Cloud computing (1)
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  • 1. Cloud computing S.HUSSAIN HAMIL B.E CSE IV year(PET Engineering College,Valliyoor) Email : hamilmass92@gmail.com S.BALAJI B.E CSE IV year(PET Engineering College,Valliyoor) Email : balaji.jish@gmail.com Abstract Cloud computing is a service that helps us to perform the tasks over the Internet. The users can access resources as they need them. The term “Cloud” refers the internet. Cloud computing consists of hardware and software available on the internet managed by third party services. The authorized user can reach the cloud for resources when they need it. The users can manage their data in cloud by storing it in various devices. It is one of the best ways to run business. Instead of installing a suite of software for each computer, we would only have to load one application. We would Log into a Web-based service which hosts all the programs. Remote machines owned by another company would run everything from e- mail to word processing to complex data analysis programs. It's called cloud computing 1. Introduction Cloud Computing is basically Internet based development and making use of computer technology. The Cloud here stands for the Internet and Computing basically refers to the Computer Technology to be used. It is a style of computing in which typically real time scalable resources are provided as a service over the Internet to users who need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. This concept incorporates Software as a Service (SaaS) The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals Example 1:- Electricity Bill – Turn on your lights and meter starts running. Once it is switched off, meter stops. – You will pay only for the power utilized. The same concept applies in the Cloud Computing. “Pay for what you use” Figure 1. Vendors providing Cloud computing services 2. Secured Cloud Computing  The data stored in the cloud are accessed by the authenticated users via passwords or tokens  The users just ‘Plug in’ and access the resources.  The company or the individuals are paying for not using the system but now they can pay only for the computing power and services they use.  The online storage is safe and secured. 3. Key Characteristics  Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs among a large pool of users.  Centralization of infrastructure in areas with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)  Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)  Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10-20% utilized.  On-demand allocation and de-allocation of CPU, storage and network bandwidth  Performance is monitored and consistent, but can suffer from insufficient bandwidth or high network load.  Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes it suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.  Scalability meets changing user demands quickly without users having to engineer for peak loads.
  • 2. 4. Cloud Computing Architecture The below picture describes the basic architecture of Cloud computing. Major components of the cloud computing are – “Application servers”, “Data storage”, “Computer Network”, “Control Node”. When client application request for a service, control node decides which application server will be used as well as determines the from which data storage data will be fetched. Cloud architecture, the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services. Figure 2. Architecture of Cloud Computing We divide it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system. The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based e-mail programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Firefox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients. On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server. A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. 5. Features of cloud computing In cloud computing, different server can handle multiple problems at same time. Cloud computing reduces the infrastructure cost, as individual needs not require to maintain own server, software. Required infrastructure will be available over Internet, whenever needed. Resources will be allocated dynamically during computing. After completion of the computation or operation resources will be released. That is why, cloud computing is often called as on-demand-computing. Cloud compute improves scalability. There are two types of scalability: Horizontal scalability and Vertical scalability. Horizontal scalability handles concurrent user. And vertical scalability manages consistent performance of application where load increases. Cloud computing also offers service level agreement for some of the services. 6. Business Implications Enterprise business users’ interest in Cloud computing comes due to multiple benefits. The Pay-As- You-Use consumption model traditionally associated with utility consumption can now be applied to IT – to both the hardware and, perhaps even more interestingly, to the business applications themselves. The cloud computing model converts the traditional capital expenditure model (CapEx) common in data centers today to an operational expenditure (OpEx) model.To the business software vendors cloud is going to be a potential new distribution channel for their applications. Cloud computing takes these steps to a new level and allows an organization to further reduce costs through improved utilization, reduced administration and infrastructure costs, and faster deployment cycles. The cloud is a next generation platform that provides dynamic resource pools, virtualization, and high availability. Cloud computing describes both a platform and a type of application. A cloud computing platform dynamically provisions, configures, reconfigures, and de- provisions servers as needed. Cloud applications are applications that are extended to be accessible through the Internet. These cloud applications use large data centers and powerful servers that host Web applications and Web services. Client Application Data Storag eApplication server Contr ol Node Computer Network
