterns • Seductive Appeal • Types – – – – People-Related Process-Related Product-Related Technology-Related • Gilligan’s Island 49
    50. 50. People-Related Mistakes Part 1 • Undermined motivation • Weak personnel – Weak vs. Junior • Uncontrolled problem employees • Heroics • Adding people to a late project 50
    51. 51. People-Related Mistakes Part 2 • • • • • Noisy, crowded offices Customer-Developer friction Unrealistic expectations Politics over substance Wishful thinking 51
    52. 52. People-Related Mistakes Part 3 • Lack of effective project sponsorship • Lack of stakeholder buy-in • Lack of user input 52
    53. 53. Process-Related Mistakes Part 1 • • • • • Optimistic schedules Insufficient risk management Contractor failure Insufficient planning Abandonment of plan under pressure 53
    54. 54. Process-Related Mistakes Part 2 • • • • Wasted time during fuzzy front end Shortchanged upstream activities Inadequate design Shortchanged quality assurance 54
    55. 55. Process-Related Mistakes Part 3 • • • • • Insufficient management controls Frequent convergence Omitting necessary tasks from estimates Planning to catch-up later Code-like-hell programming 55
    56. 56. Product-Related Mistakes • Requirements gold-plating – Gilding the lily • Feature creep • Developer gold-plating – Beware the pet project • Push-me, pull-me negotiation • Research-oriented development 56
    57. 57. Technology-Related Mistakes • Silver-bullet syndrome • Overestimated savings from new tools and methods – Fad warning • Switching tools in mid-project • Lack of automated source-code control 57
    58. 58. Reading • McConnell: Chapters 1-4 – We covered most of Ch 3 today • Schwalbe: chapters 1-2, 11 (344-345) 58
    59. 59. Textbooks • Required texts – “Rapid Development”, Steve McConnell – “Information Technology Project Management”, Kathy Schwalbe • These provide two very different viewpoints • In-the-trenches vs. PMI textbook perspective • Recommended reading – “Quality Software Project Management”, D. Shafer – “Software Project Survival Guide”, Steve McConnell – “Peopleware”, T. DeMarco and T. Lister 59
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