Irony Words that mean the opposite of their literal meaning.
“ It's like rain on your wedding day.” –Alanis Morisette
World War I was called “The War to End All Wars.”
Anaphora Multiple sentences, lines, or phrases beginning with the same word.
In time the savage bull sustains the yoke,
In time all haggard hawks will stoop to lure,
In time small wedges cleave the hardest oak,
In time the flint is pierced with softest shower.
– Thomas Kyd
(2) Those who sharpen the tooth of the dog, meaning Death.
Those who glitter with the glory of the hummingbird,
Those who sit in the sty of contentment, meaning Death.
Those who suffer the ecstasy of animals, meaning Death.
– T. S. Eliot
Chiasmus Two parallel phrases with reversed word order.
“ Got my mind on my money and my money on my mind.” --Snoop Dogg
“ This man I thought had been a Lord among wits ; but, I find, he is only a wit among Lords !” --Samuel Johnson
Asyndeton A sentence with all conjuctions omitted .
“ And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark.” – Genesis 7:22-24
(2) "We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”
(1) “I’m not going to teach your boyfriend how to dance.” – Kate Nash
(2) “This is not bad stuff.” – Paris, Texas.
Climax Arranging ideas in a sentence that build in importance .
“ When they shall bow, and kneel, and fall down flat” --George Herbert
“ But you can't hold a whole fraternity responsible for the behavior of a few, sick twisted individuals. For if you do, then shouldn't we blame the whole fraternity system? And if the whole fraternity system is guilty, then isn't this an indictment of our educational institutions in general? I put it to you, Greg - isn't this an indictment of our entire American society? Well, you can do whatever you want to us, but we're not going to sit here and listen to you badmouth the United States of America. Gentlemen!” -- Animal House
“ Love is an irresistible desire to be irresistibly desired.” – Robert Frost
(2) "You talkin' to me? You talkin' to me? You talkin' to me? Then who the hell else are you talking . . . you talking to me? Well I'm the only one here. Who . . . do you think you're talking to? Oh yeah? Okay.“ – Taxi Driver
Hypozeuxis Extended parallelism/every clause has its own subject & verb .
“ The back offices at Borders are immaculately clean thanks to me. Somehow Lindsey will be the one praised for it.”
(2) “On the slope the sword rose, the hind fell, the herd was driven, fire glimpsed.”
Zeugma One verb controls two or more phrases to dramatic effect.
“ He carried a strobe light and the responsibility for the lives of his men.”
(2) I want a hamburger and a cheeseburger.
Disjunctio Synonymous verbs in successive clauses .
Bullington misinformed, Warnock prevaricated, Smith dissembled, Garston lied.
(2) Norah draws, Phoebe sings, Ginger reads, Alice sits and stares.
Assonance Shared vowel sounds inside different words.
“ Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn.”
(2) “Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings, leader beloved, and long he ruled in fame with all folk since his father had gone.” -- Beowulf