  • 3. Figure 3. Cloud Computing Model 7. Types of clouds Different types of clouds are available to all the users to utilize the resources. Figure 4 .Public, private &hybrid cloud 7.1. Public Clouds Often depicted as from third party provider, "public" clouds are typically made available via the Internet and may be free or inexpensive to use. Public cloud also referred to as “Off Premises”. There are many examples of these types of clouds, providing services across open, public networks today such as Google 7.2. Private Cloud "Private" clouds offer many of the same benefits as "public" clouds but are managed within the organization. Public cloud also referred to as “On Premises”. These types of clouds are not burdened by network bandwidth and availability issues or potential security exposures that may be associated with public clouds. Private clouds can offer the provider and user greater control, security and resilience. 7.3. Hybrid Cloud Combination of both Public (External) and Private (Internal) Cloud computing. Figure 5. Enterprise firewall 8. Cloud Computing Implementation Currently there are two major implementation through which we can take advantage of cloud computing • Amazon Web Services (AWS) • Google Application Engine (GAE) 8.1. Amazon Web Services (AWS) AWS offers the cloud in 2 levels. • Computing resources • Plug in appliances Computing resources provides processor, memory, file system, database and messaging. Amazon manages the computing resources. Amazons partners provide plug in appliances. Partners’ appliances are free to attach a surcharge to the resources that implement their offerings. AWS offers 5 primary services 8.1.1. Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) It offers virtual machine containing memory and storage. Virtual machines are Linux variants. Amazon has started to offer proprietary operating systems such as Windows server, Oracle Enterprise. The cloud applications can dynamically allocate & de-allocate the virtual machines based on the user requirements. EC2 offers 32-bit processor to 64-bit processor in virtual machines. EC2 is in beta version and does not support Service Level Agreement. Each virtual machine can be protected with a configurable firewall called security groups. 8.1.2. Simple Storage Service (S3) It provides facility to declare buckets and place data objects into the buckets. Each buckets and objects maintain a security profile that controls access. Third- Party tools use the API to provide a file system like view into the buckets. Each bucket can also tie to a URL to provide direct access. S3 offers service level agreement. 8.1.3. Simple Queue Service (SQS)
  • 4. It offers highly reliable message queue. SQS generates delivery to messages and stores messages for later transmission if required. SQL interconnects all of AWS resources. Application publishes and subscribes to a specified queue. SQS offers service level agreement. 8.1.4 Simple DB It provides a query interface to structured textual data. Query language and data formatting is simple. Primary data can be associated with up to 256 attributes or metadata. Any application can use basic Boolean operations to query the information. This is currently in beta version. 8.1.5. Cloud Front It provides efficient access to distributed content using Amazon’s array of server through out the world. It integrates with S3 that holds the original content that is then distributed to edge latency. To access any of the services, user must get an account and activate the services as required. After activation, services can be accessed through access key User can obtain account and access key certificate free of cost 8.2 Google APP Engine (GAE) This is used to develop and host web application on Google’s web server. GAE focuses on computing capabilities provided by Google SDK. It leverages an agile language (Python) and will known RIA framework (Django). Django is nothing but an open source web application written in Python and use model-view-controller design pattern.. GAE provides the following features • Persistent storage with the facility of querying, sorting, and transaction • Scaling and load balancing will be done automatically • APIs are available to authenticate the users and sending email using Google account • It provides a full-featured development environment that simulates the original Google App Engine. With all the facilities, there are some limitations in GAE. • An application can only be fetched on the internet through the provided URL, APIs • User can connect to the application only through HTTP or HTTPs request over a fixed port. • Although the application can read from the file system only when the file is uploaded with the application code. • The application cannot write into the file system. • The application can only store data into the GAE’s data store for all data that persists between the requests. The SDK includes all API and libraries available on application engine. It provides a runtime environment built on Python (2.5). It uses (Django) for tinplating MVC architecture. GAE supports distributed data storage for an extremely large corpus delivered through Google’s “Big Table” architecture. Thus improve scalability. Google asserts BigTable has the ability to deliver high performance interaction data in the range of several hundred terabytes. BigTable is essentially a large flat space that provides object relational semantics does not really implement a full relational model. Additional to these services GAE provides APIs to perform following operations. GAE exposes API to send email. User can create a mail object to send mail. No additional setup is required for this. For authentication, GAE provides Standard Google authentication 9. Components 9.1 Application A cloud application leverages the Cloud in software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer, thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance, ongoing operation, and support. 9.2. Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on The Cloud for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services, and which in either case is essentially useless without it. 9.3. Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure, such as Infrastructure as a service, is the delivery of computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service 9.4. Platform A cloud platform, such as Platform as a service, the delivery of a computing platform, and/or solution stack as a service facilitates deployment of applications without
  • 5. the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. 9.5. Service A cloud service, such as Web Service, is “software system[s] designed to support interoperable machine-to- machine interaction over a network” which may be accessed by other cloud computing components, software, e.g., Software plus services, or end users directly. 9.6. Storage Cloud storage involves the delivery of data storage as a service, including database-like services, often billed on a utility computing basis, e.g., per gigabyte per month. 10. Service Types in Cloud Computing This picture is very basic but shows different types of companies leveraging the cloud model. We can also see that some types of computing are a subset of the cloud. Let's talk about the different types and what they represent.Early adapters saw the opportunity to reduce costs by moving brick and mortar operations to the Internet and increase revenue by providing services and goods 24x7x365. Figure 6. Service providers and Service types 10.1. Levels of Cloud Computing Figure 7. A high level view of different types of cloud computing Figure 8. Connection between SAAS, PAAS, IAAS 10.1.1. SAAS (Software as a Service) Figure 9. Software and services running at a provider’s location In the software-as-a-service cloud model, the vendor supplies the hardware infrastructure, the software product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. Services can be anything from Web-based email to inventory control and database processing. This type of cloud computing delivers a single application through the browser to thousands of customers using a multitenant architecture.Salesforce.com is by far the best-known example among enterprise applications 10.1.2. PAAS(Platform as a Service) These form of cloud computing delivers development environments as a service. We build our own applications that run on the provider's infrastructure and are delivered to our users via the Internet from the provider's servers. Figure 10. Infrastructure on a specified development platform hosted externally Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider's infrastructure Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet.PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals or gateway software installed on the customer's computer. Prime examples include Salesforce.com's Force.com, Coghead and the new Google App Engine PaaS providers like Google's App Engine and Force.com allows to build our own applications on top of virtual server instances but restrict us to use their development languages. 10.1.3. IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) Infrastructure-as-a-Service like Amazon Web Services provides virtual server instances with unique IP
  • 6. addresses and blocks of storage on demand. Customers use the provider's application program interface (API) to start, stop, access and configure their virtual servers and storage. Allows a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler) intelligently allocate available resources among virtual machines according to business needs. The most popular IaaS vendor is Amazon. Figure 11. Infrastructure hosted externally without platform restrictions "In the Cloud" means leveraging infrastructure off- premise.With SaaS solutions,the underlying infrastructure is hidden.With PaaS, manage the amount of virtual server instances we use but we must use the technologies required by the provider. With IaaS, we manage the resources we use and are free to leverage whatever technologies we choose to deploy on. 10.1.4. Web Services in the Cloud Closely related to SaaS, Web service providers offer APIs that enable developers to exploit functionality over the Internet, rather than delivering full-blown applications. 10.1.5. MSP(Managed Service providers) One of the oldest forms of cloud computing, a managed service is basically an application exposed to IT rather than to end-users, such as a virus scanning service for e-mail or an application monitoring service (which Mercury, among others, provides). 10.1.6. Service commerce platforms A hybrid of SaaS and MSP, this cloud computing service offers a service hub that users interact with. They're most common in trading environments, such as expense management systems that allow users to order travel or secretarial services from a common platform that then coordinates the service delivery and pricing within the specifications set by the user. Well-known examples include Rearden Commerce and Ariba. 10.1.7. Internet Integration The integration of cloud-based services is in its early days. OpSource, which mainly concerns itself with serving SaaS providers, recently introduced the OpSource Services Bus, which employs in-the-cloud integration technology from a little startup called Boomi. SaaS provider Workday recently acquired another player in this space, CapeClear, an ESB (enterprise service bus) provider that was edging toward b-to-b integration. Way ahead of its time, Grand Central -- which wanted to be a universal "bus in the cloud" to connect SaaS providers and provide integrated solutions to customers -- flamed out in 2005. Figure 12. Internet 12. Cloud Computing Applications The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. With the right middleware, a cloud computing system could execute all the programs a normal computer could run. Potentially, everything from generic word processing software to customized computer programs designed for a specific company could work on a cloud computing system. Why would anyone want to rely on another computer system to run programs and store data? Here are just a few reasons:  Clients would be able to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. They could access the cloud computing system using any computer linked to the Internet. Data wouldn't be confined to a hard drive on one user's computer or even a corporation's internal network.  It could bring hardware costs down. Cloud computing systems would reduce the need for advanced hardware on the client side. User wouldn’t need to buy the fastest computer with the most memory, because the cloud system would take care of those needs for the user. Instead, the user could buy an inexpensive computer terminal. The terminal could include a monitor, input devices like a keyboard and mouse and just enough processing power to run the middleware necessary to connect to the cloud system. You wouldn't need a large hard drive because you'd store all your information on a remote computer.  Corporations that rely on computers have to make sure they have the right software in place to achieve goals. Cloud computing systems give these
  • 7. organizations company-wide access to computer applications. The companies don't have to buy a set of software or software licenses for every employee. Instead, the company could pay a metered fee to a cloud computing company.  Servers and digital storage devices take up space. Some companies rent physical space to store servers and databases because they don't have it available on site. Cloud computing gives these companies the option of storing data on someone else's hardware, removing the need for physical space on the front end.  Corporations might save money on IT support. Streamlined hardware would, in theory, have fewer problems than a network of heterogeneous machines and operating systems.  If the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system, then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power. Often, scientists and researchers work with calculations so complex that it would take years for individual computers to complete them. On a grid computing system, the client could send the calculation to the cloud for processing. The cloud system would tap into the processing power of all available computers on the back end, significantly speeding up the calculation. 13. Advantages  It is highly reliable, stable and easy to use  It reduces the capital costs and operation costs for the company.  It increases the Productivity and improves Compliance.  Device and Location independence  Secured  Multi-tenancy, Reliability, Scalability  One of the main advantages of cloud computing are those both small and medium sized businesses can instantly obtain the benefits of the enormous infrastructure without having to implement and administer it directly. This also permits accessibility to multiple data centers anywhere on the globe. It also means that as the need for resources increases, companies can add additional service as and when needed from the cloud computing vendor without having to pay for additional hardware.  Mobility Like most networks it allows users to connect even without their own computers, meaning you can do your work from anywhere in the world as long as you have a internet connection and a computer access. So you can take your work with you on your wedding and vacations  No Downloads: The users do not need to download anything, so that saves time and hard drive space for users. They can just log onto the network.  Shared Resources A key component of cloud computing is that companies share resources. With cloud computing, this allows them all to have access to the resources via cloud computing. This again saves businesses time and money by placing their resources all in one location that is easy for their workers to look up and access 14. Limitations Cloud computing with all its benefits also has its own set of limitations which restrict enterprises to move their applications in the cloud. Some of these limitations are:  Customization is nearly impossible  Scalability problems with Sequential processing  Data privacy issues because of the common resources  Lack of high speed Internet connectivity  Reliability problems related to SLAs. Cost surpasses traditional hosting in case of very high usage 15. Conclusion Small and Medium Business groups are already adopting Cloud Computing to save cost. Cloud computing is the next big wave in computing. Cloud Computing holds a lot of promise and it’s believed that it is likely to be a major influence on hosting and application development. It covers a range of IT practices that really can benefit business. It has many benefits, such as better hardware management, since all the computers are the same and run the same hardware. It also provides for better and easier management of data security, since all the data is located on a central server, so administrators can control who has and doesn't have access to the files. But there are problems, and they need to be addressed intelligently. 16. References
  • 8. [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing [2] http://www.infoworld.com/article/08/04/07/15FE- [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing [4] http://www.ibm.com/ibm/cloud/ [5] cloud-computing-reality_1.htm